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Encyclopedia > World War II
World War II
World War II montage image
Clockwise from top: Allied landing on Normandy beaches on D-Day, the gate of a Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz, Red Army soldiers raising the Soviet flag over the Reichstag in Berlin, the Nagasaki atom bomb, and a Nazi parade in 1939.
Date September 1, 1939September 2, 1945
Location Europe, Pacific, South-East Asia, Middle East, Mediterranean and Africa
Result Allied victory. Creation of the United Nations. Emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers. Creation of First World and Second World spheres of influence in Europe leading to the Cold War. Decolonization.
Combatants
Allied powers:
China
Flag of France France
Flag of United Kingdom Great Britain
Flag of Soviet Union Soviet Union
United States
and others
Axis powers:
Germany
Italy
Japan
and others
Commanders
Chiang Kai-shek
Flag of France Charles de Gaulle
Flag of United Kingdom Winston Churchill
Flag of Soviet Union Joseph Stalin
Franklin Roosevelt
Adolf Hitler
Benito Mussolini
Hideki Tōjō
Casualties
Military dead:
17,000,000
Civilian dead:
33,000,000
Total dead:
50,000,000
Military dead:
8,000,000
Civilian dead:
4,000,000
Total dead
12,000,000
Theatres of World War II
EuropeEastern EuropeAfricaMiddle EastMediterraneanAsia & PacificAtlantic

World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict fought between the Allied Powers and the Axis Powers, from 1939 until 1945. Armed forces from over seventy nations engaged in aerial, naval and ground-based combat. Spanning much of the globe, World War II resulted in the deaths of over 60 million people, making it the deadliest conflict in human history. The war ended with an Allied victory. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x1094, 481 KB) Germany are popadoms edward 12:17, 28 October 2006 (UTC) Comments on Deletion request: Image:Red army soldiers raising the soviet flag on the roof of the reichstag berlin germany. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free French Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... Prior to and during World War II Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager or KZ) throughout the territory it controlled. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Soviet Flag: 1:4 ratio July 1923-November 13, 1923 The first official flag of the Soviet Union was adopted in December of 1922 at the First Congress of Soviets of the USSR. It was agreed that the red banner was transformed from the symbol of the Party to the... The Reichstag building. ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Konev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Adolf Hitler â€  Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Reymann Ernst Kaether (one day) Helmuth Weidling # Karl Dönitz # Wilhelm Mohnke # Strength 2,500,000 soldiers, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces [1] 1,000,000... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... The Mediterranean region. ... 219. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... A map of countries often considered to have made up the Second World from the 1950s through the 1980s. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... World Map with the participants in World War II. The Allies depicted in green (those in light green entered after the Attack on Pearl Harbor), the Axis Powers in orange (including occupied or annexed countries), and neutral countries in grey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ) (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970), in France commonly referred to as Général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... FDR redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... Hideki Tōjō (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan; he served as prime minister during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1 Italy (to 1943) Romania Finland (to 1944) Hungary Commanders Aleksei Antonov Ivan Konev Rodion Malinovsky Kirill Meretskov Ivan Petrov Alexander Rodimtsev Konstantin Rokossovsky Pavel Rotmistrov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Tolbukhin Aleksandr Vasilevsky Nikolai Vatutin Kliment Voroshilov Andrei Yeremenko Matvei Zakharov Georgy Zhukov Fedor von Bock Ernst... 219. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... The Mediterranean region. ... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... World Map with the participants in World War II. The Allies depicted in green (those in light green entered after the Attack on Pearl Harbor), the Axis Powers in orange (including occupied or annexed countries), and neutral countries in grey. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Air power redirects here, for electrical and mechanical energy supplied by air movement, see Wind power Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ...

Contents

Overview

War in Europe

WW II Europe.

On September 1, 1939, Germany, led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, invaded Poland according to a secret agreement with the Soviet Union. Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... Image File history File links Second_world_war_europe_animation_small. ... Image File history File links Second_world_war_europe_animation_small. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Nazi Party, officially known as the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft, Total: 950... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


On September 3 at 11:15 GMT, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, followed six hours later by France, responded by declaring war on Germany, initiating a widespread naval war. South Africa (September 6) and Canada (September 10) followed suit. September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ...


The Soviet Union joined the invasion of Poland on September 17. Red Army invades Poland: 17th September 1939. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ...


Germany rapidly tookover Poland, then Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium and France in 1940, and Yugoslavia and Greece in 1941. Italian and later German troops attacked British forces in North Africa. By summer of 1941, Germany had conquered France and most of Western Europe, but it failed to subdue the United Kingdom thanks to the resistance of the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... The armed forces of the United Kingdom are known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[2]. Their Commander-in-Chief is the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II and they are managed by the Defence Council of the...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from United States of America Australia Canada Czechoslovakia Ireland Palestine Poland Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength initially 700 aircraft; grew to nearly 1,000 by the end of the Battle. ... RAF redirects here. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Adolf Hitler then turned on the Soviet Union, launching a surprise attack (codenamed Operation Barbarossa) on June 22, 1941. Despite enormous gains, the invasion stagnated outside of Moscow in late 1941 as the winter weather made further advances difficult. The Germans launched another attack in the Soviet Union the following summer, but the attack bogged down in vicious urban fighting in Stalingrad. The Soviets later launched a massive encircling counterattack to force the surrender of the German Sixth Army at the Battle of Stalingrad (1942–43), decisively defeated the Axis at the Battle of Kursk, and broke the Siege of Leningrad. The Red Army then pursued the retreating Wehrmacht to Berlin, and won the street Battle of Berlin, as Hitler committed suicide in his Underground Bunker on April 30, 1945. The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Benito Mussolini Miklós Horthy Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... The 6. ... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Hans von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry, 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry, 2,400 aircraft Casualties German Kursk : 50,000 dead, wounded... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhem von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada Leningrada... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... Image:Wehrmacht 20 April 1939 Birthday Parade. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Urban warfare is modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Konev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Adolf Hitler â€  Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Reymann Ernst Kaether (one day) Helmuth Weidling # Karl Dönitz # Wilhelm Mohnke # Strength 2,500,000 soldiers, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces [1] 1,000,000... The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Meanwhile, the Western Allies successfully defended North Africa (1940–43), invaded Italy (1943), and then liberated France (1944), following amphibious landings in Normandy. After repulsing a German counterattack at the Battle of the Bulge that December, the Western Allies crossed the River Rhine to link up with their Soviet counterparts at the River Elbe in central Germany. The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States, (from 1941), Italy... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Liberation of Paris in World War II took place in late August 1944 after the battle of Normandy. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free French Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Omar Bradley George Patton Bernard Montgomery Walther Model Gerd von Rundstedt Adolf Hitler Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... The River Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ...


During the war in Europe, some 6 million Jews, along with another 5 to 6 million people — Roma (Gypsies), Slavs, Communists, homosexuals, the disabled and several other groups — were murdered by Germany in a state-sponsored genocide that came to be known as The Holocaust. Gypsy arrivals in the Belzec death camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during the Holocaust. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


War in Asia and the Pacific

Main article: Pacific War
Territory of the Empire of Japan at its peak.
Territory of the Empire of Japan at its peak.

The Empire of Japan invaded China on July 7, 1937. Australia and then the United States, in 1940, responded with embargoes on iron exports to Japan. On September 27, 1940 Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy. After fruitless negotiations with United States concerning withdrawal from China, excluding Manchukuo, Japan attacked Vichy French-controlled Indochina on July 24, 1941. This caused the United States, United Kingdom and Netherlands to block Japan's access to oil, such as that in the Dutch East Indies and British colonies in Borneo. Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... Image File history File links Japanese_Empire2. ... Image File history File links Japanese_Empire2. ... Anthem: Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940 by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, and Galeazzo Ciano of Fascist Italy entering as an alliance and... Manchukuo (1932–1945), Manchu country, was a former state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia created by former Qing Dynasty officials and Imperial Japan in 1932. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... French Indochina was a federation of protectorates in Southeast Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... Borneo (left) and Sulawesi. ...


Japan launched nearly simultaneous surprise attacks against the major U. S. Navy base at Pearl Harbor, on Thailand and on the British territories of Malaya and Hong Kong. Though it was significant to the US Navy, most Americans had never heard of Pearl Harbor. The attacks occurred on December 7, 1941 in western international time zones and on December 8 in the east. Later on December 8, Japan attacked The Philippines, which was politically controlled by the United States at the time and quickly fell to Japanese forces. On December 11, Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States. Japanese forces commenced assaults on British and Dutch territory in Borneo on December 15. From their major prewar base at Truk in the South Pacific, Japanese forces began to attack and occupy neighboring Allied territories. USN redirects here. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Truk Lagoon is a sheltered body of water almost fifty miles long by thirty miles wide surrounded by a protective reef. ...


Japan's campaign in China lasted from 1937 to the end of the war, during which the Republic of China faced 80% of Japanese troops and relieved the Soviet Union under Stalin from fighting a two-front war. In the war against Japan, China lost more than 3 million soldiers and more than 17 million civilians. Many others were tortured, forced into slavery or raped, which resulted in charges of Japanese war crimes. Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang... In military terminology, a two front war is a war that is waged on two separate fronts, usually opposite each other. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism, from the late 19th century until 1945. ...


Japan won victory after victory in South East Asia and the Pacific, including the capture of 130,000 Allied prisoners in Malaya and at the fall of Singapore on February 15, 1942. Much of Burma, the Netherlands East Indies, the Australian Territory of New Guinea, and the British Solomon Islands also fell to Japanese forces. Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought... Territory of New Guinea was the name given to the Australia-controlled, League of Nations-mandated territory in the north eastern part of the island of New Guinea, and surrounding islands, between 1920 and 1949. ... Motto: To Lead is to Serve Anthem: God Save Our Solomon Islands Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Honiara Official languages English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor-General Nathaniel Waena  - Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare Independence from the UK   - Date 7 July 1978  Area  - Total...


The Japanese advance was checked at the Battle of the Coral Sea and their invasion fleet turned away from New Guinea after Allied naval forces clashed in the first battle in which the opposing fleets never made visual contact. A month later a Japanese invasion fleet was decisively defeated at the Battle of Midway in which they lost four fleet aircraft carriers attempting to engage U.S. Navy forces (the U.S. Navy lost one carrier). On land they were defeated at the Battle of Milne Bay and finally withdrew from Battle of Guadalcanal as the Allies took the initiative in the Solomon Islands and began an "Island Hopping" campaign to push back Japanese holdings in the Pacific. U.S. and Australian forces then isolated Japan's major base at Rabaul before advancing from one island to another in the Central Pacific invading some and isolating others. The Japanese were defeated in a series of great naval battles, at the Battle of the Philippine Sea and the Battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944 in which the Allies further advanced towards the Japanese homeland by invading the Marianas and then the Philippines, setting up bases from which Japan could be bombed by strategic bombers like the B-29. 1945 saw invasions of key islands such as Iwo Jima and Okinawa. In the meantime, Allied submarines gradually cut off the supply of oil and other raw materials to Japan. Combatants United States, Australia Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz Frank Jack Fletcher Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Aritomo Goto Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 small carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 large carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker, 543 personnel 1 small carrier, 1 destroyer, 1,074 personnel... Combatants United States of America Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties... Four aircraft carriers, Principe-de-Asturias, USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and HMS Invincible (front-to-back), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier, light V/STOL carriers, and an amphibious carrier. ... Combatants Australia, United States (engineering support and minor combat) Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Shojiro Hayashi, Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 2400 Casualties less than 200 dead 600 dead The Battle of Milne Bay was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. Japanese marines... Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ... Island hopping refers to crossing an ocean by a series of shorter journeys between islands, as opposed to a single journey directly across the ocean to the destination. ... The eastern part of the Territory of New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands; the area in which Operation Cartwheel took place, from June 1943. ... A view from Rabaul Volcano Observatory across the relatively undamaged western half of Rabaul and towards Tavurur Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, was the headquarters of German New Guinea and then the Australian mandatory territory of New Guinea from 1910 until 1937, the base of Japanese activities in the South Pacific... The Pacific Ocean theater was one of four major theaters of the Pacific War, between 1941 and 1945. ... The French battleship Orient burns, 1 August 1798, during the Battle of the Nile A naval battle is a battle fought using ships or other waterborne vessels. ... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 7 heavy carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 6 heavy carriers, 3 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties 123 planes... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Mariana Islands (sometimes called The Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called the Ladrone Islands) are a group of islands made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Boeing Model 341/345) was a four-engine heavy bomber flown by the United States Army Air Force. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 22,000 Casualties 4,197 killed[1] 19,189 wounded[1] 1,401 died of wounds[1] 494 missing[1] 20,703 killed[1] 216 captured[1] The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought by the... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner, Jr. ...


In the last year of the war US air forces conducted a strategic firebombing campaign against the Japanese homeland. On August 6, 1945, the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, and on August 9 another was dropped on Nagasaki. Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945. Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire rather than the blast effects of large bombs. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A-Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Aftermath

About 62 million people, or 2.5% of the world population, died in the war, though estimates vary widely (see World War II casualties). Large swaths of Europe and Asia were devastated and took years to recover. The war had political, sociological and economic repercussions that persist to this day. Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ...


Causes

The immediate causes of World War II are generally held to be the German invasion of Poland, as well as the Japanese attacks on China, the United States, and the British and Dutch colonies. All of the attacks resulted from the leadership of authoritarian ruling elites in Germany and Japan. World War II began after these acts of aggression were met with an official declaration of war, armed resistance or both. Image File history File links Hitlermusso. ... Image File history File links Hitlermusso. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The immediate Causes of World War II are generally held to be the German invasion of Poland, and the Japanese attacks on China, the United States, and the British and Dutch colonies. ... In Europe, the origins of the war are closely tied to the rise of fascism, especially in Nazi Germany. ... This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia. ... Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft, Total: 950... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...


The primary goal of official German policy was the reacquisition of German territories taken by the Treaty of Versailles, and the addition of ethnic German regions of former Austria-Hungary to form a Greater Germany. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Germans. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... National assembly meeting in St. ...


Cause of war in Europe

German foreign policy professed concern for the rights of ethnic Germans living in portions of Poland and Czechoslovakia which had been taken from Germany and Austria after World War I. During his negotiations with Chamberlain, Hitler cited their plight as justification for asserting claims to portions of these countries.


During one session with UK Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, Hitler's aides brought him multiple reports alleging atrocities against ethnic Germans in nearby countries, which Hitler invoked in support of Germany's claims to its former territory. The Prime Minister is in practice the most important political office in the United Kingdom. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain(18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940), known as Neville Chamberlain, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ...

When Hitler annexed parts of Czechoslovakia and France, he was welcomed enthusiastically by these ethnic Germans. When the war ended, many of these communities were forcibly expelled.[1] Image File history File links MolotovRibbentropStalin. ... Image File history File links MolotovRibbentropStalin. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ... Shaposhninkov may refer to either: Boris Shaposhnikov, Soviet military commander in the interwar period Marshal of the Air Force Yevgeniy Shaposhnikov, last Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union Category: ... Joachim von Ribbentrop Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893–October 16, 1946) was the Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...


Another important reason that Germany moved towards war was due to the perceived inequities of the Versailles Treaty. (More than anything else, this treaty, coupled with the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, enabled the Nazis to swoop to power on a wave of mass public discontent, and to secure their fascist forms of dictatorship and re-militarization.) The Nazis claimed that only they could free Germany from international subjugation. Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland and the Ruhr, and overturned several territorial dispositions enacted by the treaty. Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn which started in October of 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March, 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ...


As stated in Mein Kampf, Hitler's real underlying goal was to acquire what he believed to be Germany's rightful living space and resources, by invading and dominating lands to the east, mainly in Russia. He also sought to attack various ethnic and political groups, to target what he claimed were leftist groups, and any other groups contradicting the Nazi worldview. By using the real grievances of the Versailles Treaty, the Nazis were able to stoke grievances throughout Germany to redress perceived wrongs, and to present militarism and fascism as a means of taking aggressive action against the established political order. The Nazis used these issues to rationalize brutal persecution of entire ethnic minorities and political groups. This effort against existing international settlements enabled a convergence of their political programs, war aims, and racist ideologies. Cover of Mein Kampf Volume 1 (First Edition) Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... // Political scientists have developed concepts of different ideal types of political parties in order to better compare them with each other. ...


The British and French governments followed a policy of appeasement in order to avoid a new European war, out of concern for perceived war-weariness of their populations due to the huge death tolls of the first World War. This policy culminated in the Munich Agreement in 1938, in which the seemingly inevitable outbreak of the war was averted when the United Kingdom and France agreed to Germany's annexation and immediate occupation of the German-speaking regions of Czechoslovakia. In exchange for this, Hitler gave his word that Germany would make no further territorial claims in Europe.[2] Chamberlain declared that the agreement represented "peace in our time." In March 1939, Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia, effectively killing any notions of appeasement. Less than a year after the Munich agreement, the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany. Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Sudetenland (German; Sudety in Czech and Polish) was the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ...

Hideki Tojo of Imperial Japan.
Hideki Tojo of Imperial Japan.

The failure of the Munich Agreement showed that negotiations with Hitler could not be trusted, as his aspirations for dominance in Europe went beyond anything that the United Kingdom and France would tolerate. Poland and France pledged on May 19, 1939 to provide each other with military assistance in the event either was attacked. The British had already offered support to Poland in March. On August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The Pact included a secret protocol that would divide Central Europe into German and Soviet areas of interest, including a provision to partition Poland. Each country agreed to allow the other a free hand in its area of influence, including military occupation. The deal provided for sales of oil and food from the Soviets to Germany, thus reducing the danger of a UK blockade such as the one that had nearly starved Germany in World War I. Hitler was then ready to go to war with Poland and, if necessary, with the United Kingdom and France. He claimed there were German grievances relating to the issues of the Free City of Danzig and the Polish Corridor, but he planned to conquer all Polish territory to incorporate it into the German Reich. The signing of a new alliance between the United Kingdom and Poland on August 25 did not significantly alter his plans. Image File history File links Tojo3. ... Image File history File links Tojo3. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as Gdańsk (German: Danzig). ... A Polish map showing the territory known as the Polish Corridor The Polish Corridor was the name given to a strip of territory which was transferred from Germany to Poland by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. ... Deutsches Reich was a German nation-state between 1871 - 1945 and was therefore the official name of Germany at that time. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ...


Cause of war in Asia

Imperial Japan in the 1930s was largely ruled by a militarist clique of Army and Navy leaders intending to make Japan a great colonial power. Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and China in 1937 to bolster its meager stock of natural resources, to relieve Japan from population pressures and to extend its colonial realm to a wider area. The United States and the United Kingdom reacted by making loans to China, providing covert military assistance, pilots and fighter aircraft to the Chinese Kuomintang and instituting progressively broad natural resource embargoes against Japan. The embargoes could have ultimately forced Japan to give up its newly conquered possessions in China or find new sources of oil and other resources. Japan was faced with the choice of withdrawing from China, negotiating some compromise, developing new sources of supply, buying what they needed somewhere else, or going to war to conquer the territories that contained oil, bauxite and other resources in the Dutch East Indies, Malay and the Philippines. Believing that the French, Dutch, Soviet and British governments were preoccupied with the war in Europe, and that the United States could not be war-ready for years and would compromise before waging full-scale war, Japan chose to proceed with plans for the war in the Pacific.[3] Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Map of countries by population (See List of countries by population. ... This article concerns the American Volunteer Group, a World War II unit usually known as the Flying Tigers. For other uses of the term see Flying Tigers (disambiguation). ... The Nationalist Party of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting... Bauxite with penny Bauxite with core of unweathered rock Bauxite is an aluminium ore which consists largely of the Al minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3, boehmite and diaspore AlOOH, together with the iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite and small amounts of anatase TiO2. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... The Greater East Asia War was a term used, at least publicly in December of 1941, by Japans Imperial General Headquarters (Imperial GHQ) to refer to the conflict that followed (and ultimately reversed) Japans invasions in the 1930s and early 1940s of other nations in eastern Asia and...


The direct cause of the United States' entry into the war with Japan was the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Germany declared war on the United States on December 11, 1941. Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ...


Chronology

This is a timeline of events in World War II. // German soldiers supposedly destroying a Polish border checkpoint. ...

War breaks out in Asia (July 1937 – September 1939)

Main articles: Second Sino-Japanese War, Battle of Lake Khasan, and Battle of Khalkhin Gol

The Second Sino-Japanese War began in 1937, when Japan attacked deep into China from its foothold in Manchuria. On July 7, 1937, Japan, after occupying Manchuria since 1931, launched another attack against China near Beijing. The Japanese made initial advances but were stalled in the Battle of Shanghai. The city eventually fell to the Japanese in December 1937, and the capital city Nanjing also fell. As a result, the Chinese Nationalist government moved its seat to Chongqing for the remainder of the war. The Japanese forces committed brutal atrocities against civilians and prisoners of war in the Rape of Nanking, slaughtering as many as 300,000 civilians within a month. Neither Japan or China officially declared war, for a similar reason—fearing declaration of war would alienate Europe and the USA. Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong. ... Combatants Soviet Union Japan Commanders Vasily Blyukher, Nikolai Berzarin Kotoku Sato Strength 22,950 20,000+ Casualties 717 killed, 75 missing 525 killed, 913 wounded The Battle of Lake Khasan ( July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as the Changkufeng Incident (Chinese & Japanese: 張鼓峰事件, Chinese pinyin: ZhānggÇ”f... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolia Japan Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 Casualties 6,831 killed, 15,952 wounded 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded The Battle of Khalkhin Gol, sometimes spelled Halhin Gol or Khalkin Gol after the Halha River passing through the battlefield and known... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong. ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lukouchiao Incident. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Chu Shao-liang, Chang Fa-kuei Heisuke Yanagawa, Iwane Matsui Strength 600,000 troops in 75 divisions and 9 brigades, 250 airplanes 300,000 troops in 8 divisions and 6 brigades, 3000 airplanes, 300 tanks, 130 warships... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism, from the late 19th century until 1945. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


In Spring 1939, Soviet and Japanese forces clashed in Mongolia. On May 8, 700 Mongol horsemen crossed the Khalka river, which the Japanese considered to be the Manchurian border. The Soviet and Mongolian governments believed the border was twenty miles to the east. Mongol and Manchu forces began to shoot at each other, and within days their Soviet and Japanese patrons had sent large military contingents, which almost immediately joined in the clash, which led to a full-scale war which lasted well into September. The growing Japanese presence in the Far East was seen as a major strategic threat by the Soviet Union, and Soviet fear of having to fight a two front war was a primary reason for the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with the Nazis. In the end, the Japanese were decisively defeated by Soviet units under General Georgiy Zhukov. Following this battle, the Soviet Union and Japan were at peace until 1945. Japan looked south to expand its empire, leading to conflict with the United States over the Philippines and control of shipping lanes to the Dutch East Indies. The Soviet Union focused on the west, leaving only minimal troops to guard the frontier with Japan. In military terminology, a two front war is a war that is waged on two separate fronts, usually opposite each other. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ...


War breaks out in Europe (September 1939 – May 1940)

Polish infantry during the Invasion of Poland, September 1939.
Polish infantry during the Invasion of Poland, September 1939.

On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, using the false pretext of a faked "Polish attack" on a German border post. The United Kingdom and France gave Germany two days to withdraw from Poland. Once the deadline passed on September 3, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand declared war on Germany, followed quickly by France, South Africa and Canada. Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft, Total: 950... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... This term is generally used for the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II. // History of the occupation Before the beginning of World War II Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed an ostensible non-aggression treaty known as... Image File history File links Polish infantry File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Polish infantry File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft, Total: 950... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gliwice Radio Tower. ...


The French mobilized slowly and then mounted only a token offensive in the Saar, which they soon abandoned, while the British could not take any direct action in support of the Poles in the time available (see Western betrayal). Meanwhile, on September 8, the Germans reached Warsaw, having slashed through the Polish defenses. The French attack on Saarland was a French sortie into the Saarland in the early stages of World War II. The purpose of the attack was to assist Poland, which was then under attack. ... Western betrayal is a popular term in several Central European nations (including Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through World War II and to the Cold War... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: ) is the capital of Poland, its largest city, and a gamma world city. ...


On September 17, the Soviet Union, pursuant to its secret agreement with Germany, invaded Poland from the east, throwing Polish defenses into chaos by opening the second front. A day later, both the Polish president and commander-in-chief fled to Romania. On October 1, hostile forces, after a one-month siege of Warsaw, entered the city. The last Polish units surrendered on October 6. Poland, however, never officially surrendered to the Germans. Some Polish troops evacuated to neighboring countries. In the aftermath of the September Campaign, occupied Poland managed to create a powerful resistance movement and contributed significant military forces to the Allies for the duration of World War II. September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date 8 to September 28, 1939 Place Warsaw, Poland Result Polish defeat The 1939 Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the German Army. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... The Romanian Bridgehead (Polish Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in South-Eastern Poland, nowadays located in Ukraine. ... The history of Poland from 1939 through 1945 encompasses the German invasion of Poland through to the end of World War II. On September 1, 1939, without formal declaration of war, Germany invaded Poland. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Poland: First to Fight (poster, 1939). ...


After Poland fell, Germany paused to regroup during the winter of 1939–1940 until April 1940, while the British and French stayed on the defensive. The period was referred to by journalists as “the Phony War” or the “Sitzkrieg” because so little ground combat took place. During this period Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939, which started the Winter War. Despite outnumbering Finnish troops by 4 to 1, the Red Army found the attack embarrassingly difficult, and the Finnish defence prevented an all-out invasion. Finally, however, the Soviets prevailed and the peace treaty saw Finland cede strategically important border areas near Leningrad. British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War , or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ...


Germany invaded Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940, in Operation Weserübung, in part to counter the threat of an impending Allied invasion of Norway. Denmark did not resist, but Norway fought back. The United Kingdom, whose own invasion was ready to launch, landed in the north. By late June, the Allies were defeated and withdrew, Germany controlled most of Norway, and the Norwegian Army had surrendered, while the Norwegian Royal Family escaped to London. Germany used Norway as a base for air and naval attacks on Arctic convoys headed to the Soviet Union. Norwegian partisans would continue to fight against the German occupation throughout the war. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... Ranks Norwegian military ranks The Norwegian Army (Norwegian: Hæren) is Norways military land force. ... A play by George S. Kaufman and Edna Ferber, The Royal Family lampooned the famous Barrymore acting clan. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United States and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. ...


The Western Front (May 1940 – September 1940)

The Germans ended the Phony War on May 10, 1940 when they invaded Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. The Netherlands was quickly overwhelmed and the Dutch city of Rotterdam was destroyed in a bombing raid. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and the French Army advanced into northern Belgium and planned to fight a mobile war in the north, while maintaining a static continuous front along the Maginot Line further south. The Allied plans were immediately smashed by the most classic example in history of Blitzkrieg. Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from United States of America Australia Canada Czechoslovakia Ireland Palestine Poland Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength initially 700 aircraft; grew to nearly 1,000 by the end of the Battle. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The bombing of Rotterdam was a terror bombardment by German forces on 14 May 1940, in the initial phases of World War II, when they invaded the Netherlands. ... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939 - 1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... The French Army (French: Armée de Terre) is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maʒino], named after French minister of defence André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, machine gun posts and other defenses which France constructed along its borders with Germany and with Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ...

Germans parading in the deserted Champs-Élysées avenue, Paris, June 1940.
Germans parading in the deserted Champs-Élysées avenue, Paris, June 1940.

In the first phase of the invasion, Fall Gelb, the Wehrmacht's Panzergruppe von Kleist, raced through the Ardennes, a heavily forested region which the Allies had thought impenetrable for a modern, mechanized army. The Germans broke the French line at Sedan, held by reservists rather than first-line troops, then drove west across northern France to the English Channel, splitting the Allies in two. Image File history File links Nazi-parading-in-elysian-fields-paris-desert-1940. ... Image File history File links Nazi-parading-in-elysian-fields-paris-desert-1940. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  , literally the Elysian Fields) is a broad avenue in Paris. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ... The Ardennes (pronounced ar-DEN) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... A Toyota Camry, a recognizable sedan The Ford Five Hundred, a medium-sized sedan A sedan car, American English terminology (saloon in British English), is one of the most common body styles of the modern automobile. ...


The BEF and French forces, encircled in the north, were evacuated from Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo. The operation was one of the biggest military evacuations in history, as 338,000 British and French troops were transported across the English Channel on warships and civilian boats. The Military of France has a long history of serving its country. ... For other uses of Dunkirk or Dunkerque, see Dunkirk (disambiguation). ... French troops rescued by a British merchant ship at Dunkirk British evacuation on Dunkirk beach Operation Dynamo (or Dunkirk Evacuation, the Miracle of Dunkirk or just Dunkirk) was the name given to the World War II mass evacuation of Allied soldiers from May 26 to June 4, 1940, during the... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: La Manche (IPA: ), the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ...


On June 10, Italy joined the war, attacking France in the south. German forces then continued the conquest of France with Fall Rot (Case Red). France signed an armistice with Germany on June 22, 1940, leading to the direct German occupation of Paris and two-thirds of France, and the establishment of a German puppet state headquartered in southeastern France known as Vichy France. June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Vichy is a spa and resort town in central France, near Clermont-Ferrand and was the capital of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Heinkel He 111 bomber over London on 7 Sep. 1940.
Heinkel He 111 bomber over London on 7 Sep. 1940.

Germany had begun preparations in the summer of 1940 to invade the United Kingdom in Operation Sea Lion. Most of the British Army's heavy weapons and supplies had been lost at Dunkirk. The Germans had no hope of overpowering the Royal Navy, but they did think they had a chance of success, if they could gain air superiority. To do that, they first had to deal with the Royal Air Force (RAF). The ensuing contest in the late Summer of 1940 between the two air forces became known as the Battle of Britain. The Luftwaffe initially targeted RAF Fighter Command aerodromes and radar stations. Hitler, angered by retaliatory bombing raids on Berlin, switched his attentions towards the bombing of London, in an operation known as The Blitz. The Luftwaffe was eventually beaten back by Hurricanes and Spitfires, while the Royal Navy remained in control of the English Channel. Thus, the invasion plans were postponed indefinitely. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... He 111K The Heinkel He 111 was the primary Luftwaffe medium bomber during the early stages of World War II, and is perhaps the most famous symbol of the German side of the Battle of Britain. ... Operation Sealion (Unternehmen (Undertaking) Seelöwe in German) was a World War II German plan to invade the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ... RAF redirects here. ... Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from United States of America Australia Canada Czechoslovakia Ireland Palestine Poland Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength initially 700 aircraft; grew to nearly 1,000 by the end of the Battle. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Fighter Command was one of three functional commands that dominated the public perception of the RAF for much of the mid-20th century. ... Heinkel He 111 German bomber over the Surrey Docks, Southwark, London (German propaganda photomontage) The Blitz was the sustained bombing of the United Kingdom by National Socialist Germany between 7 September 1940 and 16 May 1941 in World War II. It was carried out by the Luftwaffe to retaliate the... The Hawker Hurricane is a fighter design from the 1930s which was used extensively by the Royal Air Force during the Battle of Britain. ... The Supermarine Spitfire was an iconic British single-seat fighter used primarily by the RAF and many Allied countries through the Second World War and into the 1950s. ...


After France had fallen in 1940, the United Kingdom was out of money. Franklin Roosevelt persuaded the U.S. Congress to pass the Lend-Lease act on March 11, 1941, which provided the United Kingdom and 37 other countries with US$50 billion dollars in military equipment and other supplies, US$31.4 billion of it going to the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. Canada operated a similar program that sent $4.7 billion in supplies to the United Kingdom. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Type Bicameralism Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D, since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D, since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ...


The Mediterranean (April 1940 – May 1943)

Afrika Korps tanks advance during the North African campaign.

Control of Southern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa was important because the British Empire depended on shipping through the Suez Canal. If the canal fell into Axis hands or if the Royal Navy lost control of the Mediterranean, then transport between the United Kingdom, India, and Australia would have to go around the Cape of Good Hope, an increase of several thousand miles. Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April... Combatants Allied Nations Axis Powers The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage war at sea. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... Image File history File links Panzer(Afrika). ... Image File history File links Panzer(Afrika). ... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK  ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Ships moored at El Ballah during transit Egypt: Site of Suez Canal (top). ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ...


Following the French surrender, the British attacked the French Navy anchored in North Africa in July 1940, out of fear that it might fall into German hands. This contributed to a souring of British-French relations for the next few years. With the French fleet destroyed, the Royal Navy battled the Italian fleet for supremacy in the Mediterranean from their strong bases at Gibraltar, Malta, and Alexandria, Egypt. In Africa, Italian troops invaded and captured British Somaliland in August. Combatants United Kingdom France Commanders James Somerville Marcel-Bruno Gensoul Strength 1 aircraft carrier 3 battleships 2 light cruisers 11 destroyers 4 battleships 6 destroyers 1 seaplane tender Casualties None 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships heavily damaged 1 destroyer damaged 1,297 dead The Attack on Mers-el-Kébir... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between British Empire and Commonwealth forces and Italian Empire forces in Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ...


Italy invaded Greece on October 28, 1940, from Italian occupied Albania, but was quickly repulsed. By mid-December, the Greek army advanced into southern Albania, tying down 530,000 Italian troops. Meanwhile, in fulfillment of Britain's guarantee to Greece the Royal Navy struck the Italian fleet on November 11, 1940. Torpedo bombers from British aircraft carriers attacked the Italian fleet in the southern port of Taranto. One battleship was sunk and several other ships were put temporarily out of action. The success of aerial torpedoes at Taranto was noted with interest by Japan's naval chief, Yamamoto, who was considering ways of neutralizing the U.S. Pacific Fleet. Mainland Greece eventually fell to a German invasion from the East, through Bulgaria. Combatants Italy Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men Under 300,000 men Casualties 13,755 dead, 25,067 missing, 50,874 wounded, 12,368 incapacitated by frostbites, ca. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The Hellenic Army (Greek: Ελληνικός Στράτος) is the land force of Greece (The Hellenic Republic). ... Combatants United Kingdom Italy Commanders Lumley Lyster Inigo Campioni Strength 21 bombers 6 battleships Casualties 2 bombers destroyed 1 battleship sunk 2 battleships damaged 1 cruiser damaged The naval Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11 November – 12 November 1840 during World War II. The Royal Navy... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... A torpedo bomber is a bomber aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with torpedoes, but they could also carry out conventional bombings. ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is part of the US Navy. ...

Italian troops crossed into Egypt from Libya to attack British bases in September 1940, thus beginning the North African Campaign. The aim was to capture the Suez Canal. British, Indian and Australian forces counterattacked in Operation Compass, which stopped in 1941 after numerous Australian and New Zealand (ANZAC) forces were transferred to Greece to defend it from German attack. German forces (known later as the Afrika Korps) under General Erwin Rommel landed in Libya in February 1941 to renew the assault on Egypt. Download high resolution version (549x700, 68 KB)http://www. ... Download high resolution version (549x700, 68 KB)http://www. ... Field Marshal Viscount Slim in his Field Marshals uniform, holding a marshals baton. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... Ships moored at El Ballah during transit Egypt: Site of Suez Canal (top). ... A counterattack is a military tactic used by defending forces when under attack by an enemy force. ... Combatants Western Desert Force Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Strength 50,000 soldiers 120 guns 275 tanks 100,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 light tanks Casualties 494 dead 1,225 wounded 3,000 dead 115,000 captured 400 tanks 1,292 guns Operation... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK  ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he...


Germany also invaded Crete, significant for the large-scale use of German paratroopers. Crete was defended by about 11,000 Greek and 28,000 ANZAC troops, who had just escaped Greece without their artillery or vehicles. The Germans attacked the three main airfields of the island of Maleme, Rethimnon, and Heraklion. After one day of fighting, none of the objectives were reached and the Germans had suffered appalling casualties. German plans were in disarray and the German commander, General Kurt Student, was contemplating suicide. During the next day, through miscommunication and failure of Allied commanders to comprehend the situation, Maleme airfield in western Crete fell to the Germans. The loss of Maleme enabled the Germans to fly in heavy reinforcements and overwhelm the Allied forces on the island. In light of the heavy casualties suffered by the parachutists, however, Hitler forbade further airborne operations. Combatants Greece United Kingdom New Zealand Australia Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength United Kingdom: 15,000 Greece: 11,000 Australia: 7,100 New Zealand: 6,700 Total: 40,000 (10,000 without fighting capability. ... Maleme (Greek Μάλεμε) is a town and airport 16km to the west of Chania, in North Western Crete, Greece. ... Categories: Greece geography stubs | Crete | Cities and towns in Greece ... Heraklion or Iraklion (Greek: Ηράκλειο Italian: Candia), is the largest city and the capital of Crete. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... Kurt Student Kurt Student (May 12, 1890-July 1, 1978) was a German Luftwaffe General who fought as a pilot on the Eastern Front during the First World War and as the commander of the German parachute troops during the Second World War. ...


In North Africa, Rommel's forces advanced rapidly eastward, laying siege to the vital seaport of Tobruk. Two Allied attempts to relieve Tobruk were defeated, but a larger offensive at the end of the year (Operation Crusader) repelled Rommel's forces after heavy fighting. Tobruk or Tubruq (Arabic: طبرق; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Ţubruq, Tobruck ) is a town, seaport, municipality, and peninsula in eastern Libya in Northern Africa. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Poland Germany Italy Commanders Claude Auchinleck Alan Gordon Cunningham Neil Ritchie Erwin Rommel Ludwig Crüwell Strength 8th Army comprising XIII Corps, XXX Corps and 70th Division. ...


The war between the Allied and Italian navies swung decisively in favor of the Allies on March 28, 1941, when Admiral Cunningham's ships encountered the main Italian fleet south of Cape Matapan, at the southern extremity of the Greek mainland. At the cost of a couple of aircraft shot down, the Allies sank five Italian cruisers and three destroyers, and damaged the modern battleship Vittorio Veneto. The Italian Navy was emasculated as a fighting force, and the Allied task of moving troops across the Mediterranean to Greece was eased. March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... Combatants United Kingdom, Australia Italy Commanders Andrew Cunningham Angelo Iachino Strength 1 carrier 3 battleships 7 light cruisers 17 destroyers 1 battleship 6 heavy cruisers 2 light cruisers 17 destroyers Casualties 1 torpedo plane destroyed 1 battleship damaged 3 cruisers sunk 2 destroyers sunk The Battle of Cape Matapan was... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa. ... Vittorio Veneto was an Italian Vittorio Veneto class battleship, that served in the Regia Marina during the World War II. Her keel was laid down 1934 at Cantieri Riuniti dellAdriatico, Trieste; she was launched on 25 July 1937, and her construction was completed in 1940, after Italy entered in... The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ...


In April-May 1941, there was a short war in Iraq that resulted in a renewal of British occupation. In June, Allied forces invaded Syria and Lebanon, and captured Damascus on June 17. Later, in August, UK and Red Army troops occupied neutral Iran, securing its oil and a southern supply line to the Soviet Union. Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... The Syria-Lebanon campaign was the Allied invasion of Vichy French-controlled Syria and Lebanon in 1941, during World War II. The Allied offensive, also known as Operation Exporter, was aimed at preventing Nazi Germany from using Vichy territory as a springboard for attacks on the Allied stronghold of Egypt... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Military Supply Chain Management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ...

Members of the 9th Australian Infantry Division in a posed photograph during the Second Battle of El Alamein. (Photographer: Len Chetwyn.)
Members of the 9th Australian Infantry Division in a posed photograph during the Second Battle of El Alamein. (Photographer: Len Chetwyn.)

At the beginning of 1942, the Allied forces in North Africa were weakened by detachments to the Far East. Rommel once again recaptured Benghazi. He then defeated the Allies at the Battle of Gazala, and captured Tobruk along with several thousand prisoners and large quantities of supplies, before drivng deeper into Egypt. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (699x655, 56 KB) Description: El Alamein 1942: British infantry advances through the dust and smoke of the battle Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (699x655, 56 KB) Description: El Alamein 1942: British infantry advances through the dust and smoke of the battle Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... My God, I wish we had [the] 9th Australian Division with us this morning. ... Combatants British 8th Army German Panzer Army Africa Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 250,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 90,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 13,500 dead and wounded 13,000 dead 46,000 wounded or captured The Second Battle... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ... The Battle of Gazala was an important battle of the World War II Western Desert Campaign, fought around the port of Tobruk in Libya from May 26 to June 21, 1942. ...


The First Battle of El Alamein took place in July 1942. Allied forces had retreated to the last defensible point before Alexandria and the Suez Canal. The Afrika Korps, however, had outrun its supplies, and the defenders stopped its thrusts. The Second Battle of El Alamein occurred between October 23 and November 3. Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery was in command of Allied forces known as the Eighth Army. The Allies took the offensive and, despite initially stiff German resistance, were ultimately triumphant. After the German defeat at El Alamein, the Axis forces made a successful strategic withdrawal to Tunisia. The First Battle of El Alamein 1–July 27, 1942 was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of World War II, fought between the German–Italian Afrika Korps commanded by Erwin Rommel and the British Eighth Army, commanded by Claude Auchinleck. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Ships moored at El Ballah during transit Egypt: Site of Suez Canal (top). ... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK  ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... Combatants British 8th Army German Panzer Army Africa Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 250,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 90,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 13,500 dead and wounded 13,000 dead 46,000 wounded or captured The Second Battle... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns. ...


Operation Torch was launched by the U.S., British and Free French forces on November 8, 1942, to gain control of North Africa through simultaneous landings at Casablanca, Oran and Algiers, followed a few days later by a landing at Bône, the gateway to Tunisia. The local forces of Vichy France put up minimal resistance before submitting to the authority of Free French General Henri Giraud. In retaliation, Hitler invaded and occupied Vichy France. The German and Italian forces in Tunisia were caught in the pincers of Allied advances from Algeria in the west and Libya in the east. Rommel's tactical victory against inexperienced American forces at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass only postponed the eventual surrender of the Axis forces in North Africa in May 1943. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation TORCH (initially called Operation GYMNAST) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... View of Oran Oran (Population: 897,700) (Arabic: ‎, pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ... A small beach in Annaba with the city skyline in background. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Combatants 10th Panzer Division 21st Panzer Division U.S. II Corps Commanders Erwin Rommel Lloyd Fredendall Strength 22,000 30,000 Casualties estimates vary greatly estimates vary greatly The Battle for Kasserine Pass took place in World War II during the Tunisia Campaign. ...


Sub-Saharan Africa (July 1940 – September 1943)

Map showing Italian East Africa and the route of the Allied offensive to capture the Horn of Africa.
Map showing Italian East Africa and the route of the Allied offensive to capture the Horn of Africa.

Italy had gained control of Eritrea and Italian Somaliland during the colonial Scramble for Africa, and had taken Ethiopia prior to the outbreak of World War II during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935–1936). These three colonies were reorganized into the dominion of Italian East Africa. Image File history File links An Italian Second World War map of Italys possessions in East Africa This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links An Italian Second World War map of Italys possessions in East Africa This work is copyrighted. ... Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in Africa. ... Nations of the Horn of Africa. ... The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between British Empire and Commonwealth forces and Italian Empire forces in Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ... The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II: the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. ... The Battle of Madagascar is another name for Operation Ironclad, the Allied invasion of Madagascar launched on May 5, 1942, when it was feared that bases on the Vichy French-controlled island might be used by Japan. ... Italian Somaliland was an Italian colony that lasted, apart from a brief interlude of British rule, from the late 19th century until 1960 in the territory of the modern-day East African nation of Somalia. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Combatants Italy Ethiopia Commanders Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Strength 130,000 Italian and Eritrean soldiers 350,000 (some ill-equipped) Casualties 8,000 250,000 (most of them civilians) The Second Italo–Abyssinian War lasted seven months in 1935–1936. ... Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in Africa. ...


During early 1940, Italian colonial forces consisted of 80,000 Italian troops and 200,000 native troops, while British forces in all of British Somaliland, Kenya and Sudan only amounted to 17,000.[4]. The Italians first amassed in preparation of taking French Somaliland (now known as Djibouti). This attack was called off with the collapse of the French army and the installation of the neutral government of Vichy France. In July, Sudanese border towns of Kassala and Gallabat were occupied by an Italian force of 50,000[5], and in August 1940, the Italian colonial army attacked and took British Somaliland using a force of 25,000. This gave Italy control of nearly all of the Horn of Africa. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... The Republic of Djibouti (جيبوتي) is a country in eastern Africa, located in the Horn of Africa. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Kassala is the capital of the state of Kassala in northeastern Sudan. ... Gallabat is a village in the Sudanese state of Al Qadarif. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Nations of the Horn of Africa. ...


In September 1940, Allied forces failed during the Battle of Dakar to take the capital of Senegal from the Vichy French troops defending it; French West Africa remained Vichy until the Operation Torch landings in North Africa in November 1942. Yet in November, the Allies succeeded in the Battle of Gabon, solidifying control over French Equatorial Africa for the Free French Forces. 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom, Free France, Australia, Netherlands Vichy France Commanders Andrew Cunningham Pierre François Boisson Strength 2 battleships, 1 aircraft carrier, 4 cruisers, 10 destroyers 1 battleships, 2 cruisers, destroyers, coastal emplacements Casualties 2 battleships and 2 cruisers damaged >2 destroyers damaged, 2 submarines sunk {{{notes}}} The Battle of... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation TORCH (initially called Operation GYMNAST) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom Free France Vichy France Commanders Andrew Cunningham Charles De Gaulle Pierre Koenig Marcel Tetu Casualties 1 cruiser, 1 submarine The Battle of Gabon or the Battle of Libreville was part of the West African Campaign of World War II fought in November 1940. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ...


Also in November 1940, the British began a counteroffensive from Sudan against Italian-held Gallabat with only 7,000 troops, which was unable to make much headway.[4] However in January 1941, the Italian army withdrew its forces in the Sudanese border towns to more defensible terrain to the east of Kassala.[6] With additional reinforcements from the British Indian Army and South Africa, the campaign began to make progress. British Somaliland was retaken in March, and Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia, was captured on April 6. Emperor Haile Selassie I returned to the city on May 5. However, a force of Italians continued to fight a guerrilla war in Ethiopia until the Italian surrender of September 1943. 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Gallabat is a village in the Sudanese state of Al Qadarif. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... A group of native Indian muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


Madagascar, as a French colony, was considered enemy territory by the British after the creation of the collaborationist Vichy regime. It was also the suggested land to which European Jews should be deported, in an anti-Semitic proposition known as the "Madagascar Plan". While the British still controlled Egypt and the Suez Canal, such German plans were impossible, and eventually they were shelved in favor of a genocidal campaign, which was termed the "Final Solution". With the advent of the Japanese entrance to the war in December 1941, and the surrender of Singapore in February 1942, the Allies became increasingly worried Madagascar would fall to the Axis. Therefore, they conducted an invasion known as Operation Ironclad in May 1942. Fighting lasted there against the Vichy French defenders until November, who were backed by several Japanese submarines. In December, French Somaliland was also taken by the British. The Madagascar Plan was a policy of the Third Reich government of Nazi Germany to forcibly relocate the entire Jewish population of Europe to the French island colony of Madagascar, off the coast of Africa. ... Ships moored at El Ballah during transit Egypt: Site of Suez Canal (top). ... In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Battle of Madagascar is another name for Operation Ironclad, the Allied invasion of Madagascar launched on May 5, 1942, when it was feared that bases on the Vichy French_controlled island might be used by Japan. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


After the landings of Operation Torch, the remainder of Vichy territories in Africa came under the control of the Allies. With the southern continent generally secure, apart from the Italian insurgency in Ethiopia, the Allies turned their attention to other theatres. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation TORCH (initially called Operation GYMNAST) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World...


The Eastern Front (April 1941 – January 1942)

On April 6, 1941, German, Italian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian forces invaded Yugoslavia, ending with the surrender of the Yugoslav army on April 17, and the creation of a puppet state in Croatia. Two rival resistance movements endured in Yugoslavia for the remainder of the war. The Communist group, AVNOJ, led by Tito finally prevailed over the Chetniks led by Draža Mihailović. Also on April 6, Germany invaded Greece from Bulgaria. The Greek army was outnumbered and collapsed. Athens fell on April 27, yet the United Kingdom managed to evacuate over 50,000 troops. The stubborn Greek resistance and the attack on Yugoslavia, however, delayed the German invasion of the Soviet Union by a critical six weeks. Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1 Italy (to 1943) Romania Finland (to 1944) Hungary Commanders Aleksei Antonov Ivan Konev Rodion Malinovsky Kirill Meretskov Ivan Petrov Alexander Rodimtsev Konstantin Rokossovsky Pavel Rotmistrov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Tolbukhin Aleksandr Vasilevsky Nikolai Vatutin Kliment Voroshilov Andrei Yeremenko Matvei Zakharov Georgy Zhukov Fedor von Bock Ernst... Invasion of Yugoslavia Operation 25 was the german code-name for the so-called April War, the German attack on Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Benito Mussolini Miklós Horthy Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... AVNOJ (AntifaÅ¡ističko V(ij)eće Narodnog OsloboÄ‘enja Jugoslavije), standing for Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, was the political umbrella organization for the peoples liberation committees that was established on November 26, 1942 to administer terrorities under their control. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... For the WWII guerilla force, see Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland. ... Dragoljub Drazha Mihailovich (Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић, also ÄŒiča, Draža Mihailović), (April 26, 1893 – July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general who led the Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland, also referred to as Chetniks during World War II. Mihailović was tried and executed by the Yugoslav Government because he was a... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... An ELAS soldier The Greek Resistance is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II. // Origins The rise of resistance movements in Greece was precipitated by the invasion and occupation of...

The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Moscow: ██ Initial Wehrmacht advance - to 9 July 1941 ██ Subsequent advances - to 1 September 1941 ██ Encirclement and battle of Kiev - to 9 September 1941 ██ Final Wehrmacht advance - to 5 December 1941
The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Moscow: ██ Initial Wehrmacht advance - to 9 July 1941 ██ Subsequent advances - to 1 September 1941 ██ Encirclement and battle of Kiev - to 9 September 1941 ██ Final Wehrmacht advance - to 5 December 1941

Three German Army Groups along with various other Axis military units who in total numbered over 3.5 million men launched the invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. Army Group North was deployed in East Prussia and was composed of 18th and 16th infantry armies and a Panzer Army, the 4th. Its main objectives were to secure the Baltic states and seize Leningrad. Opposite Army Group North were 2 Soviet Armies. The Germans threw their 600 Tanks at the junction of the two Soviet Armies in that sector. The 4th Panzer Army's objective was to cross the River Neman and River Dvina which were the two largest obstacles in route to Leningrad. On the first day, the Tanks crossed River Neman and penetrated 50 miles. Near Rasienai, the Panzers were counterattacked by 300 Soviet Tanks. It took 4 Days for the Germans to encircle and destroy the Soviet Tanks. The Panzers then crossed the River Dvina near Dvinsk. The Germans were now in striking distance of Leningrad; however, Hitler ordered the Panzers to hold their position while the Infantry Armies caught up. The orders to hold would last over a week, giving plenty of time to the Russians to shore up defenses around Leningrad. Download high resolution version (1201x920, 255 KB)Map of the Eastern Front (WWII), 1941-06-21 to 1941-12-05 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Battle of Moscow... Download high resolution version (1201x920, 255 KB)Map of the Eastern Front (WWII), 1941-06-21 to 1941-12-05 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Battle of Moscow... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The German Eighteenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The German Sixteenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The German Fourth Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. Before being designated a full army the formation was called Panzer Group 4 (Panzergruppe 4). ... The German Fourth Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. Before being designated a full army the formation was called Panzer Group 4 (Panzergruppe 4). ... Two rivers are referred to as Dvina: Western Dvina (also known as Daugava) Northern Dvina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... Daugavpils (Belarusian Дзьвінск Dźvinsk, Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dzwinow or Dźwińsk, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000...


Army Group Center was deployed in Poland and comprised 9th, 4th Army, and two Panzer Armies, the 3rd and 2nd. Its main objective was to capture Moscow. Opposite Army Group Center were 4 Soviet Armies. The Russians occupied a salient which jutted into German territory with its center at Bialystok. Beyond, Bialystok was Minsk which was a key railway junction. 3rd Panzer Army punched through the junction of the two Soviet Armies and crossed the River Neman, and 2nd Panzer Army crossed the River Bug. While the Panzers attacked, the Infantry armies struck at the Salient and encircled Russian troops at Bialystok. The Panzer Armies' objective was to meet at Minsk and prevent any Russian withdrawal. On June 27, 2nd and 3rd Panzer Armies met up at Minsk advancing 200 miles into Soviet Territory. In the vast pocket between Minsk and the Polish border, 32 Soviet Infantry and 8 Tank Divisions were encircled and were mercilessly attacked. Russian soldiers numbering 290,000 were captured, while 250,000 Russians managed to escape. Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was one of three German army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, code-named Operation Barbarossa. ... The German Ninth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... Insignia of 4th Army The German Fourth Army (German: ) was a field army that fought in World War II. The Fourth Army was activated on December 1, 1938 with Field Marshal Günther von Kluge in command. ... The German Third Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. The Third Panzer Army was a constituent of Army Group Centre and fought in the Battle of Moscow in late 1941 and early 1942. ... The German Second Panzer Army was a German tank army that fought during World War II. It origins were in the Panzer Group Guderian (Panzergruppe Guderian), named after its commander Heinz Guderian, and Panzergruppe 2 which played a significant role in the initial success of the blitzkrieg in Operation Barbarossa... Białystok (pronounce: [bȋa:wistɔk]) (Belarusian: Беласток, Lithuanian: Balstogė) is the largest city (pop. ... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 305. ... The German Third Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. The Third Panzer Army was a constituent of Army Group Centre and fought in the Battle of Moscow in late 1941 and early 1942. ... The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near KlaipÄ—da. ... The German Second Panzer Army was a German tank army that fought during World War II. It origins were in the Panzer Group Guderian (Panzergruppe Guderian), named after its commander Heinz Guderian, and Panzergruppe 2 which played a significant role in the initial success of the blitzkrieg in Operation Barbarossa... Bug (pronunciation Boog) is the name of two rivers in Europe: Western Bug Southern Bug See also Bug (disambiguation) - other kinds of bugs This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Dmitry Pavlov Casualties Unknown 425,000 The Battle of BiaÅ‚ystok-Minsk was one of the Border Battles during the opening stage of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. ...


Army Group South was deployed in Southern Poland and Romania and was composed of 6th, 11th, and 17th armies and a Panzer Army, the 1st along with two Romanian Armies and several Italian, Slovakian and Hungarian Divisions. Its objective was to secure the oil fields of the Caucasus. In the South, the Russian Commanders had quickly reacted to the German attack and whose Tank forces vastly outnumbered the Germans. Opposite the Germans in the South were 3 Soviet Armies. The German struck at the junctions of the 3 Soviet Armies but 1st Panzer Army struck right through the Soviet Army with the objective of capturing Brody. On June 26, 5 Soviet Mechanized Corps with over 1,000 Tanks mounted a massive counterattack on 1st Panzer Army. The Battle was among the fiercest of the invasion lasting over 4 days. In the end the Germans prevailed but the Russians inflicted heavy losses on the 1st Panzer Army. With the failure of the Soviet Armored offensive, the last substantial Soviet tank forces in the south were now spent. Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ... The Sixth Army was a German field army which saw action in World War I and World War II. It is perhaps best known for its involvement in the Battle of Stalingrad. ... The German Eleventh Army (German: 11. ... The German Seventeenth Army (German: 17. ... Insignia of the German First Panzer Army The First Panzer Army (German: ) was a German tank army that fought during World War II. When formed the First Panzer Army was named Panzer Group Kleist (Panzergruppe Kleist) and was activated on November 16, 1940 with Field Marshal Ewald von Kleist in... Insignia of the German First Panzer Army The First Panzer Army (German: ) was a German tank army that fought during World War II. When formed the First Panzer Army was named Panzer Group Kleist (Panzergruppe Kleist) and was activated on November 16, 1940 with Field Marshal Ewald von Kleist in... Tarnopol Voivodeship bis 17 September 1939, location the city A church in Brody (1625). ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist Colonel-General Mikhail Karpenos Strength 600 Tanks 1,000 Tanks Casualties Heavy All Soviet Tanks Destroyed The Battle of Brody was a major Tank battle fought between the 1st Panzer Army and 5 Soviet Mechanized Corps in Ukraine. ...

The October Revolution military parade on November 7, 1941, in Red Square was not cancelled despite German troops on the outskirts of Moscow.
The October Revolution military parade on November 7, 1941, in Red Square was not cancelled despite German troops on the outskirts of Moscow.

On July 3, Hitler finally gave the go-ahead for the Panzers to resume their drive east after the infantry armies had caught up. The next objective of Army Group Center was the city of Smolensk which commanded the road to Moscow. Facing the Germans was an old Russian defensive line where the Soviets had deployed 6 Armies. On July 6, the Soviets launched an attack with 700 Tanks against the 3rd Panzer Army. The Germans, using their overwhelming air superiority, wiped out the Soviet tanks. The 2nd Panzer Army crossed the River Dneiper and closed on Smolensk from the south while 3rd Panzer Army after defeating the Soviet counter attack approached Smolensk from the North. Trapped between their pincers were 3 Soviet Armies. On July 26, the Panzers closed the gap and then began to eliminate the pocket which yielded over 300,000 Russian prisoners but 200,000 evaded capture. Hitler by now had lost faith in battles of encirclement and wanted to defeat the Soviets by inflicting severe economic damage which meant seizing the oil fields in the south and Leningrad in the North. Tanks from Army Group Center were diverted to Army Group North and South to aid them. Hitler's generals vehemently opposed this as Moscow was only 200 miles away from Army Group Center. 4th Panzer Army after being reinforced by tanks from Army Group Center broke through the Soviet defenses on August 8 and by the end of August was only 30 miles from Leningrad. Meanwhile the Finns had pushed South East on both sides of Lake Ladoga reaching the old Finnish Soviet frontier. On September 9, Army Group North was only 7 miles from Leningrad but Hitler ordered Leningrad to besieged. The Russians mounted attacks against Army Group Center but lacking its tanks, it was in no position to go on the offensive. Hitler changed his mind and decided that tanks will be send back to Army Group Center for its all out drive on Moscow. Image File history File links Moscowbattleparade. ... Image File history File links Moscowbattleparade. ... Red October redirects here. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Smolensk. ... The German Fourth Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. Before being designated a full army the formation was called Panzer Group 4 (Panzergruppe 4). ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ...


In the South by mid-July below the Pinsk Marshes, the Germans had reached to a few miles of Kiev. The 1st Panzer Army then went South while the German 17th Army struck east and in between the Germans trapped 3 Soviet Armies near Uman. As the Germans eliminated the pocket, the tanks turned north and crossed the Dneiper meanwhile 2nd Panzer Army diverted from Army Group Center had crossed the River Desna with 2nd Army on its right flank. The two Panzer armies now trapped 4 Soviet Armies and parts of two others. The encirclement of Soviet forces in Kiev was achieved on September 16. The encircled Soviets did not give up easily, a savage battle now ensued lasting for 10 days after which the Germans claimed over 600,000 Russian soldiers captured. Hitler called it the greatest battle in history. After Kiev, the Red Army no longer outnumbered the Germans and there were no more reserves. To defend Moscow, Stalin had only 800,000 men left. Operation Typhoon, the drive on Moscow began on October 2. In front of Army Group Center was a series of elaborate defense lines. The Germans easily penetrated the first defense line as 2nd Panzer Army returning from the south took Orel which was 75 miles behind the Russian first defense line. The Germans then pushed in and the vast pocket yielded 663,000 Russian prisoners. The Russians now had only 90,000 men and 1,500 tanks left for the defense for Moscow. poop poop poopy poo poop poopy poo poop Categories: | | | ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... The German Second Army (German: ) was a World War I and World War II field army. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gerd von Rundstedt Semyon Budenny Strength 500,000 700,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 300,000 dead or wounded 300,000 captured The Battle of Kiev was a huge encirclement battle in Ukraine during World War II. It lasted from mid-August to... The eastern front at the time of Operation Typhoon. ... Orel or Oryol (Орёл) is a city in Russia, administrative center of the Oryol Oblast. ...

Soviet Siberian soldiers fighting during the Battle of Moscow.
Soviet Siberian soldiers fighting during the Battle of Moscow.

Almost from the beginning of Operation Typhoon the weather had deteriorated steadily, slowing the German advance on Moscow to as little as 2 miles a day. On October 31, the Germany Army High Command ordered a halt on Operation Typhoon as the armies were re-organized. The pause gave the Soviets time to build up new armies and bring in the Soviet troops from the east as the neutrality pact signed by the Soviets and Japanese in April, 1941 assured Stalin that there was no longer a threat from the Japanese. Image File history File linksMetadata WW2_MoscowBattle_russian_soldiers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata WW2_MoscowBattle_russian_soldiers. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... The Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact refers to a pact between the Soviet Union and Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939). ...


On November 15, the Germans once again began the attack on Moscow. Facing the Germans were 6 Soviet Armies. The Germans intended to let the 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies cross the Moscow Canal and envelop Moscow from the North East. The 2nd Panzer Army would attack Tula and then close in on Moscow from the South and the 4th Army would smash in the center. However, on November 22, Soviet Siberian Troops were unleashed on the 2nd Panzer Army in the South which inflicted a shocking defeat on the Germans. The 4th Panzer Army succeeded in crossing the Moscow canal and on December 2 had penetrated to 15 miles of the Kremlin. But by then the first blizzards of the winter began and the Wehrmacht was not equipped for winter warfare. Frostbite and disease had caused more casualties than combat; dead and wounded had already reached 155,000 in 3 weeks and strength of divisions were now at 50% and the bitter cold had caused severe problems for guns and equipment. Weather conditions grounded the Luftwaffe. Newly built up Soviet troops near Moscow now numbered over 500,000 men and Zhukov on December 5 launched a massive counter attack which pushed the Germans back over 200 miles but no decisive breakthrough was achieved. The invasion of the Soviet Union had so far cost the Germans over 250,000 dead, 500,000 wounded and most of their tanks. Moscow Canal (Russian: Канал имени Москвы; former name - Moscow-Volga Canal (until 1947)) is a canal that connects the Moskva River with the main transportation artery of European Russia - the Volga. ... Places named Tula include: Tula, Russia Tula, in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico Tula is also the professional name of model-cum-actress Caroline Cossey. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Pacific (April 1941 – June 1943)

The American battleships West Virginia and Tennessee under attack at Pearl Harbor.
The American battleships West Virginia and Tennessee under attack at Pearl Harbor.

Hitler kept his plan to invade the USSR secret from the Japanese. The USSR, fearing a two-front war, decided to make peace with Japan. On April 13, 1941, the USSR and Japan signed the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact, thus allowing the Japanese to concentrate their attention to the upcoming war in Asia-Pacific. The Pacific Ocean theater was one of four major theaters of the Pacific War, between 1941 and 1945. ... The South West Pacific was one of two theatres of World War II in the Pacific region, between 1942 and 1945. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x1107, 284 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): World War II ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x1107, 284 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): World War II ... For other ships of this name, see USS West Virginia. ... USS Tennessee (BB-43), the lead ship of her class of battleship, was the third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 16th state. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... In military terminology, a two front war is a war that is waged on two separate fronts, usually opposite each other. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact refers to a pact between the Soviet Union and Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939). ...


In the summer of 1941, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands began an oil embargo against Japan, threatening its ability to fight a major war at sea or in the air. However, Japanese forces continued to advance into China. Japan planned an attack on Pearl Harbor to cripple the U.S. Pacific Fleet, then seize oil fields in the Dutch East Indies. Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a theater-level unit of the U.S. armed forces, under the operational control of the United States Pacific Command. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ...


On December 7, Japan launched virtually simultaneous surprise attacks against Pearl Harbor, Thailand and on the British territories of Malaya and Hong Kong. These attacks were on December 7, 1941 in western international time zones and on December 8 in the east. A Japanese carrier fleet launched an unexpected air attack on Pearl Harbor. The raid destroyed most of the American aircraft on the island and knocked the main American battle fleet out of action (three battleships were sunk, and five more were heavily damaged, though only USS Arizona and USS Oklahoma were permanently lost, the other six battleships were repaired and eventually returned to service). However, the four American aircraft carriers that had been the intended main target of the Japanese attack were off at sea. At Pearl Harbor, the main dock, supply, and repair facilities were quickly repaired. Furthermore, the base's fuel storage facilities, whose destruction could have crippled the Pacific fleet, were untouched. The attack united American public opinion to demand vengeance against Japan. The following day, December 8, the United States declared war on Japan. December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... The United States Battle Fleet or Battle Force was part of the organization of the United States Navy from 1922 to 1941. ... The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a Pennsylvania-class battleship of the United States Navy. ... USS Oklahoma (BB-37), a Nevada-class battleship was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the 46th state. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A declaration of war is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation, and one or more others. ...

Simultaneously with the attack on Hawaii, the Japanese attacked Wake Island, an American territory in the central Pacific. The initial landing attempt was repulsed by the garrison of Marines, and fierce resistance continued until December 23. The Japanese sent heavy reinforcements, and the garrison surrendered when it became clear that no American relief force was coming. Image File history File links Yamamoto-Isoroku-improvedContrast. ... Image File history File links Yamamoto-Isoroku-improvedContrast. ... Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was a Fleet Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and alumnus of the U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919 - 1921). ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ...


Japan also invaded the Philippines, a U.S. Commonwealth, on December 8. American and Filipino forces, under General Douglas MacArthur, were forced to retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. Dogged resistance continued until April, buying precious time for the Allies. Following their surrender, the survivors were led on the Bataan Death March. Allied resistance continued for an additional month on the island fortress of Corregidor, until it too surrendered. General MacArthur, who had been ordered to retreat to Australia, vowed, "I shall return." Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... General of the Army is historically the second most senior rank in the United States Army, equivalent to a field marshal in other militaries. ... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Jonathan Wainwright George M. Parker Edward P. King Masaharu Homma Susumu Morioka Kineo Kitajima Kameichiro Nagano Strength 30,000 U.S. troops 120,000 Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 10,000 killed, 20,000 wounded, 75,000 prisoners 7... The Bataan Death March (aka The Death March of Bataan) was a war crime involving the forcible transfer of prisoners of war, with wide-ranging abuse and high fatalities, by Japanese forces in the Philippines, in 1942, after the three-month Battle of Bataan, which was part of the Battle... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George F. Moore Samuel L. Howard Masaharu Homma Kureo Tanaguchi Kizon Mikami Strength 13,000 U.S. and Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 800 killed 1,000 wounded 11,000 POWs 900 killed 1,200 wounded The...


Disaster struck the British on December 10, as they lost two major battleships, HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse. Both ships had been attacked by 85 Japanese bombers and torpedo planes based in Saigon, and 840 UK sailors perished. Churchill was to say of the event, "In all of the war I have never received a more direct shock." HMS Prince of Wales was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead, England. ... HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser, the second to last battlecruiser built for the Royal Navy. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ...


Germany declared war on the United States on December 11, even though it was not obliged to do so under the Tripartite Pact. Hitler hoped that Japan would support Germany by attacking the Soviet Union. Japan did not do so because it had signed a non-aggression treaty, preferring instead to focus on expanding its empire in China, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. Rather than opening a second front on the USSR, the effect of Germany's declaration of war was to remove any significant opposition within the United States to joining the fight in the European Theater. December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940 by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, and Galeazzo Ciano of Fascist Italy entering as an alliance and...

U.S. Marines rest in the field on Guadalcanal, August-December 1942.
U.S. Marines rest in the field on Guadalcanal, August-December 1942.

The Allies were officially formed in the Declaration by United Nations on January 1, 1942. Soon afterwards, the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (ABDACOM) was formed to unite Allied forces in South East Asia. It was the first Allied supreme command of the war. Most of these Marines are armed with M1903 bolt-action rifles and carry M1905 bayonets and USMC 1941 type packs. ... Most of these Marines are armed with M1903 bolt-action rifles and carry M1905 bayonets and USMC 1941 type packs. ... The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1, 1942 by 26 governments, several of them governments-in-exile. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... ABDACOM Area The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, code name ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War. ...


On February 19, 1942, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, leading to the internment of thousands of Japanese, Italians, German Americans, and some emigrants from Hawaii who fled after the bombing of Pearl Harbor for the duration of the war. February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... United States Executive Order 9066 was signed into law on February 19, 1942 (during World War II), by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, utilizing his authority as Commander in Chief to exercise war powers. ... German-Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ...


ABDACOM naval forces were all but destroyed in the Battle of the Java Sea—the largest naval battle of the war up that point—on February 28 through March 1. The joint command was wound up shortly afterwards, to be replaced by three Allied supreme commands in southern Asia and the Pacific. Combatants United States Netherlands United Kingdom Australia Japan Commanders Karel Doorman† Takeo Takagi Strength 2 heavy cruisers 3 light cruisers 12 destroyers 2 heavy cruisers 2 light cruisers 14 destroyers 10 transports Casualties 5 cruisers sunk 5 destroyers sunk 2,300 sailors killed 4 loaded troop transports sunk The Battle...


In April, the Doolittle Raid, the first Allied air raid on Tokyo, boosted morale in the United States and caused Japan to shift resources to homeland defense, but did little physical damage. Combatants United States Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle N/A Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells N/A Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 would die in captivity) about 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ...


In early May, the Japanese implemented Mo Sakusen (Operation Mo), a plan to take Port Moresby, New Guinea. The first stage was thwarted by the U.S. and Australian navies in the Battle of the Coral Sea. This was both the first battle fought between aircraft carriers, and the first battle where the opposing fleets never made direct visual contact. The American aircraft carrier Lexington was sunk and the Yorktown was severely damaged, while the Japanese lost the light carrier Shōhō and the large carrier Shōkaku suffered moderate damage. Zuikaku lost half of her air complement, and along with Shōkaku, was unable to participate in the upcoming battle at Midway. The battle was a tactical victory for the Japanese, as they inflicted heavier losses on the American fleet, but it was a strategic American victory, as the Japanese attack on Port Moresby was deflected. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Port Moresby town Port Moresby, (), population 255,000 (2000), is the capital of Papua New Guinea. ... USN redirects here. ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... Combatants United States, Australia Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz Frank Jack Fletcher Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Aritomo Goto Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 small carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 large carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker, 543 personnel 1 small carrier, 1 destroyer, 1,074 personnel... Four aircraft carriers, Principe-de-Asturias, USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and HMS Invincible (front-to-back), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier, light V/STOL carriers, and an amphibious carrier. ... The fourth USS Lexington (CV-2), nicknamed the Gray Lady or Lady Lex, was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... The third USS Yorktown (CV-5) was lead ship of the Yorktown class aircraft carrier of World War II, sunk at the Battle of Midway. ... Shōhō (Japanese: 祥鳳 shōhō, meaning auspicious phoenix) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... Shōkaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


In the six months after Pearl Harbor the Japanese had achieved nearly all of their naval objectives. Their fleet of eleven battleships, ten carriers, eighteen heavy and twenty light cruisers remained relatively intact. They had seriously damaged or sunk all U.S. battleships in the Pacific. The British and Dutch Far Eastern fleets had been destroyed, and the Royal Australian Navy had been driven back to port.[7] Their ring of conquests settled on a defensive perimeter of their choosing, extending from the Central Pacific to New Guinea to Burma.


Opposing this, the only significant strategic force remaining to the Allies was the naval base at Pearl Harbor, including the U.S. Pacific Fleet's three aircraft carriers. Both sides viewed a decisive battle between aircraft carriers as inevitable, and the Japanese were confident in that they held a numerical advantage in heavy carriers of 10:3.[8] They also had an excellent carrier-based aircraft in the Zero. The Japanese sent a task force towards Midway Island, an outlier of the Hawaiian Islands, with the goal of drawing the remainder of the American fleet to battle. On June 5, American carrier-based dive-bombers sighted the Japanese force and sank four of Japan's best aircraft carriers in the Battle of Midway, at the cost of the carrier Yorktown. This was a major victory for the United States, and marked the turning point of the war in the Pacific. American shipbuilding and aircraft production vastly outpaced the Japanese, and the Japanese fleet would never again enjoy such numerical superiority. Mitsubishi A6M2 Zero Model 21 on the flight deck of carrier Shokaku , 26 October 1942, Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands The Mitsubishi A6M Zero was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Combatants United States of America Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties...


In July, the Japanese attempted to take Port Moresby by land, along the Kokoda Track, a rugged, single-file path through the jungle and mountains. An outnumbered, untrained and ill-equipped Australian battalion—awaiting the return of regular units from North Africa and the U.S. Army—waged a fighting retreat against a 5,000-strong Japanese force. Combatants Australia Japan Commanders Ralph Honner Selwyn Porter Arnold Potts Arthur Tubby Allen George Vasey Yosuke Yokoyama Tomitaro Horii Strength 2,000 plus reinforcements 10,000 plus reinforcements Casualties 725 killed 1,055 wounded Hundreds sick with disease 6,500 killed including Maj-Gen Horii Hundreds sick with disease The...


On August 7, U.S. Marines began the Battle of Guadalcanal. For the next six months, U.S. forces fought Japanese forces for control of the island. Meanwhile, several naval encounters raged in the nearby waters, including the Battle of Savo Island, Battle of Cape Esperance, Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, and Battle of Tassafaronga. August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ... Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ... Combatants United States, Australia, United Kingdom Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner, Victor A. C. Crutchley Isoroku Yamamoto, Gunichi Mikawa Strength 8 cruisers, 15 destroyers[2] 7 cruisers, 1 destroyer[3] Casualties 4 cruisers sunk, 1 cruiser, 2 destroyers damaged, 1,077 killed[4] 3 cruisers moderately damaged, 58... Combatants United States New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Norman Scott Aritomo Goto† Strength 4 cruisers 5 destroyers 3 cruisers 2 destroyers Casualties 1 destroyer sunk, 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer heavily damaged, 163 killed[1] 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer sunk, 1 cruiser heavily damaged, 454 killed, 111 captured[2... Combatants United States, Australia, New Zealand Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Isoroku Yamamoto Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 light cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 26 aircraft destroyed, 1,732 killed[1] 2 battleships, 1 heavy cruiser, 3 destroyers, 11... The Battle of Tassafaronga was a naval battle fought between United States and Japanese forces on 30 November 1942. ...


In late August and early September, while battle raged on the Kokoda Track and Guadalcanal, an attack by Japanese marines at the eastern tip of New Guinea was defeated by Australian forces, in the Battle of Milne Bay. This was the first defeat for Japanese land forces during the Pacific War. The Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces (SNLF), (海軍陸戦隊 Tokubetsu Rikusentai) were the marine troops of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and was only part of the IJN Land Forces. ... Combatants Australia, United States (engineering support and minor combat) Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Shojiro Hayashi, Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 2400 Casualties less than 200 dead 600 dead The Battle of Milne Bay was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. Japanese marines...


On January 22, after a bitter battle at Gona and Buna, Australian and U.S. forces took back the major Japanese beachheads in eastern New Guinea. January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia, United States Japan Commanders George Vasey (Australia); Edwin F. Harding/ Robert L. Eichelberger (United States) Ken Yamagata Strength 20,000+ 7,400+ Casualties 3,500 (not counting tropical diseases); 1,300 Australian and 1,000 US personnel killed in action. ...


American authorities declared Guadalcanal secure on February 9. U.S., New Zealand, Australian and Pacific Island forces undertook the prolonged campaign to retake the occupied parts of the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, and the Dutch East Indies, experiencing some of the toughest resistance of the war. The rest of the Solomon Islands were retaken in 1943.


China and Southeast Asia (September 1941 – March 1944)

Lieutenant-General Arthur Percival, led by a Japanese officer, marches under a flag of truce to negotiate the capitulation of Allied forces in Singapore, on February 15, 1942. It was the worst defeat in British history.
Lieutenant-General Arthur Percival, led by a Japanese officer, marches under a flag of truce to negotiate the capitulation of Allied forces in Singapore, on February 15, 1942. It was the worst defeat in British history.

By 1940, the war had reached a stalemate with both sides making minimal gains. The United States provided heavy financial support for China and set up the Flying Tigers air unit to bolster Chinese air forces. Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought... The Battle of Changde (Traditional Chinese: 常德會戰; Simplified Chinese: 常德会战; pinyin: ) was a major engagement in the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... Image File history File links Singaporesurrender. ... Image File history File links Singaporesurrender. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival December 26, 1887 – January 31, 1966. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag ( WW2 photo). ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... This article concerns the American Volunteer Group, a World War II unit usually known as the Flying Tigers. For other uses of the term see Flying Tigers (disambiguation). ...


Japanese forces invaded northern parts of French Indo-China on September 22. The move was not unexpected, and followed a demand for bases in the region made two months earlier. Japanese relations with the west had deteriorated steadily in recent years and United States, having renounced the U.S.-Japanese trade treaty of 1911, placed embargoes on exports to Japan of war and other materials. A trade pact is a wide ranging tax, tariff and trade pact that usually also includes investment guarantees. ...


Less than 24 hours after the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded Hong Kong. The Philippines and the British colonies of Malaya, Borneo, and Burma soon followed, with Japan's intention of seizing the oilfields of the Dutch East Indies. Despite fierce resistance by Philippine, Australian, New Zealand, British, Canadian, Indian, and American forces, all these territories capitulated to the Japanese in a matter of months. Singapore fell to the Japanese on February 15. Approximately 80,000 British Commonwealth personnel (along with 50,000 taken in Malaya), went into Japanese POW camps, representing the largest-ever surrender of British-led personnel. Churchill considered the British defeat at Singapore as one of the most humiliating British defeats of all time.
The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Borneo (left) and Sulawesi. ... The Military of the United States, officially known as the United States Armed Forces, is structured into five branches consisting of the: United States Army United States Navy United States Marine Corps United States Air Force United States Coast Guard All branches are part of the United States Uniformed Services. ... Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought...

The Battle of Changde, called the Stalingrad of the East. China and Japan lost a combined total of 100,000 men in this battle.
The Battle of Changde, called the Stalingrad of the East. China and Japan lost a combined total of 100,000 men in this battle.

Japan launched a major offensive in China following the attack on Pearl Harbor. The aim of the offensive was to take the strategically important city of Changsha, which the Japanese had failed to capture on two previous occasions. For the attack, the Japanese massed 120,000 soldiers under four divisions. The Chinese responded with 300,000 men, and soon the Japanese army was encircled and had to retreat. Image File history File links Changde_battle. ... Image File history File links Changde_battle. ... The Battle of Changde (Traditional Chinese: 常德會戰; Simplified Chinese: 常德会战; pinyin: ) was a major engagement in the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... Mao Zedong Museum in Changsha Changsha (Simplified Chinese: 长沙; Traditional Chinese: 長沙; Pinyin: Chángshā; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ...


The Chinese Nationalist Kuomintang Army, under Chiang Kai-shek, and the Communist Chinese Army, under Mao Zedong, both opposed the Japanese occupation of China, but never truly allied against the Japanese. Conflict between Nationalist and Communist forces emerged long before the war; it continued after and, to an extent, even during the war, though less openly. The Nationalist Party of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name, though almost universally known in English as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys... Two modern armies have been known in English as the Chinese Army: Republic of China Army Peoples Liberation Army For Chinese armies before 1912, see: military history of China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mao redirects here. ...


The Japanese had captured most of Burma, severing the Burma Road by which the Western Allies had been supplying the Chinese Nationalists. This loss forced the Allies to create a large sustained airlift from India, known as "flying the Hump". Under the American General Joseph Stilwell, Chinese forces in India were retrained and re-equipped, while preparations were made to drive the Ledo Road from India to replace the Burma Road. This effort was to prove an enormous engineering task. Burma Road The Burma Road is a road linking Burma (also called Myanmar) with China. ... The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew from India to China to resupply the Flying Tigers and the Chinese Government of Chiang Kai-shek. ... Joseph Warren Stilwell (March 19, 1883 – October 12, 1946) was a United States Army four-star general best-known for his service in China. ... The Northern Combat Area Command or NCAC was a mainly Sino-American formation that held the northern end of the Allied front in Burma during World War II. For much of its existence it was commanded by the acerbic General Joseph Stilwell. ... The Ledo Road was built during World War II so that the Western Allies could continue to supply the Chinese after the Japanese cut the Burma Road. ...


The Atlantic (September 1939 - May 1945)

Main article: Battle of the Atlantic (1939-1945)
The U-Boat U-47 returns from sinking HMS Royal Oak, with the battlecruiser Scharnhorst in the background.
The U-Boat U-47 returns from sinking HMS Royal Oak, with the battlecruiser Scharnhorst in the background.
The only thing that ever really frightened me during the War was the U-boat peril.
 

In the North Atlantic, German U-boats interdicted Allied transatlantic merchant shipping, attempting to cut supply lines to the United Kingdom and the USSR. One U-boat sank the British carrier HMS Courageous, while another managed to sink the battleship HMS Royal Oak in her home anchorage of Scapa Flow. Altogether, the U-boats sank more than 110 vessels in the first four months of the war. Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina (until 1943) Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Percy W. Nelles Leonard W. Murray Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors... Image File history File links Scharnhorst-8. ... Image File history File links Scharnhorst-8. ... Unterseeboot 47 (U-47) was a German type VII B U-Boat (submarine). ... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, sunk early in World War II. She was laid down at Devonport, Devon on 15 January 1914 and launched on 17 November of that year. ... HMS Hood (left) and the battleship HMS Barham (right), in Malta, 1937. ... Gerhard von Scharnhorst was a Prussian general. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Four aircraft carriers, Principe-de-Asturias, USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and HMS Invincible (front-to-back), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier, light V/STOL carriers, and an amphibious carrier. ... HMS Courageous was a warship of the Royal Navy. ... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa. ... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, sunk early in World War II. She was laid down at Devonport, Devon on 15 January 1914 and launched on 17 November of that year. ... Aerial Photo of Scapa Flow Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray, South Ronaldsay and Hoy. ...


In addition to U-boats, surface raiders posed a threat to Allied shipping. In the South Atlantic, the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee sank nine British Merchant Navy vessels. She was tracked down off the coast of South America, then engaged by the cruisers HMS Ajax, HMS Exeter, and HMNZS Achilles in the Battle of the River Plate, and forced into Montevideo Harbor. Rather than face battle again, Captain Langsdorff made for sea and scuttled his battleship just outside the harbor. For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser which served with the Kriegsmarine of Germany during World War II. Originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff), she was later reclassified as a heavy cruiser, and was referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Marine. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... HMS Ajax was a Leander-class light cruiser. ... The fourth and best known of the Exeters, HMS Exeter (68), was a York class heavy cruiser of the Royal Navy that served in World War II. She was laid down on 1 August 1928 at the Devonport Dockyard, Plymouth, Devon. ... HMS Achilles (from 1941 HMNZS Achilles) was a Leander class cruiser of 7,200 tons built in Birkenhead, England and launched on 1 September 1932. ... Combatants Nazi Germany United Kingdom New Zealand Commanders Hans Langsdorff Henry Harwood Strength 1 pocket battleship (Panzerschiffe) Admiral Graf Spee 1 heavy cruiser 2 light cruisers Casualties 1 pocket battleship scuttled 36 killed 1 heavy cruiser Exeter heavily damaged 72 killed The Battle of the River Plate (December 13, 1939... Department Montevideo Department Altitude 43 m Coordinates 34º 53S 56º 10W Founded 1726 Founder Bruno Mauricio de Zabala Population 1,325,968 (2004) (1st) Demonym Montevideano Phone Code +02 Postal Code 10000 Montevideo -pron IPA: is the capital, largest city, and chief port of Uruguay. ... Kapitän zur See Hans Wilhelm Langsdorff (March 20, 1894 – December 19, 1939) was a German naval officer, most famous for his command of the Panzerschiff (pocket battleship) Admiral Graf Spee during the Battle of the River Plate. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ...


On May 24, 1941, the German battleship Bismarck left port, threatening to break out into the Atlantic. She sank HMS Hood, one of the finest battlecruisers in the Royal Navy. A massive hunt ensued, in which the German battleship was sunk after a 1,700-mile (2,700 kilometer) chase, during which the British employed eight battleships and battle cruisers, two aircraft carriers, 11 cruisers, 21 destroyers, and six submarines. Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers from aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal struck the Bismarck, causing her rudder to jam and allowing the pursuing Royal Navy squadrons to sink her. The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ... Three ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Hood after members of the Hood family, which produced several notable Navy officers: HMS Hood (1859) - 91-gun second-rate ship of the line, launched as Edgar. ... Fairey Swordfish The Fairey Swordfish was a torpedo bomber built by the Fairey Aviation Company and used by the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy during World War II. Affectionately known as the Stringbag by its crews, it was outdated by 1939, but achieved some spectacular successes during the... HMS Ark Royal (R07) in Greenwich dock, London This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. ...


Following the entry of the United States into the war in December 1941, U-boats sank shipping along the East Coast of the United States, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. They were initially so successful that this became known among U-boat crews as the Second happy time. Eventually, the institution of shore blackouts and an interlocking convoy system resulted in a drop in attacks and U-boats shifted their operations back to the mid-Atlantic. Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean A Caribbean beach in Isla Margarita, Venezuela. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The second happy time was a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping along the east coast of North America. ... A blackout in time of war, or apprehended war, refers to the practice of collectively minimizing external light, including upward-directed (or reflected) light. ...

A German U-boat under attack by Allied aircraft.

On May 9, 1942 the destroyer HMS Bulldog captured a German U-Boat and recovered a complete, intact Enigma Machine, an encryption device. The machine was taken to Bletchley Park, England, where it was used to break the German code. Thereafter the Allies enjoyed an advantage in that they could intercept and understand some German radio communications, directing naval forces to where they would be most effective. Image File history File linksMetadata Submarine_attack_(AWM_304949). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Submarine_attack_(AWM_304949). ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... Seven vessels of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Bulldog, after the bulldog: The first Bulldog was a small 4-gun vessel bought in March 1794 and sold later in the same year. ... The plugboard, keyboard, lamps and finger-wheels of the rotors emerging from the inner lid of a three-rotor German military Enigma machine (version with labels) In the history of cryptography, the Enigma was a portable cipher machine used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park solved messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ... The history of cryptography dates back thousands of years. ...


In December 1943, the last major sea battle between the Royal Navy and the German Navy took place. At the Battle of North Cape, Germany's last battlecruiser, the Scharnhorst, was sunk by HMS Duke of York, HMS Belfast, and several destroyers. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... Combatants Germany United Kingdom Commanders Erich Bey† Bruce Fraser Strength 1 battleship 5 destroyers 1 battleship 4 cruisers 8 destroyers Casualties 1 battleship sunk 1 battleship lightly damaged 1 heavy cruiser lightly damaged 1 light cruiser lightly damaged 1 destroyer lightly damaged In the World War II naval Battle of... Gerhard von Scharnhorst was a Prussian general. ... HMS Duke of York was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, and the second of the name, the predecessor having been a 4-gun cutter purchased in 1763 and sold in 1766. ... Belfast at her London berth in 2004. ...


The turning point of the Battle of the Atlantic took place in early 1943 as the Allies refined their naval tactics, effectively making use of new technology to counter the U-Boats. The Allies produced ships faster than they were sunk, and lost fewer ships by adopting the convoy system. Improved anti-submarine warfare meant that the life expectancy of a typical U-boat crew would be measured in months. The vastly improved Type 21 U-boat appeared as the war was ending, but too late to affect the outcome. Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina (until 1943) Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Percy W. Nelles Leonard W. Murray Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors... Naval tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemyship or fleet in battle at sea, the naval equivalent of military tactics on land. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ... Anti-submarine warfare (ASW or in older forms A/S) is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft or other submarines to find, track and then damage or destroy enemy submarines. ... World map of life expectancy, 2005 Life expectancy is a statistical measure defined as the expected (mean) survival of human beings based upon a number of criteria such as gender and geographic location. ... Type XXI U-boat U 3008, postwar photo Type XXI U-boats, also known as the Elektroboote, were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as surface ships that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack. ...


The Eastern Front (January 1942 - February 1943)

Operation Blau: German advances from 7 May 1942 to 18 November 1942: ██ to 7 July 1942 ██ to 22 July 1942 ██ to 1 August 1942 ██ to 18 November 1942
Operation Blau: German advances from 7 May 1942 to 18 November 1942: ██ to 7 July 1942 ██ to 22 July 1942 ██ to 1 August 1942 ██ to 18 November 1942

On January 6, 1942, Stalin, confident of his earlier victory, ordered a general counter-offensive. Initially the attacks made good ground as Soviet pincers closed around Demyansk and Vyazma and threatening attacks were made towards Smolensk and Bryansk. But despite these successes the Soviet offensive soon ran out of steam. By March, the Germans had recovered and stabilized their line and secured the neck of the Vyazma Pocket. Only at Demyansk was there any serious prospect of a major Soviet victory. Here a large part of the German 16th Army had been surrounded. Hitler ordered no withdrawal and the 92,000 men trapped in the pocket were to hold their ground while they were re-supplied by air. For 10 weeks they held out until April when a land corridor was opened to the west. The German forces retained Demyansk until they were permitted to withdraw in February 1943. Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... The Battle of Caucasus is a generic name for a series of operations during the Great Patriotic War. ... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 219 KB) Eastern Front (WWII), 1942- 05-07 to 1942- 11-18 Drawn by User:Gdr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 219 KB) Eastern Front (WWII), 1942- 05-07 to 1942- 11-18 Drawn by User:Gdr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Combatants Wehrmacht Red Army Commanders Colonel General Ernst Busch General Kurochkin Strength Unknown 122,100 Casualties Unknown 29,200 The Toropets-Kholm Operation was a military operation ~conducted by the Red Army during the Soviet-German War, from 9th January to 6th February 1942 south of Lake Ilmen. ... Demyansk Pocket (German: die Demjansker Operation, Russian: ) is a name of encirclement of German troops by Red Army near Demyansk (Demjansk), south of Leningrad, during the Second World War, which lasted mainly from February 8 until April 21, 1942. ... The German Sixteenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ...


With the spring both sides decided to resume the offensive. While the German high command decided to stabilize the front at Kharkov, the Soviets unknowingly decided to attack in the same sector to maintain pressure in the south. The Soviets had attacked in Kharkov sector in January and had established a salient on the West Bank of the River Donets. On May 12, the Soviets opened with concentric attacks on either side of Kharkov and in both sides the Soviets broke through German lines and a serious threat to the city emerged. In response, the Germans accelerated the plans for their own offensive and launching it 5 days later. Kharkov (rus: Ха́рьков) or Kharkiv (ukr: Ха́рків) is the second largest city in Ukraine, a center of Kharkivska oblast. It is situated in the northeast of the country and has a population of two million. ... Length 1,050 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge - m³/s Area watershed - km² Origin Russia Mouth Don River Basin countries Russia, Ukraine Donets (Донец), is a tributary of Don River, Russia. ...


The German 6th Army struck at the salient from the south and encircled the entire Soviet army assaulting Kharkov. In the last days of May, the Germans destroyed the forces inside the pocket. Of the Soviet troops inside the pocket, 70,000 were killed, 200,000 captured and only 22,000 managed to escape. The Germans did not realize the scale of the victory they had achieved, and unknown to the Germans, by early June the wide steppes of the Caucuses lay virtually undefended. The Sixth Army was a German field army which saw action in World War I and World War II. It is perhaps best known for its involvement in the Battle of Stalingrad. ...


Hitler had by now realized that his Armies were too weak to carry out an offensive on all sectors of the Eastern Front. But if the Germans could seize the oil and fertile rich area of Southern Russia this would give the Germans the means to continue with the war. In April, Hitler outlined his plans for the main campaign in Russia codenamed Operation Blue. The overall objective of Operation Blue would be the destruction of the Red Army's southern front, consildation of the Ukraine west of the River Volga, and the capture of the Caucaus oil fields. The Germans reinforced Army Group South by transferring divisions from other sectors and getting divisions from Axis allies. By late June, Hitler had 74 Divisions ready to go on the offensive, 54 of them were German. Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ...


The German plan was a three pronged attack in Souther Russia. The 4th Panzer Army (transferred from Army Group North) and the 2nd Army supported by the 2nd Hungarian Army would attack from Kursk to Voronezh and afterwhich they will continue to attack and anchor their left wing around the River Volga. The 6th Army would attack from Kharkov and move in parallel with 4th Panzer Army to reach the River Volga. The 1st Panzer Army would strike towards the lower Don River, flanked on its right by the 17th Army. These movements were expected to result in a series of great encirclements of Soviet troops. The Soviets did not know where the main German offensive of 1942 would come. Stalin was convinced that the German objective of 1942 would be Moscow and over 50% of all Red Army troops were deployed in the Moscow region. Only 10% of Russian troops were deployed in Southern Russia. Kursk (Russian: ; pronunciation: koorsk) is a city in Central Russia, the administrative center of Kursk Oblast. ... Voronezh (Russian: ) is a large city in southwestern Russia, not far from Ukraine. ... Kharkov (rus: Ха́рьков) or Kharkiv (ukr: Ха́рків) is the second largest city in Ukraine, a center of Kharkivska oblast. It is situated in the northeast of the country and has a population of two million. ...


On June 28, 1942, the German offensive began. Everywhere the Russians fell back as the Germans sliced through the Russian defenses. By July 5, forward elements of 4th Panzer Army reached the River Don near Voronezh and got embroiled in a bitter battle to capture the city. The Russians, by tying down 4th Panzer Army gained vital time to reinforce their defenses. The Russians for the first time in the war were not fighting to hold hopelessly exposed positions but were retreating in good order. As German pincers closed in they only found stragglers and rear guards. Angered by the delays, Hitler re-organized Army Group South to two smaller Army Groups, Army Group A which now included the 17th Army, 1st Panzer Army and 4th Panzer Army. Army Group B included 2nd Army, 6th Army and two Italian and Hungarian Armies. The bulk of the Armored forces were now concentrated with Army Group A which was ordered to attack towards the Caucasus oil fields while Army Group B was ordered to capture Stalingrad and guard against any Soviet counter attacks. The transfer of 4th Panzer Army away from 6th Army to help the 1st Panzer Army cross the lower region of the Don River reduced 6th Army's advance to a march giving further time to the Russians to consolidate their positions. Voronezh (Russian: ) is a large city in southwestern Russia, not far from Ukraine. ... Army Group A was the name of a German Army Group during World War II. During the German invasion of the Low Countries and France Army Group A was the southern attacking Army Group. ...


By July 23, the German 6th Army had taken Rostov but Russians fought a skillful rearguard action which embroiled the Germans in heavy urban fighting to take the city. This also allowed the main Russian formations to escape encirclements. With the River Don's crossing secured in the south and with the 6th Army's advance flagging, Hitler send the 4th Panzer Army back to join up with 6th Army. In late July, 6th Army resumed its offensive and by August 10, 6th Army cleared Russian presence from the west bank of the River Don but Russians held out in some areas further delaying 6th Army's march east. In contrast, Army Group A after crossing the River Don on July 25 had fanned out on a broad front. The German 17th Army swung west towards the Black Sea, the 1st Panzer Army attacked towards the south and east sweeping through country largely abandoned by the Russians. On August 9, 1st Panzer Army reached the foothills of the Caucasus mountains, advancing more than 300 miles. Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ...

Soviet soldiers fighting in the ruins of Stalingrad, 1942.
Soviet soldiers fighting in the ruins of Stalingrad, 1942.

The German 6th Army after finally clearing the west bank of the River Don of Russian troops crossed the river on August 21 and began advancing on Stalingrad. Germans bombed the city killing over 40,000 people and turning much of the city into rubble. The 6th Army's advance on Stalingrad from the North while the 4th Panzer Army advanced from the South. Between these armies and in the area from Rover Don to River Volga, a salient had been created. Two Russian Armies were in the salient and on August 29, 4th Panzer Army mounted a major attack through the salient towards Stalingrad. 6th Army was ordered to do the same but Russians mounted major attacks against 6th Army from the North which tied up 6th Army for 3 vital days enabling the Soviet forces in the salient to escape encirclement and fall back towards Stalingrad. The Russians who by now had realized that the German plan was the seizure of the oil fields began sending large number of troops from the Moscow sector to reinforce their troops in the South. Zhukov assumed command of the Stalingrad front and in early September and mounted a series of attacks from the North which further delayed the 6th Army's attempt to seize Stalingrad. By mid-September, the 6th Army after neutralizing the Soviet counterattacks once again resumed to capture the city. On September 13, the Germans advanced through the southern suburbs and by September 23, 1942, the main factory complex was surrounded and the German artillery was within range of the quays on the river, across which the Soviets evacuated wounded and brought in reinforcements. Ferocious street fighting, hand-to-hand conflict of the most savage kind, now ensued at Stalingrad. Exhaustion and deprivation gradually sapped men's strength. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and... Street fighting is a term used to denote spontaneous, hand-to-hand fighting in public places. ...


Von Paulus's 6th Army was not designed to fight a battle in an urban environment asked Hitler to withdraw to re-organize his forces but Hitler, who had become obsessed with the battle of Stalingrad, refused to countenance a withdrawal. General Paulus, in desperation, using his last remaining reserves launched yet another attack early in November by which time the Germans had managed to capture 90% of the city. The Soviets, however, had been building up massive forces on the flanks of Stalingrad which were by this time severely undermanned as the bulk of the German forces had been concentrated in capturing the city and Axis satellite troops were left guarding the flanks. The Soviets launched Operation Uranus on November 19, 1942, with twin attacks that struck through the Axis flank and met at the city of Kalach four days, encircling the 6th Army in Stalingrad. Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus (September 23, 1890, Breitenau –February 1, 1957, Dresden) was a German general, later promoted to field marshal, during World War II. Paulus was the son of a schoolteacher. ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Kalach-na-Donu (Russian: ), or Kalach-on-the-Don, is a town in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the Don River 85 km west of Volgograd at . ...

The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus.
The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus.

The Germans requested permission to attempt a breakout, which was refused by Hitler, who ordered the Sixth Army to remain in Stalingrad where he promised they would be supplied by air until rescued. About the same time, the Soviets launched Operation Mars in a salient near the vicinity of Moscow. Its objective was to tie down Army Group Center and to prevent it from reinforcing Army Group South at Stalingrad. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 227 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1942-11-18 to March 1943 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Uranus Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 227 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1942-11-18 to March 1943 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Uranus Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... The 6. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ... Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ...


Meanwhile, Army Group A's advance into the Caucasus had stalled as Russians had destroyed the oil production facilities and a year's work was required to bring them back up and the remaining oil fields lay south of the Caucasus Mountains. Throughout August and September, German Mountain troops probed for a way through but by October with the onset of winter, they were no closer to their objective. With German troops encircled in Stalingrad, Army Group A began to fall back.


By December, Field Marshal von Manstein hastily put together a German relief force of units composed from Army Group A to relieve the trapped Sixth Army. Unable to get reinforcements from Army Group Center, the relief force only managed to get within 50 kilometers (30 mi) before they were turned back by the Soviets. By the end of the year, the Sixth Army was in desperate condition, as the Luftwaffe was able to supply only about a sixth of the supplies needed. Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Shortly before surrendering to the Red Army on February 2, 1943, Friedrich Paulus was promoted to Field Marshal. This was a message from Hitler, because no German Field Marshal had ever surrendered his troops or been taken alive. Of the 300,000 strong 6th Army, only 91,000 survived to be taken prisoner, including 22 generals, of which only 5,000 men ever returned to Germany after the war. This was to be the greatest, and most costly, battle in terms of human life in history. Around 2 million men were killed or wounded on both sides, including civilians, with Axis casualties estimated to be approximately 850,000. February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Friedrich Paulus. ... Shoulder boards of a Generalfeldmarschall Generalfeldmarschall ( â–¶(?)) (General Field Marshal, usually translated simply as Field Marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and Austrian Empire. ... World Map with the participants in World War II. The Allies depicted in green (those in light green entered after the Attack on Pearl Harbor), the Axis Powers in orange (including occupied or annexed countries), and neutral countries in grey. ...


The Western Front (September 1940 – June 1944)

Picture taken after the failed Canadian assault on the beach at Dieppe.
Picture taken after the failed Canadian assault on the beach at Dieppe.

Apart from Italy, Western Europe saw very little fighting from September 1940-June 1944. British and Canadian forces launched a small raid on the occupied French seaport of Dieppe, on August 19, 1942, whose aim was to test and gain information for an invasion of Europe which would happen later in the war. The Dieppe Raid was a total disaster but it provided critical information about amphibious tactics which would be utilized later in Operation Torch and Operation Overlord. Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... Image File history File links British_Landing_Craft_on_Beach_at_Dieppe. ... Image File history File links British_Landing_Craft_on_Beach_at_Dieppe. ... Dieppe is the name of several places and events: Dieppe, France (pop. ... Dieppe is a town and commune in the Seine-Maritime département of Haute-Normandie (eastern Normandy), France. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts  ? Strength 6086 1500 Casualties Canada: 907 dead, 2340 captured; United Kingdom: 555+; United States:3+; Germany: 311 dead, 280 missing The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe or Operation Jubilee, during World War II, was an... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation TORCH (initially called Operation GYMNAST) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free French Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B...


In December 1941, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor which brought the United States into the war, Churchill and Roosevelt met at the Arcadia Conference. They agreed that defeating Germany had priority over defeating Japan. To relieve German pressure on the Soviet Union, the United States proposed a 1942 cross-channel invasion of France. The British opposed this, suggesting instead a small invasion of Norway or landings in French North Africa. The Declaration by the United Nations was issued, and the Western Allies invaded North Africa first. The Arcadia Conference (ARCADIA was the code name used for the conference), held in Washington, D.C. was a World War II strategic meeting from December 22, 1941 to January 14, 1942 between the heads of government of the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1, 1942 by 26 governments, several of them governments-in-exile. ...


With the entry of the United States into the War, the aerial war turned in favor of the Allies by late 1942. The U.S. air force began the first daylight bombing of Germany, which allowed far more precise targeting, but exposed the bombers to more danger than night bombing. Meanwhile the British and the Canadians targeting German cities and war industries for night bombing. This effort was orchestrated by Air Chief Marshall Harris, who became known as "Bomber Harris". Additionally, Winston Churchill ordered "terror raids" intended to wipe out whole cities in one go, by incendiary devices causing firestorms, thus depriving German workers of their homes. Mass raids involving upwards of 500 to 1000 heavy bombers at a time were undertaken against airfields, industrial centers, submarine bases, rail-marshalling yards, oil depots and, in the later stages of the war, launching sites for weapons such as the V-1 missile (nicknamed 'doodlebug'), the V-2 rocket and a jet-engined plane, the Messerschmitt Me 262. The Luftwaffe was overwhelmed and by 1945, all major German cities were burnt-out ruins. Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet GCB OBE AFC RAF (April 13, 1892 - April 5, 1984), commonly known as Bomber Harris by the press, and often within the RAF as Butcher Harris[1], was commander of RAF Bomber Command and later a Marshal of... The B-52 Stratofortress, a heavy bomber. ... The Vergeltungswaffe 1 Fi 103 / FZG-76 (V-1), known as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first modern guided missile used in wartime and the first cruise missile. ... German test launch. ... The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (German Swallow) was the worlds first operational jet-powered fighter. ...

The remains of German town of Wesel after intensive allied area bombing in 1945 (destruction rate 97% of all buildings).
The remains of German town of Wesel after intensive allied area bombing in 1945 (destruction rate 97% of all buildings).

The Allies also began sabotage missions against Germany such as Operation Anthropoid in which Reinhard Heydrich, the architect of the Final Solution was assassinated in May 1942 by Czech resistance agents flown in from the United Kingdom. Hitler ordered severe reprisals against the occupants of the nearby Czechoslovakian village of Lidice. All the while, the Allies continued to build up their forces in the United Kingdom for an eventual invasion of Western Europe which was planned for late spring or early summer of 1944. Image File history File links Wesel_1945. ... Image File history File links Wesel_1945. ... Wesel is a city (population about 61,689 in 2004) in Germany, located at the point where the Lippe River empties into the Rhine. ... Reinhard Heydrich, the target of Operation Anthropoid. ... Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer. ... In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... Lidice (Liditz in German) is a village in former Czechoslovakia (now in the Czech Republic) which was completely destroyed by the Nazis during World War II. About 340 men, women and children from the village were murdered by the Nazis. ...


The Mediterranean (May 1943 – March 1945)

The surrender of Axis forces in Tunisia on May 13, 1943, yielded some 250,000 prisoners. The North African war proved to be a disaster for Italy, and when the Allies invaded Sicily on July 10 in Operation Husky, capturing the island in a little over a month, the regime of Benito Mussolini collapsed. On July 25, he was removed from office by Victor Emmanuel III, the King of Italy, and arrested with the positive consent of the Great Fascist Council. A new government, led by Pietro Badoglio, took power and declared ostensibly that Italy would stay in the war. Badoglio had already begun secret peace negotiations with the Allies. Artillery being landed during the invasion of mainland Italy at Salerno, September 1943. ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Australia India Nazi Germany Fascist Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery George S. Patton, Jr. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), as well as putative Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ...


The Allies invaded mainland Italy on September 3, 1943. Italy surrendered to the Allies on September 8, as had been agreed in negotiations. The royal family and Badoglio government escaped to the south, leaving the Italian army without orders, while the Germans took over the fight, forcing the Allies to a complete halt in the winter of 1943–44 at the Gustav Line south of Rome. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... Ariete Tanks of the Italian Ariete Tank Brigade on exercise Three Bersaglieri ride in a Dardo The Italian Army has recently become a professional all-volunteer force of 112,000 active duty personnel. ... The Winter Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban...


In the north, Mussolini, with Nazi support, created what was effectively a puppet state, the Italian Social Republic or Republic of Salò, named after the new capital of Salò on Lake Garda. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... Salo (Italian: Salò) is a small town in the Province of Brescia in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy on the banks of Lake Garda. ... Lake Garda Riva del Garda Punta San Vigilio View from Gargnano Lake Garda from space Lake Garda (Italian Lago di Garda) is the largest lake in Italy. ...

Cassino is destroyed after heavy bombardment.
Cassino is destroyed after heavy bombardment.

Mid-1943 brought the fifth and final German Sutjeska offensive against the Yugoslav partisans. Source: http://www. ... Source: http://www. ... The Sutjeska offensive in mid-1943 was a joint attack of the Axis forces that aimed to destroy the Yugoslav partisan force, near the Sutjeska river in southeastern Bosnia. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ...


Following Italy's surrender, German troops took over the defense of the Italian peninsula and established the Gustav line in the southern Apennine Mountains south of Rome. The Allies were unable to break this line, and so attempted to bypass it with an amphibious landing at Anzio on January 22, 1944. The landing, named Operation Shingle, quickly became encircled by the Germans and bogged down, leading Churchill to comment, "Instead of hurling a wildcat onto the shore all we got was a stranded whale." Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... // Anzio is a city and resort on the coast of the Lazio region of Italy, about 33 miles south of Rome. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants British Empire, United States Germany Commanders John P. Lucas Albert Kesselring Strength 50,000 soldiers 5,000 vehicles 100,000 soldiers Casualties 29,200 combat casualties (4,400 killed, 18,000 wounded, 6,800 prisoners or missing) 27,500 (5,500 killed, 17,500 wounded, and 4,500 prisoners...


Unable to circumvent the Gustav line, the Allies again attempted to break through with frontal assaults. On February 15, the monastery of Monte Cassino, founded in 524 by St. Benedict was destroyed by American B-17 and B-26 bombers. Crack German paratroopers poured back into the ruins to defend it. From January 12 to May 18, it was assaulted four times by Allied troops, for a loss of over 54,000 Allied and 20,000 German soldiers. Combatants United States United Kingdom Poland New Zealand Canada Free France India and others Germany Commanders Harold Alexander Mark Clark Oliver Leese Albert Kesselring Heinrich von Vietinghoff Frido von Senger Strength 105,000 80,000 Casualties 54,000 20,000 The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle... The restored Abbey. ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the U.S. Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... Martin B-26 Marauder See A-26 Invader for the plane known as the B-26 from 1948 to 1962. ...


After months, the Gustav line was broken and the Allies marched north. On June 4, Rome was liberated, and the Allied army reached Florence in August. It then was held at the Gothic Line on the Tuscan Apennines during the winter. June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Florences skyline Florences skyline at night from Piazza Michaelangelo Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... German defensive positions in Northern Italy 1944 370th Infantry Regiment walking toward the mountains at north of Prato - april 1945 The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings last line of defence along the summits of the Apennines during the fighting retreat of Nazi...


The Eastern Front (February 1943 – January 1945)

Soviet soldiers crossing the River Dneiper under German fire.
Soviet soldiers crossing the River Dneiper under German fire.

After the surrender of the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad on February 2, 1943, the Red Army launched eight offensives during the winter. Many were concentrated along the Don basin near Stalingrad. These attacks resulted in initial gains until German forces were able to take advantage of the over extended and weakened condition of the Red Army and launch a counter attack to re-capture the city of Kharkov and surrounding areas. This was to be the last major strategic German victory of World War II. Combatants Soviet Union Axis powers Commanders Filipp Golikov Nikolay Vatutin Erich von Manstein †Theodor Eicke Strength 300,000 men 160,000 men Casualties Voronezh Front: army of Popov: 3,000 KIA, 11,000 WIA, Southwestern Front: 20,000 KIA, 90,000 WIA, 9,000 POWs, finally battles: 25,000 KIA... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Hans von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry, 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry, 2,400 aircraft Casualties German Kursk : 50,000 dead, wounded... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Rokossovsky, Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 370,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 350,000 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive[1... Image File history File linksMetadata Dnieper_Forcing_Boats. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dnieper_Forcing_Boats. ... Waffen-SS Panzergrenadiers of the 3rd SS-Panzer-Division Totenkopf, discussing an offensive action with a Tiger commander of 9. ... Waffen-SS Panzergrenadiers of the 3rd SS-Panzer-Division Totenkopf, discussing an offensive action with a Tiger commander of 9. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... This article needs cleanup. ... First Tiger I tank captured near Tunis The Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausf. ... SS-Division Totenkopf Kampfgruppe Eicke 3. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Hans von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry, 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry, 2,400 aircraft Casualties German Kursk : 50,000 dead, wounded... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ...


The rains of spring inhibited campaigning in the Soviet Union, but both sides used the interval to build up for the inevitable battle that would come in the summer. The start date for the offensive had been moved repeatedly as delays in preparation had forced the Germans to postpone the attack. By July 4, the Wehrmacht, after assembling their greatest concentration of firepower during the whole of World War II, launched their offensive against the Soviet Union at the Kursk salient. Their intentions were known by the Soviets, who hastened to defend the salient with an enormous system of earthwork defenses. The Germans attacked from both the north and south of the salient and hoped to meet in the middle, cutting off the salient and trapping 60 Soviet divisions. The German offensive in the Northern sector was ground down as little progress was made through the Soviet defenses but in the Southern Sector there was a danger of a German breakthrough. The Soviets then brought up their reserves to contain the German thrust in the Southern sector, and the ensuing Battle of Kursk became the largest tank battle of the war, near the city of Prokhorovka. The Germans lacking any sizable reserves had exhausted their armored forces and could not stop the Soviet counteroffensive that threw them back across their starting positions. For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... Kursk (Russian: ; pronunciation: koorsk) is a city in Central Russia, the administrative center of Kursk Oblast. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Hans von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry, 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry, 2,400 aircraft Casualties German Kursk : 50,000 dead, wounded... --152. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Armoured warfare. ...


The Soviets captured Kharkov following their victory at Kursk and with the Autumn rains threatening, Hitler agreed to a general withdrawal to the Dnieper line in August. As September proceeded into October, the Germans found the Dnieper line impossible to hold as the Soviet bridgeheads grew. Important Dnieper towns started to fall, with Zaporozhye the first to go, followed by Dnepropetrovsk. Early in November the Soviets broke out of their bridgeheads on either side of Kiev and recaptured the Ukrainian capital. The 1st Ukrainian Front attacked at Korosten on Christmas Eve, and the Soviet advance continued along the railway line until the 1939 Soviet-Polish border was reached. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ... Rail tracks. ...

Soviet advances from August 1943 to December 1944.
Soviet advances from August 1943 to December 1944.

The Soviets launched their winter offensive in January 1944 in the Northern sector and relieved the brutal siege of Leningrad. The Germans conducted an orderly retreat from the Leningrad area to a shorter line based on the lakes to the south. By March the Soviets struck into Romania from Ukraine. The Soviet forces encircled the First Panzer Army north of the Dniestr river. The Germans escaped the pocket in April, saving most of their men but losing their heavy equipment. During April, the Red Army launched a series of attacks near the city of Iaşi, Romania, aimed at capturing the strategically important sector which they hoped to use as a springboard into Romania for a summer offensive. The Soviets were held back by the German and Romanian forces when they launched the attack through the forest of Târgul Frumos as Axis forces successfully defended the sector through the month of April. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 283 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-08-01 to 1944-12-31 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Operation Bagration Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 283 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-08-01 to 1944-12-31 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Operation Bagration Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhem von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada Leningrada... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Panzer Group Kleist Panzer Group 1 First Panzer Army The First Panzer Army (German ) was a German tank army that fought during World War II. When formed the First Panzer Army was named Panzer Group Kleist (Panzergruppe Kleist) and was activated on November 16, 1940 with Field Marshal Ewald von... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... County IaÅŸi County Status Town Mayor Gheorghe Tătaru, since 2004 Area 15. ...


As Soviet troops neared Hungary, German troops occupied Hungary on March 20. Hitler thought that Hungarian leader Admiral Miklós Horthy might no longer be a reliable ally. Germany's other Axis ally, Finland had sought a separate peace with Stalin in February 1944, but would not accept the initial terms offered. On June 9, the Soviet Union began the Fourth strategic offensive on the Karelian Isthmus that, after three months, forced Finland to accept an armistice. March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya, Duke of Szeged and Otranto (Hungarian: Vitéz* nagybányai Horthy Miklós, Szeged és Otranto hercege; Kenderes, June 18, 1868 – Estoril, February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Karl Lennart Oesch Leonid Govorov Kirill Meretskov Strength 268,000 375,000 Casualties 18,000 killed, 45,000 wounded, 3,000 prisoners 40,000 killed, 130,000 wounded During World War II, in the Continuation War, the Fourth Strategic Offensive was... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ...


Before the Soviet could begin their Summer offensive into Belarus they had to clear the Crimea peninsula of Axis forces. Remnants of the German Seventeenth Army of Army Group South and some Romanian forces were cut off and left behind in the peninsula when the Germans retreated from the Ukraine. In early May, the Red Army's 3rd Ukrainian Front attacked the Germans and the ensuing battle was a complete victory of the Soviet forces and a botched evacuation effort across the Black Sea by Germany failed. The Southernwestern Front was one of the Soviet Army fronts during the World War II. In 1941 it took part in the tank battles in western Ukraine and the defensive operation around Kiev, in which the Front Chief of Staff General Mikhail Kirponos was killed and the entire Front captured... NASA satelite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Ruins of the Bank Polski after the Warsaw Uprising.
Ruins of the Bank Polski after the Warsaw Uprising.

With the Crimea cleared, the long awaited Soviet summer offensive codenamed, Operation Bagration, began on June 22, 1944 which involved 2.5 million men and 6,000 tanks. Its objective was to clear German troops from Belarus and crush German Army Group Center which was defending that sector. The offensive was timed to coincide with the Allied landings in Normandy but delays caused the offensive to be postponed for a few weeks. The subsequent battle resulted in the destruction of German Army Group Centre and over 800,000 German casualties, the greatest defeat for the Wehrmacht during the war. The Soviets swept forward, reaching the outskirts of Warsaw on July 31. Ruins of Bank Polski area during the Warsaw Uprising, see also Image:Uprising bank polski. ... Ruins of Bank Polski area during the Warsaw Uprising, see also Image:Uprising bank polski. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Antoni Chruściel, Tadeusz Pełczyński Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, Bronislav Kaminski Strength 50,000 troops 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed 10,000 killed... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ...


The proximity of the Red Army led the Poles in Warsaw to believe they would soon be liberated. On August 1, they revolted as part of the wider Operation Tempest. Nearly 40,000 Polish resistance fighters seized control of the city. The Soviets, however, did not advance any further. [1] The only assistance given to the Poles was artillery fire, as German army units moved into the city to put down the revolt. The resistance ended on October 2. German units then destroyed most of what was left of the city. August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ...

Bucharesters greet Romania's new ally, the Red Army, on 31 August 1944.
Bucharesters greet Romania's new ally, the Red Army, on 31 August 1944.

Following the destruction of German Army Group Center, the Soviets attacked German forces in the south in mid-July 1944, and in a month's time they cleared Ukraine of German presence inflicting heavy losses on the Germans. Once Ukraine had been cleared the Soviet forces struck into Romania. The Red Army's 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts engaged German Heeresgruppe Südukraine, which consisted of German and Romanian formations, in an operation to occupy Romania and destroy the German formations in the sector. The result of the Battle of Romania was a complete victory for the Red Army, and a switch of Romania from the Axis to the Allied camp. Bulgaria surrendered to the Red Army in September. Following the German retreat from Romania, the Soviets entered Hungary in October 1944 but the German Sixth Army encircled and destroyed three corps of Marshal Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky's Group Pliyev near Debrecen, Hungary. The rapid assault the Soviets had hoped that would lead to the capture of Budapest was now halted and Hungary would remain Germany's ally until the end of the war in Europe. This battle would be the last German victory in the Eastern Front. Image File history File links Red_Army_greeted_in_Bucharest. ... Image File history File links Red_Army_greeted_in_Bucharest. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 228 km² Population (2003) 2,082,000[1] Density 9131. ... The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht Heeresgruppe Südukraine, Romanian Army Commanders Marshal Semyon Timoshenko Generaloberst Friessner Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... Combatants Germany Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Johannes Friessner (Heeresgruppe Süd), Maximilian Fretter-Pico (6. ...


The Soviets recovered from their defeat in Debrecen and advancing columns of the Red Army liberated Belgrade in late December and reached Budapest on December 29, 1944 and en-circled the city where over 188,000 Axis troops were trapped including many German Waffen-SS. The Germans held out till February 13, 1945 and the siege became one of the bloodiest of the war. Meanwhile the Red Army's 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Baltic Fronts engaged the remnants of German Army Group Center and Army Group North to capture the Baltic region from the Germans in October 1944. The result of the series of battles was a permanent loss of contact between Army Groups North and Centre, and the creation of the Courland Pocket in Latvia where the 18th and 16th German Armies, numbering over 250,000 men were trapped and would remain there till the end of the war. December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-08-01 to 1944-12-31 In 1944 some 200,000 German soldiers were trapped in the Courland Pocket by the Red Army of the Soviet Union. ... The German Eighteenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The German Sixteenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ...


The Pacific (June 1943 – July 1945)

U.S. Air force attacked Japan by using massive incendiary bombs against Japanese cities during the war with hundreds of planes flying at low altitudes.
U.S. Air force attacked Japan by using massive incendiary bombs against Japanese cities during the war with hundreds of planes flying at low altitudes.

On June 30, the Allies launched Operation Cartwheel, a grand strategy for the South and South West Pacific, aimed at isolating the major Japanese base at Rabaul, before proceeding on an "island-hopping" campaign towards Japan. Three main objectives were identified: recapturing Tulagi and the Santa Cruz Islands; recapturing the north coast of New Guinea, and the central Solomon Islands and; the reduction of Rabaul and related bases. The New Guinea campaign was one of the major military campaigns of World War II. Fighting in the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea (the north-eastern part of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands) and Dutch New Guinea, between Allied and Japanese forces, commenced with the Japanese... The Solomon Islands Campaign was a large series of battles that occurred in the Pacific Theater of World War II. This was the first large-scale campaign in the War in the Pacific, and the victories achieved by the Americans in the battles of this campaign helped secure vital bases... In the Pacific Theater of World War II, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaigns, from November 1943 through February 1944, were the first offensive operations of the United States Navy and Marine Corps in the Central Pacific. ... In the Pacific theater of World War II, the American Marianas Campaign, known as Operation Forager, pushed westward from the Marshall Islands in the summer of 1944 to capture the islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 22,000 Casualties 4,197 killed[1] 19,189 wounded[1] 1,401 died of wounds[1] 494 missing[1] 20,703 killed[1] 216 captured[1] The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought by the... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner, Jr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x896, 89 KB) Description: B-29s dropping bombs over Japan Source: National Park Service - Disclaimer Post-Work: User:W.wolny Licence: Public Domain File links The following pages link to this file: Curtis LeMay ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x896, 89 KB) Description: B-29s dropping bombs over Japan Source: National Park Service - Disclaimer Post-Work: User:W.wolny Licence: Public Domain File links The following pages link to this file: Curtis LeMay ... The eastern part of the Territory of New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands; the area in which Operation Cartwheel took place, from June 1943. ... A view from Rabaul Volcano Observatory across the relatively undamaged western half of Rabaul and towards Tavurur Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, was the headquarters of German New Guinea and then the Australian mandatory territory of New Guinea from 1910 until 1937, the base of Japanese activities in the South Pacific... This image portrays the island hop of Christopher Columbuss second voyage to the Caribbean. ... Tulagi, less commonly Tulaghi, is a small island (5. ... The Santa Cruz Islands are a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, part of the nation of the Solomon Islands. ...


By September, Australian and U.S. forces in New Guinea had captured the major Japanese bases at Salamaua and Lae. Soon afterwards they launched the Huon Peninsula, the Finisterre Range, Bougainville, and New Britain campaigns. Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Hatazô Adachi Strength ~30,000 ~10,000 Casualties  ?  ? The Salamaua-Lae campaign was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. Australian and United States forces sought to capture two major Japanese bases, one in... The Huon Peninsula campaign was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. Australian forces assaulted a Japanese bases on the Huon Peninsula. ... The Finisterre Range campaign was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. Australian and United States forces assaulted Japanese positions in the Finisterre Range of New Guinea. ... Combatants United States Australia New Zealand Fiji Empire of Japan Commanders Roy Geiger Theodore S. Wilkinson Oscar Griswold Stanley Savige Harukichi Hyakutake Masatane Kanda Strength 126,000 troops,[1] 728 aircraft[2] 65,000 troops,[3] 154 aircraft[4] Casualties 1,243 dead[5] 44,000 dead[6] The Bougainville... Australian soldiers in New Britain in 1945 (AWM 092342) The New Britain Campaign was a World War II campaign fought by the Allies between December 1943 and the end of the war to secure and protect air bases on the island of New Britain. ...


In November, U.S. Marines won the Battle of Tarawa. This was the first heavily opposed amphibious assault in the Pacific theater. The high casualties taken by the Marines sparked off a storm of protest in the United States, where the large losses could not be understood for such a tiny and seemingly unimportant island. The Allies adopted a policy of bypassing some Japanese island strongholds and letting them "wither on the vine", cut off from supplies and troop reinforcements. The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Julian Smith Shibasaki Keiji † Strength 35,000 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese workers and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,001 killed, 2,296 wounded 4,713 Japanese & Korean killed 17 POWs and 129 Koreans freed The Battle of Tarawa was a battle in... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... The Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) is the term used in the United States for all military activity in the Pacific Ocean and the countries bordering it, in World War II. Pacific War is a more common name, around the world, for the broader conflict between the Allies and Japan...


The Allied advance continued in the Pacific with the capture of the Marshall Islands before the end of February. Some 42,000 U.S. Army soldiers and U.S. Marines landed on Kwajalein atoll on January 31. Fierce fighting occurred, and the island was taken on February 6. U.S. Marines next defeated the Japanese in the Battle of Eniwetok. The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Kwajalein Atoll - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kwajalein Atoll (Marshallese: Kuwajleen) is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Battle of Eniwetok Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date 17 February 1944 – 23 February 1944 Place Eniwetok Atoll, United States Japan Commanders Harry W. Hill Yoshimi Nishida Strength 2 regiments 2,000+ Casualties 339 killed or missing, 757 wounded 2,000+ dead, 16 captured The Battle of Eniwetok...


The U.S. strategic objective was to gain airbases within bombing range of the new B-29s on the Mariana Islands, especially Saipan, Tinian and Guam. On June 11, the U.S. Naval fleet bombarded Saipan, defended by 32,000 Japanese troops; 77,000 Marines landed starting the 15th, and the island was secure by July 9. The Japanese committed much of their declining naval strength in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, but suffered severe losses in both ships and aircraft. After the battle, the Japanese aircraft carrier force was no longer militarily effective. With the capture of Saipan, Japan was finally within range of B-29 bombers. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrone Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean, in about 12 to 21 N... Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aquijan Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and site of the capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, a chain of 15 tropical islands in the western Pacific Ocean (15°10’51”N, 145... Saipan, Tinian & Aguiguan (Click to enlarge) The atom bomb pit on Tinians North Field, where Little Boy was loaded aboard the Enola Gay(Click to enlarge) Tinian Shinto shrine. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 7 heavy carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 6 heavy carriers, 3 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties 123 planes...


Guam was invaded on July 21 and taken on August 10, but the Japanese fought fanatically. Mopping-up operations continued long after the Battle of Guam was officially over. The island of Tinian was invaded on July 24 and was conquered on August 1. This operation saw the first use of napalm in the war.[citation needed] July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Roy S. Geiger, Takeshi Takashima, Hideyoshi Obata Strength 2 divisions 18,500 Casualties 3,000 killed, 7,122 wounded 18,000+ killed, 485 POWs The Battle of Guam was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Guam... Saipan, Tinian & Aguiguan (Click to enlarge) The atom bomb pit on Tinians North Field, where Little Boy was loaded aboard the Enola Gay(Click to enlarge) Tinian Shinto shrine. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during a 2003 air show. ...

"I have returned." — A famous photo of Gen. MacArthur coming ashore back to the Philippines. Photo taken by Carl Mydans of Life magazine.
"I have returned." — A famous photo of Gen. MacArthur coming ashore back to the Philippines. Photo taken by Carl Mydans of Life magazine.

General MacArthur's troops liberated the Philippines, landing on the island of Leyte on October 20. The Japanese had prepared a rigorous defense and used the last of their naval forces in a failed attempt to destroy the invasion force in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, October 23 through October 26, 1944, arguably the largest naval battle in history. This was the first battle that employed Japanese kamikaze attacks. The Japanese battleship Musashi, one of the two largest battleships ever built, was sunk by 19 American torpedoes and 17 bombs. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Leyte can refer to several things: Leyte, an island in the Phillipines, site of a major World War II battle Leyte Gulf, also in the Phillipines, and site of a WW II battle Leyte province, a province of the Phillipines, including most of Leyte island Southern Leyte, a province of... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The question of the the largest naval battle in history is controversial, and depends on the definition of battle and the criteria used to assess the size, such as personnel, the number of ships, their tonnage, the area involved, and the duration. ... It has been suggested that Personnel involved in the development of World War II suicide attacks be merged into this article or section. ... Musashi (武蔵), named after the ancient Japanese Musashi Province, was a battleship belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was the second and final ship of the Yamato class to be completed as a battleship. ...


Throughout 1944, Allied submarines and aircraft attacked Japanese merchant shipping and deprived Japan's industry of the raw materials it had gone to war to obtain. The main target was oil, and Japan ran almost dry by late 1944. In 1944, submarines sank over two million tons of cargo,[9] while the Japanese were only able to replace less than one million tons.[10]


In January 1945, the U.S. Sixth Army landed on Luzon, the main island of the Philippines. Manila was recaptured by March. Shoulder sleeve insignia of the U.S. Sixth Army. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ...


The United States captured Iwo Jima in February. The island was psychologically important because it was traditional Japanese territory, administered by the Tokyo prefecture. It was heavily defended with many underground entrenchments, but was eventually taken by Marines after they captured Mount Suribachi, a keystone of the defense. Iwo Jima proved invaluable because of its two airfields that were used for emergency landings for B29's and because it was close enough to provide fighter escort that could reach the Japanese Home Islands.[11] Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 22,000 Casualties 4,197 killed[1] 19,189 wounded[1] 1,401 died of wounds[1] 494 missing[1] 20,703 killed[1] 216 captured[1] The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought by the... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ...

USS Franklin badly damaged after sustained kamikaze attacks in March 1945 just before the Battle of Okinawa.
USS Franklin badly damaged after sustained kamikaze attacks in March 1945 just before the Battle of Okinawa.

With the subsequent capture of Okinawa (April through June), the U.S. brought the Japanese homeland within easier range of naval and air attack. The Japanese defended the island with ground forces, kamikazes, and with the one-way suicide mission of the battleship Yamato, which was sunk by American dive-bombers. Amongst dozens of other Japanese cities, Tokyo was firebombed, and about 90,000 people died from the initial attack. The dense living conditions around production centres and the wooden residential constructions contributed to the large loss of life. In addition, the ports and major waterways of Japan were extensively mined by air in Operation Starvation, which seriously disrupted the logistics of the island nation. PD USN photo of USS Franklin listing March 1945, #80-G-273880, collected from http://www. ... PD USN photo of USS Franklin listing March 1945, #80-G-273880, collected from http://www. ... The fifth USS Franklin (CV-13) (also CVA-13, CVS-13, and AVT-8), nicknamed Big Ben, was an Essex-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, notable as the hardest-hit carrier to survive World War II. The actual kamikaze attacks on the ship are depicted in the... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner, Jr. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner, Jr. ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... Operation Starvation was an American mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Force, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined by air in order to disrupt enemy shipping. ... An island nation is a country that is wholly confined to an island or islands. ...


The last major offensive in the South West Pacific Area was the Borneo campaign of mid-1945, which was aimed at further isolating the remaining Japanese forces in Southeast Asia and securing the release of Allied prisoners of war. South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area, during World War II. In a series of amphibious assaults between May 1 and July 21, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. ...


China and Southeast Asia (March 1944 – June 1945)

Main articles: Battle of Henan-Hunan-Guangxi and Battle of Imphal
The Indian Army's Gurkha Rifles crossing the Irrawaddy River on 27 January 1945. The Gurkhas were involved in hard fought actions with the Japanese during the early months of 1945.
The Indian Army's Gurkha Rifles crossing the Irrawaddy River on 27 January 1945. The Gurkhas were involved in hard fought actions with the Japanese during the early months of 1945.

In April 1944, the Japanese launched Operation Ichigo, to secure the railway route from Peking to Nanking, and to clear southern China of American airfields under the command of General Chennault.[12] The operation was successful in that it opened a continuous corridor from Peking to Indochina, and the airfields were forced to relocate inland. However it failed to destroy the army of Chiang Kai-shek, and the Americans soon acquired the Marianas, from which they could bomb the Japanese Home Islands. Combatants National Revolutionary Army Japan Commanders General Wei Lihuang Lt. ... The Battle of Imphal took place in Manipur district of North East India from April until June 1944. ... Image File history File links Royal_Indian_Army. ... Image File history File links Royal_Indian_Army. ... The Indian Army is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of India and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations. ... Gorkha regiments have been serving in the Indian Army ever since independence in 1947, when the Tripartite Agreement was signed. ... The Irrawaddy (newer spelling Ayeyarwaddy) is a river that flows through the centre of Myanmar (formerly Burma). It is Myanmars most important commercial waterway. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Japan Commanders General Wei Lihuang Lt. ... Maj. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrone Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean, in about 12 to 21 N... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ...


While the Americans steadily built the Ledo Road from India to China, in March 1944, the Japanese began their own offensive into India. This 'March to Delhi' was initiated by Subhas Chandra Bose[13],the commander of Indian National Army (a force comprised of POWs from the British Indian Army who had been captured by the Japanese and had decided to join the war in an attempt to rid India of their colonial rulers, and thereby attain independence)[14]. The Japanese attempted to destroy the main British and Indian forces at Imphal, resulting in some of the most ferocious fighting of the war. While the encircled allied troops were reinforced and resupplied by transport aircraft until fresh troops broke the siege, the Japanese ran out of supplies and starved. They eventually retreated losing 85,000 men, one of the largest Japanese defeats of the war. The Ledo Road was built during World War II so that the Western Allies could continue to supply the Chinese after the Japanese cut the Burma Road. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram Subhas Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945) also known as Netaji, was a Orissa born and Bengal based Indian leader of the movement to win independence from British rule. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... A group of native Indian muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... Imphal is the capital of Manipur, India. ... A cargo aircraft is an airplane primarily designed and used for the carriage of goods, rather than passengers. ...


During the monsoon from August to November 1944, the Japanese were pursued to the Chindwin River in Burma. With the onset of the dry season in early 1945, while the American and Chinese forces finally completed the Ledo Road, although too late to have any decisive effect, the British Fourteenth Army, consisting of Indian, British, and African units, launched an offensive into Central Burma. The Japanese forces were heavily defeated, and the Allies pursued them southward, taking Rangoon on May 2 (see Operation Dracula). The Chindwin River is a river in Myanmar and the major tributary of the Irrawaddy River. ... The dry season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the tropics. ... The Northern Combat Area Command or NCAC was a mainly Sino-American formation that held the northern end of the Allied front in Burma during World War II. For much of its existence it was commanded by the acerbic General Joseph Stilwell. ... The British Fourteenth Army was a multinational force comprising units from Commonwealth countries during World War II. Many of its units were from the Indian Army as well as British units and there were also significant contributions from East African divisions within the British Army. ... During World War II, Operation Dracula was the name given to an airborne and amphibious attack on Rangoon by British and Indian forces, part of the Burma Campaign. ...


The Western Front (June 1944 – January 1945)

Supplies coming ashore on Normandy.
Supplies coming ashore on Normandy.

By the Spring of 1944, the Allied preparations for the invasion of France were complete. They had assembled around 120 Divisions with over 2 million men of which 1.3 million were Americans, 600,000 were British and the rest were Canadians, Free French and Polish units. The invasion was set for June 5th but bad weather postponed the invasion to June 6, 1944.[15] Almost 85-90% of all German troops were deployed on the Eastern Front and only 400,000 Germans in two armies, the German Seventh Army and the newly created Fifth Panzer Army was all that Germany could spare to defend against the allied invasion. The Germans had also constructed an elaborate series of fortifications along the coast called the Atlantic Wall to deter the invasion but in many places the Wall was incomplete. The Allied forces under supreme command of Dwight D. Eisenhower had launched an elaborate deception campaign to convince the Germans that the landings would occur in the Calais area which caused the Germans to deploy large parts of their forces in that sector. Only 50,000 Germans were deployed in the Normandy sector on the day of the invasion. Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free French Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Walter Model Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Omar Bradley George Patton Bernard Montgomery Walther Model Gerd von Rundstedt Adolf Hitler Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... Supplying Normandy coast Photo # 26-G-2517 LSTs landing vehicles and cargo on a Normandy beach, June 1944 From [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Supplying Normandy coast Photo # 26-G-2517 LSTs landing vehicles and cargo on a Normandy beach, June 1944 From [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The German Seventh Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The German Fifth Panzer Army was created in December of 1942 to help manage the emergency build-up of troops in Tunisia after the Allied Operation Torch landings in Algeria and Morocco. ... German coast artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... D. D. Eisenhower during WWII Eisenhower redirects here. ... Calais is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


The invasion began with 17,000 air borne troops being dropped in Normandy to serve as a screening force to prevent the Germans from attacking the beaches. By early morning, a massive Naval flotilla bombarded German defenses on the beaches but due to rough seas many ships were off target. The Americans in particular suffered heavy losses on Omaha beach due to the German fortifications being left intact. However by the end of the first day, most of the Allied objectives were accomplished even though the British objective of capturing Caen proved too optimistic. The Germans launched no significant counterattack on the beaches as Hitler believed the landings to be a decoy. Only three days later the German High command realized that Normandy was the actual invasion, but by then the Allies had already consolidated their beachheads. Caen is a commune of northwestern France. ... A beachhead is a military term used to describe the line created when a unit (by sea) reaches a beach, and begins to defend that area of beach, while other reinforcements (hopefully) help out, until a unit large enough to begin advancing has arrived. ...


The bocage terrain of Normandy where the Americans had landed made it ideal ground for defensive warfare. Nevertheless, the Americans made steady progress and captured the deep-water port of Cherbourg on June 26, one of the primary objectives of the invasion. However, the Germans had mined the harbor and destroyed most of the port facilities before surrendering, and it would be another month before the port could be brought back into limited use. The British launched another attack on June 13 to capture Caen but were held back as the Germans had moved in large number of troops to hold the city. The city was to remain in German hands for another 6 weeks. Bocage is a French word referring to a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture, with tortuous side-roads and lanes bounded on both sides by banks surmounted with high thick hedgerows limiting visibility. ... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders J. Lawton Collins Friedrich Dollman Strength Unknown 40,000 Casualties 2,800 killed, 5,700 missing, 13,500 wounded 39,000 captured The Battle of Cherbourg was part of the Battle of Normandy during World War II, it was fought immediately after the successful Allied... Polish wz. ... The Battle of Villers-Bocage (June 13, 1944) was an unusual clash between the British and Germans in northern France during World War II. Michael Wittmann, an SS-Obersturmführer, led a unit of six PzKpfw VI Tiger tanks of the 501st Battalion to secure the N175 road near Villers...

British Troops take cover on Sword Beach.

Allied firepower, improved tactics, and numerical superiority eventually resulted in a breakout of American mechanized forces at the western end of the Normandy pocket in Operation Cobra on July 23. When Hitler learned of the American breakout, he ordered his forces in Normandy to launch an immediate counter-offensive. However the German forces moving in open countryside were now easily targeted by Allied aircraft, as they had initially escaped Allied air attacks due to their well camouflaged defensive positions. Image File history File links Infantry_waiting_to_move_off_Queen_White_Beach. ... Image File history File links Infantry_waiting_to_move_off_Queen_White_Beach. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders General-Lieutenant Miles Dempsey, British 3rd Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Hans von Luck, German 21st Panzer Division Strength 28,845  ? Casualties 600 Unknown German defense at Ouistreham. ... Military operation to end a situation of encirclement or siege. ... Operation Cobra was the codename for the World War II operation planned by United States Army General Omar Bradley to break out from the Normandy area after the previous months D-Day landings. ...


The Americans placed strong formations on their flanks which blunted the attack and then began to encircle the 7th Army and large parts of the 5th Panzer Army in the Falaise Pocket. Some 50,000 Germans were captured, but 100,000 managed to escape the pocket. Worse still, the British and Canadians who had been bogged down in their sector now began to break through the German lines. Any hope the Germans had of containing the Allied thrust into France by forming new defensive lines was now gone. The Allies raced across France, advancing as much as 600 miles in two weeks[16] The German forces retreated into Northern France, Holland and Belgium. By August 1944, Allied forces stationed in Italy invaded the French Riviera on August 15 and linked up with forces from Normandy. The clandestine French Resistance in Paris rose against the Germans on August 19, and a French armored division under General Philippe Leclerc, pressing forward from Normandy, received the surrender of the German forces there and liberated the city on August 25. The German Seventh Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... 5. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free French Forces Free Polish Forces Others Nazi Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Omar Bradley Günther von Kluge Walter Model Strength N/A 150,000 Casualties Canadian: 18,500 Polish: 2,300 U.S and British: N/A 10,000+ killed, 60,000 wounded... Combatants United States1 Free France, United Kingdom Germany Commanders Jacob L. Devers Johannes Blaskowitz Strength 250,000 (approx) 230,000 (approx) Casualties 4,500 American, 4,500+ French 125,000+ (approx) Monument to the landings of Allied troops under General Patch on the beach of St Tropez, France. ... The Quai des États-Unis in Nice on the French Riviera at night. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... The French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime, and was a vital and some say decisive factor in the defeat of Hitler and the Nazi revolution. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (November 22, 1902 - November 28, 1947), was a Marshal of France and a famous French military leader. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ...

American troops march down the Champs Elysées in Paris.
American troops march down the Champs Elysées in Paris.

The Germans launched the V-1 flying bomb, the world's first cruise missile, to attack targets in southern England and Belgium. Later, they would employ the V-2 rocket, a liquid-fuelled guided ballistic missile. Neither of these weapons was very accurate and they could only target large areas like cities. They had little military effect but were rather intended to demoralize Allied civilians. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1388x1103, 316 KB) Description: Image: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1388x1103, 316 KB) Description: Image: http://www. ... The Vergeltungswaffe-1, V-1, also knows as Fieseler Fi 103/FZG-76, colloquially as the Flying bomb, Buzz bomb or Doodlebug, was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile Taurus KEPD 350 A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... The Vergeltungswaffe 2 (Reprisal weapon 2) (V-2), also known as the A4 (Aggregat 4), was the first ballistic missile. ... Liquid fuels are those combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ...


Logistical problems plagued the Allies' advance east as the supply lines still ran back to the beaches of Normandy. Allied paratroopers and armor attempted a war-winning advance through the Netherlands and across the Rhine River with Operation Market Garden in September, but they were repulsed. A decisive victory by the Canadian First Army in the Battle of the Scheldt secured the entrance to the port of Antwerp, which freed it to receive supplies by late November 1944. Meanwhile, the Americans launched an attack through the Hurtgen Forest in September; the Germans, despite having smaller numbers, were able to use the difficult terrain and good defensive positions to hold back the Americans for over 5 months. In October, the Americans captured Aachen, the first major German city to be occupied. Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Walter Model Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical... The Canadian First Army was the overall command for the Canadian military forces in Europe during World War II. It was formed in early 1942 to command two corps composed of the three infantry divisions, two armoured divisions, and two armoured brigades that had assembled in England. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Courtney Hodges Walther Model Strength 120,000 80,000 Casualties 33,000 casualties 12,000 dead The Battle of Hurtgen Forest (German: Schlacht im Hürtgenwald) is the name given to the series of fierce battles fought between the American and German forces during World... Combatants United States Germany Commanders William Simpson Gerhard Wilck Strength 100,000 soldiers 12,000 soldiers Casualties 2000 killed 3000 wounded 5500 killed or wounded, 5,600 POW The Battle of Aachen was a battle in World War II that took place in October 1944 in the German city of...

Hitler had been planning to launch a major counteroffensive against the Allies since mid-September. The objective of the attack was to capture Antwerp. Not only would the capture or destruction of Antwerp prevent supplies reaching the allied armies, it would also split allied forces in two, demoralizing the alliance and forcing its leaders to negotiate. For the attack, Hitler concentrated the best of his remaining forces in the West. The 5th Panzer Army, the re-built 7th Army and the newly created 6th Panzer Army, in total, 240,000 men in 28 divisions, 1,200 Tanks and Assault guns [citation needed]. The offensive began on December 16, 1944 with a barrage by 900 German guns. One hour later, the 3 German Armies smashed into the American front line. Hitler launched his thrust towards Antwerp through the Ardennes in southern Belgium, a hilly and in places a heavily wooded region, and the site of his victory in 1940. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x1097, 141 KB) Description: Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the 1st Allied Airborne Army. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x1097, 141 KB) Description: Parachutes open overhead as waves of paratroops land in Holland during operations by the 1st Allied Airborne Army. ... An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Walter Model Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical... The German Sixth Panzer Army (6. ... The Ardennes (pronounced ar-DEN) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ...


The attack by the 6th Panzer Army made slow progress but a spearhead managed to break through American lines and dashed headlong for the Meuse. In the South, 5th Panzer Army punched right through the inexperienced American infantry. The German advance was delayed at St. Vith, which American forces defended for several days. At the vital road junction of Bastogne, the Germans surrounded but failed to overrun the American 101st Airborne Division. Some German units bypassed Bastogne but the main advance was blocked. To the Allied commanders the German offensive came as a great shock as they did not believe the Germans were capable of mounting a large scale offensive. Many German troops attacking were veterans of the Eastern front and knew how to fight in the winter. Dense cloud cover had denied the Americans the use of their reconnaissance and ground attack aircraft. However, the Allies were beginning to recover from the initial shock and the 1st and 9th US Armies rallied to block any further German advances in the North. Patton's 3rd Army made a rapid 90 degree turn and rammed into the German southern flank. By December 26, the 3rd Army had relieved Bastogne. The weather by this time had cleared unleashing allied air power as the German attack ground to a halt at Dinant. In an attempt to keep the offensive going, the Germans launched a massive air raid on Allied airfields in the Low Countries on January 1, 1945. The Germans destroyed 465 aircraft but lost 277 of their own planes. While the allies recovered their losses in just days, the Luftwaffe was no longer capable of launching major air attack again.[17] Allied forces from the north and south met up at Houffalize and by the end of January they had pushed the Germans back to their start positions. The vast majority of German casualties occurred when Hitler failed to order a timely withdrawal [citation needed]. Months of the Reich's war production had been expended where as German forces on the Eastern front were virtually starved of resources at the very moment the Red Army was preparing for its massive offensive against Germany. The Meuse(Maas) at Maastricht Length 925 km Elevation of the source 409 m Average discharge 230 m³/s Area watershed 36 000 km² Origin France Mouth Hollands Diep Basin countries France - Belgium - Netherlands The Meuse (Dutch Maas) is a large European river rising in France, flowing through Belgium and... Sankt Vith (French: Saint-Vith) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Anthony McAuliffe Hasso von Manteuffel Strength 101st Airborne Division, Elements of 10th Armored Division (estimated) Nine German divisions (mostly Panzer) Wikisource has original text related to this article: THE ARDENNES: BATTLE OF THE BULGE. CHAPTER XIX: THE BATTLE OF BASTOGNE The Battle of Bastogne was... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... The First United States Army is a field army of the United States Army. ... The Ninth United States Army was one of the main U.S. Army combat commands used during the campaign in northwest Europe in 1944 and 1945. ... George Smith Patton Jr. ... Distinctive Unit Insignia // The Third United States Army was first activated as a formation during the First World War on November 7, 1918, at Chaumont, France, when the General Headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces issued General Order 198 organizing the Third Army and announcing its headquarters staff. ... The tower of Notre-Dame, seen from the citadel Dinant is a municipality located on the River Meuse in the Belgian province of Namur, Wallonia. ... Operation Bodenplatte, launched on 1st January 1945, was an attempt to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries of Europe. ... Houffalize is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. ...


The Eastern Front (January 1945 – April 1945)

Main articles: Vistula-Oder Offensive and Battle of Berlin

With the Balkans and most of Hungary cleared of German troops by late December 1944, the Soviets began a massive re-deployment of their forces to Poland for their upcoming Winter offensive. Soviet preparations were still on-going when Churchill asked Stalin to launch his offensive as soon as possible to ease German pressure in the West. Stalin agreed and the offensive was set for January 12, 1945. Konev’s armies attacked the Germans in southern Poland and expanded out from their Vistula River bridgehead near Sandomierz. On January 14, Rokossovskiy’s armies attacked from the Narew River north of Warsaw. Zhukov's armies in the centre attacked from their bridgeheads near Warsaw. The combined Soviet offensive broke the defences covering East Prussia, leaving the German front in chaos. Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Konev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Adolf Hitler â€  Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Reymann Ernst Kaether (one day) Helmuth Weidling # Karl Dönitz # Wilhelm Mohnke # Strength 2,500,000 soldiers, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces [1] 1,000,000... Image File history File links Marshall Georgij Žukov from en. ... Image File history File links Marshall Georgij Žukov from en. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and... Marshal Ivan Konev Ivan Stepanovich Koniev (Russian Иван Степанович Конев) (December 28, 1897 – May 21, 1973), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family near Podosinovsky in central Russia (now in Kirov Oblast). ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is the longest river in Poland. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish name Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968), Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. ... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


Zhukov took Warsaw by January 17 and by January 19, his tanks took Łódź. That same day, Konev's forces reached the German pre-war border. At the end of the first week of the offensive, the Soviets had penetrated 160 kilometers (100 mi) deep on a front that was 650 kilometers (400 mi) wide. The Soviet onslaught finally halted on the Oder River at the end of January, only 60 kilometers (40 mi) from Berlin. January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Łódź ((?)) is Polands second largest city (population 776,297 in 2004). ... The Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ...

Berlin and Prague offensive on the Eastern Front, 1945.
Berlin and Prague offensive on the Eastern Front, 1945.

The Soviets had hoped to capture Berlin by mid-February but that proved hopelessly optimistic. German resistance which had all but collapsed during the initial phase of the attack had stiffened immeasurably. The Russian supply lines were over-extended and discipline among Soviet troops as they were unleashed on German territory all but collapsed. The spring thaw, the lack of air support, and fear of encirclement through flank attacks from East Prussia, Pommern and Silesia led to a general halt in the Soviet offensive. The newly created Army Group Vistula, under the command of Heinrich Himmler, attempted a counter-attack on the exposed flank of the Soviet Army but failed by February 24. This made it clear to Zhukov that the flank had to be secure before any attack on Berlin could be mounted. The Soviets then re-organized their forces and then struck north and cleared Pomerania and then attacked the south and cleared Silesia of German troops. In the south, three German attempts to relieve the encircled Budapest garrison failed, and the city fell to the Soviets on February 13. Again the Germans counter-attacked; Hitler insisting on the impossible task of regaining the Danube River. By March 16, the attack had failed, and the Red Army counter-attacked the same day. On March 30, they entered Austria and captured Vienna on April 13. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 216 KB)Eastern Front (WWII), 1945-01-01 to 1945-05-07 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Lake Balaton Offensive User:Gdr/Gallery Prague Offensive Vistula... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 216 KB)Eastern Front (WWII), 1945-01-01 to 1945-05-07 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II) Lake Balaton Offensive User:Gdr/Gallery Prague Offensive Vistula... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze, German: Pommern and Pommerellen, Pomeranian (Kashubian): Pòmòrze and Pòmòrskô, Latin: Pomerania, Pomorania) is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea between and on both sides of the Vistula and Oder (Odra) rivers... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ...

Red Army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the roof of the Reichstag in Berlin, Germany.
Red Army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the roof of the Reichstag in Berlin, Germany.

Hitler had believed that the main Soviet target for their upcoming offensive would be in the south near Prague and not Berlin and had send the last remaining German reserves to defend that sector. The Red Army's main goal was in fact Berlin and by April 16 it was ready to begin its final assault on Berlin. Zhukov's forces struck from the center and crossed the Oder river but got bogged down under stiff German resistance around Seelow Heights. After three days of very heavy fighting and 33,000 Russian soldiers dead[18], the last defenses of Berlin were breached. Konev crossed the Oder river from the South and was within striking distance of Berlin but Stalin ordered Konev to guard the flanks of Zhukov's forces and not attack Berlin, as Stalin had promised the capture of Berlin to Zhukov[citation needed]. Rokossovskiy’s forces crossed the Oder from the North and linked up with British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery's forces in northern Germany while the forces of Zhukov and Konev captured Berlin. ImageMetadata File history File links Reichstag_flag. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Reichstag_flag. ... The Reichstag is both an institutional assembly and a specific building. ... For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). ... Nickname: City of a Hundred Spires Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area    - City 496 km²  (191. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Konev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Adolf Hitler â€  Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Reymann Ernst Kaether (one day) Helmuth Weidling # Karl Dönitz # Wilhelm Mohnke # Strength 2,500,000 soldiers, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces [1] 1,000,000... The Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ... The Seelow Heights were the scene of the bloodiest battle on German soil during the Second World War, between April 16-19, 1945. ...


By April 24, the Soviet army groups had encircled the German Ninth Army and part of the 4th Panzer Army. These were main forces that were supposed to defend Berlin but Hitler had issued orders for these forces to hold their ground and not retreat. Thus the main German forces which were supposed to defend Berlin were trapped southeast of the city. Berlin was encircled around the same time and as a final resistance effort, Hitler called for civilians, including teenagers and the elderly, to fight in the Volkssturm militia against the oncoming Red Army. Those marginal forces were augmented by the battered German remnants who had fought the Soviets in Seelow Heights. Hitler ordered the encircled Ninth Army to break out and link up with the Twelfth Army of General Walther Wenck and relieve Berlin. An impossible task, the surviving units of the Ninth Army were instead driven into the forests around Berlin near the village of Halbe where they were involved in particularly fierce fighting trying to break through the Soviet lines and reach the Twelfth Army. A minority managed to join with the Twelfth Army and fight their way west to surrender to the Americans. Meanwhile the fierce urban fighting continued in Berlin. The Germans had stockpiled a very large quantity of panzerfausts and took a very heavy toll on Soviet tanks in the rubble filled streets of Berlin. However, the Soviets employed the lessons they learned during the urban fighting of Stalingrad and were slowly advancing to the center of the city. German forces in the city resisted tenaciously, in particular the SS Nordland which was made of foreign SS volunteers, because they were ideologically motivated and they believed that they would not live if captured. The fighting was house-to-house and hand-to-hand. The Soviets sustained 360,000 casualties; the Germans sustained 450,000 including civilians and above that 170,000 captured. Hitler and his staff moved into the Führerbunker, a concrete bunker beneath the Chancellery, where on April 30, 1945, he committed suicide, along with his bride, Eva Braun. April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... The German Ninth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The German Fourth Panzer Army (German: ) was a German panzer army that saw action during World War II. Before being designated a full army the formation was called Panzer Group 4 (Panzergruppe 4). ... German Peoples Storm Defense Force The Volkssturm, literally translated as Peoples Storm in the meaning of National Storm, was a German national militia of the last months of the Nazis Third Reich. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Georgy Zhukov Strength 100,000 men 512 Tanks 344 artillery pieces 400 Anti-aircraft guns 1,000,000 men 3,155 Tanks 16,934 artillery pieces Casualties 12,000 Killed 33,000 Killed The Battle of the Seelow Heights was one of the... The German Ninth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The German Twelfth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... Combatants Third Reich Soviet Union Commanders Theodor Busse Ivan Konev Strength 80,000 280,000 Casualties 30,000 killed 25,000 Captured up to 10,000 civilian dead 20,000 killed The Battle of Halbe lasted from April 24 to May 1, 1945. ... 4 Panzerfausts in the original casing, displayed in Helsinki Military Museum Panzerfaust. ... Kampfverband Waräger Germanische-Freiwilligen-Division SS-Panzergrenadier-Division 11 (Germanische) 11. ... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The front cover of Time magazine, May 7, 1945. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


War ends in Europe

Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin at Yalta in 1945.
Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin at Yalta in 1945.

Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin made arrangements for post-war Europe at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Their meeting resulted in many important resolutions such as the formation of the United Nations, democratic elections in Poland, borders of Poland moved westwards at the expense of Germany, Soviet nationals were to be repatriated and it was agreed that Soviet Union would attack Japan within three months of Germany's surrender. Yalta Conference. ... During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... The Eastern Front at the time of the Prague Offensive. ... New version of photograph of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. ... New version of photograph of Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference. ... FDR redirects here. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... Historical Eastern Germany or Former German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were parts of Germany after its unification in 1871 and were internationally recognised as such at the time. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is a term used to describe the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ...


The Allies resumed their advance into Germany in late January. The final obstacle to the Allies was the river Rhine, which was crossed in late March 1945, aided by the fortuitous capture of the Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen. Once the Allies had crossed the Rhine, the British fanned out northeast towards Hamburg, crossing the river Elbe and moving on towards Denmark and the Baltic Sea. The River Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... The Ludendorff Bridge was a railroad bridge across the Rhine in Germany, connecting the cities of Remagen and Erpel. ... Remagen is a city in Germany in the Bundesland of Rhineland-Palatinate, district Ahrweiler. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...

U.S. General Omar Bradley led the advance into Germany.
U.S. General Omar Bradley led the advance into Germany.

The U.S. 9th Army went south as the northern pincer of the Ruhr encirclement, and the U.S. 1st Army went north as the southern pincer of the Ruhr encirclement. These armies were commanded by General Omar Bradley who had over 1,300,000 men under his control. On April 4, the encirclement was completed, and the German Army Group B which included the 5th Panzer Army, 7th Army and the 15th Army commanded by Field Marshal Walther Model was trapped in the Ruhr Pocket. Some 300,000 German soldiers became prisoners of war. The 1st and 9th U.S. armies then turned east. They halted their advance at the Elbe river where they met up with Soviet troops in mid-April. Picture of Omar Bradley from http://www. ... Picture of Omar Bradley from http://www. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... Shoulder sleeve insignia of the U.S. Ninth Army. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. First Army. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Shoulder boards of a Generalfeldmarschall Generalfeldmarschall ( ▶(?)) (General Field Marshal, usually translated simply as Field Marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and Austrian Empire. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA /mo:dəl/) (January 24, 1891–April 21, 1945) was a German general, and later a Field Marshal, during World War II. He was noted for his defensive skills, and was nicknamed Hitlers fireman. Model served as an infantry officer in World War I... The Ruhr Pocket was a battle that took place at the end of World War II in the Ruhr Area, Germany. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Allied advances in the winter of 1944–45 up the Italian peninsula had been slow because of the mountainous terrain and troop re-deployments to France. But by April 9, the British/American 15th Army Group broke through the Gothic Line and attacked the Po Valley, gradually enclosing the main German forces. Milan was taken by the end of April. The U.S. 5th Army continued to move west and linked up with French units while the British entered Trieste and met up with the Yugoslav partisans. A few days before the surrender of German troops in Italy, Italian partisans captured Mussolini trying to make his escape to Switzerland. He was executed, along with his mistress, Clara Petacci. Their bodies were taken to Milan and hung upside down on public display. April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... (Redirected from 15th Army Group) The British/American 15th Army Group was an important unit in World War II. It was activated in 1943 in Algiers, North Africa, to plan the invasion of Sicily. ... German defensive positions in Northern Italy 1944 370th Infantry Regiment walking toward the mountains at north of Prato - april 1945 The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings last line of defence along the summits of the Apennines during the fighting retreat of Nazi... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... The U.S. Fifth Army was one of the principal formations of the US Army in the Mediterranean during World War II. It was activated on January 4, 1943 and made responsible for the defence of Algeria and Morocco. ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest; Hungarian: Trieszt; Latin: Tergeste; Serbian: Трст or Trst) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... Clara Petacci (Claretta Petacci) (February 28, 1912 – April 28, 1945) was a young Roman girl from an upper-class family who became Benito Mussolinis mistress. ...

After Hitler's death, Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz became leader of the German government but the German war effort quickly disintegrated. German forces in Berlin surrendered the city to Soviet troops on May 2, 1945. The German forces in Italy surrendered on May 2, 1945, at General Alexander's headquarters, and German forces in northern Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands surrendered on May 4. The surrender in Italy was preceded by the controversial secret Operation Sunrise in March 1945, during which the Great Britain and the United States were accused by the Soviet Union of trying to reach a separate peace. The German High Command under Generaloberst Alfred Jodl surrendered unconditionally all remaining German forces on May 7 in Rheims, France. The western Allies celebrated "V-E Day" on May 8. The Soviet Union celebrated "Victory Day" on May 9. Some remnants of German Army Group Center continued resistance until May 11 or May 12 (see Prague Offensive). [2] Image File history File links Summary Marshal Zhukov and Marshal Rokossovsky during the Victory Parade on Red Square (June 24, 1945) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Summary Marshal Zhukov and Marshal Rokossovsky during the Victory Parade on Red Square (June 24, 1945) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish name Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968), Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. ... The 1945 Victory parade was the first major Soviet event recorded on color film. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The rank of Grand Admiral has also appeared in science fiction literature, most notable the Star Wars Expanded Universe where the rank is held by Grand Admiral Thrawn. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as President of Germany after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... In military affairs, the war effort refers to the harnessing of economic and human resources towards support of a military force. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Northern Germany is the the geographic area of the five German states Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen and Schleswig-Holstein in the German Lowlands known as the Northern German Plain with Low German as the historic language (see: Benrath line). ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The phrase separate peace refers to a nations agreement to cease military hostilities with another, even though the former country had previously entered into a military alliance with other states that remain at war with the latter country. ... Generaloberst Alfred Jodl Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 - October 16, 1946) was a Wehrmacht leader. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Victory Day is the name of a public holiday in various countries to commemorate the victory in an important battle or war in the countrys history. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... The Eastern Front at the time of the Prague Offensive. ...


War ends in Asia

Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong met in the wartime capital of Chongqing, to toast to the Chinese victory over Japan.
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong met in the wartime capital of Chongqing, to toast to the Chinese victory over Japan.

The last Allied conference of World War II was held at the suburb of Potsdam, outside Berlin, from July 17 to August 2. During the Potsdam Conference, agreements were reached among the Allies on policies for occupied Germany. An ultimatum was issued calling for the unconditional surrender of Japan. Clement Atlee, Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945 The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner, Jr. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Combatants Soviet Union Japan Commanders Alexandr Vasilevskij Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... Mao redirects here. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... Sanssouci, the symbol of the city Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... Clement Atlee, Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945 The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ...


U.S. president Harry Truman decided to use the new atomic weapon to bring the war to a swifter end. The battle for Okinawa had shown that an invasion of the Japanese mainland (planned for November) would result large numbers of American casualties. The official estimate given to the Secretary of War was 1.4 to four million Allied casualties, though some historians dispute whether this would have been the case. Invasion would have meant the death of millions of Japanese soldiers and civilians, who were being trained as militia. President Truman announces that Germany had surrendered (May 8 1945) Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan at the end of World War II. It was scheduled to occur in two parts: Operation Olympic, the invasion of Kyushu, set to begin in November 1945; and later Operation Coronet, the invasion of Honshu near Tokyo, scheduled...


On August 6, 1945, a B-29 Superfortress, the Enola Gay, dropped a nuclear weapon dubbed Little Boy on Hiroshima, destroying the city. On August 9, a B-29 named Bockscar dropped the second atomic bomb, dubbed Fat Man, on the port city of Nagasaki. August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... Colonel Paul Tibbets waving from Enola Gays cockpit after the bombing of Hiroshima. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A postwar Little Boy casing mockup. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... BOCKS CAR after its mission against Nagasaki. ... A post-war Fat Man model. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...

The mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear weapon known as Fat Man rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) over Nagasaki from the nuclear explosion hypocenter.
The mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear weapon known as Fat Man rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) over Nagasaki from the nuclear explosion hypocenter.

On August 8, two days after the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, the Soviet Union, having renounced its nonaggression pact with Japan in April, attacked the Japanese in Manchuria, fulfilling its Yalta pledge to attack the Japanese within three months after the end of the war in Europe. The attack was made by three Soviet army groups. In less than two weeks, the Japanese army in Manchuria, consisting of over a million men, had been destroyed by the Soviets. The Red Army moved into North Korea on August 18. Korea was subsequently divided at the 38th parallel into Soviet and U.S. zones. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... The atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped cloud of smoke, flame, or debris resulting from a very large explosion. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A post-war Fat Man model. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... The hypocenter or hypocentre (literally: below the center from the Greek υπόκεντρον), also known as the focus. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... The Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact refers to a pact between the Soviet Union and Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The American use of atomic weapons against Japan and the Soviet invasion of Manchukuo prompted Hirohito to bypass the existing government and intervene to end the war. In his radio address to the nation, the Emperor did not mention the entry of the Soviet Union into the war, but in his "Rescript to the soldiers and sailors" of August 17, ordering them to cease fire and lay down arms, he stressed the relationship between Soviet entrance into the war and his decision to surrender, omitting any mention of the atomic bombs. Hirohito (Japanese: ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 1926 to 1989. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ...


The Japanese surrendered on August 14, 1945, or V-J day, signing the Japanese Instrument of Surrender on September 2. The Japanese troops in China formally surrendered to the Chinese on September 9, 1945. See image The surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Victory over Japan Day or V-J Day is the celebration of the August 15, 1945 Surrender of Japan and the end of World War II. In Japan, the day is known as, Shusen-kinenbi, which literally means the Memorial day for the end of the war. This is commemorated... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Casualties, civilian impact, and atrocities

Main articles : World War II casualties, The Holocaust, Concentration camp, Gulag, Japanese war crimes, Comfort women, Nanking massacre, Japanese American internment and War crimes during World War II Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... This article is becoming very long. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: // Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism, from the late 19th century until 1945. ... A Chinese girl from one of the Japanese Armys comfort battalions during the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas In detication of Dimitri K. brown and his $780,000,000 that helped pay for this website. ... . ...

Major deportation routes to Nazi extermination camps during The Holocaust, Aktion T-4 and alike.
Major deportation routes to Nazi extermination camps during The Holocaust, Aktion T-4 and alike.

Some 63 million people, or 3% of the world population, died in the war (though estimates vary): about 24 million soldiers and 38 million civilians. This total includes the estimated 9 million lives lost in the Holocaust. Of the total deaths in World War II, approximately 80% were on the Allied side and 20% on the Axis side.[19] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1551x1126, 72 KB) This a665red on the Wikipedia’s Holocaust page. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1551x1126, 72 KB) This a665red on the Wikipedia’s Holocaust page. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... The extermination camps were the facilities established by Nazi Germany in World War II initially for the killing of the Jews of Europe as part of what was later deemed The Holocaust. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ...


Allied forces suffered approximately 17 million military deaths, of which about 11 million were Soviet and 3 million Chinese. Axis forces suffered about 8 million, of which more than 5 million were German. In total, of the military deaths in World War II, approximately 44% were Soviet soldiers, 22% were German, 12% were Chinese, 8% were Japanese, 9% were soldiers of other Allied forces, and 5% were other Axis country soldiers. Some modern estimates double the number of Chinese casualties originally stated.[19] Of the civilian deaths, approximately 90% were Allied (nearly a third of all civilians killed were Soviet citizens, and more than 15% of all civilians killed in the war died in German extermination camps) and 10% were Axis.[19]


Many civilians died as a result of disease, starvation, massacres, genocide—in particular, the Holocaust—and aerial bombing. One estimate is that 12 million civilians died in Holocaust camps, 1.5 million by bombs, 7 million in Europe from other causes, and 7.5 million in China from other causes.[20] Allied civilian deaths totaled roughly 38 million, including 11.7 million in the Soviet Union, 7 million in China and 5.2 million from Poland. There were around 3 million civilian deaths on the Axis side, including 2 million in Germany and 0.6 million in Japan. The Holocaust refers to the organized state-sponsored murder of 6 million Jews, 1.8-1.9 million non-Jewish Poles, 200,000–800,000 Roma people, 200,000–300,000 people with disabilities, and other groups carried out by the Nazis during the war. The Soviet Union suffered by far the largest death toll of any nation in the war, over 23 million. Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The remains of German town of Wesel after intensive Allied area bombing in 1945 (destruction rate 98 % of all buildings) // Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... Tzigane redirects here; for the composition by Maurice Ravel, see Tzigane (Ravel). ...

Mistreated, starved prisoners in the Ebensee concentration camp, Austria.

In addition to the Nazi concentration camps, the Soviet Gulag, or labor camps, led to the death of citizens of occupied countries such as Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as German prisoners of war (POW) and even Soviet citizens themselves who had been supporters of the Nazis or were thought to be the ones. Japanese POW camps also had high death rates; many were used as labour camps, and starvation conditions among the mainly U.S., British, Australian and other Commonwealth prisoners were little better than many German concentration camps. Sixty percent (1,238,000 ref. Krivosheev) of Soviet POWs died during the war. Vadim Erlikman puts it at 2.6 million Soviet POWs that died in German Captivity.[21] Richard Overy gives the number of 5.7 million Soviet POW and out of those 57% died or were killed.[22] Furthermore, 150,000 Japanese-Americans were interned by the U.S. and Canadian governments, as well as nearly 11,000 German and Italian residents of the U.S. Image File history File links Starved_prisoners,_nearly_dead_from_hunger,_pose_in_concentration_camp_in_Ebensee,_Austria. ... Image File history File links Starved_prisoners,_nearly_dead_from_hunger,_pose_in_concentration_camp_in_Ebensee,_Austria. ... Ebensee lies in Upper Austria near Langbathbach and river Traun. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: // Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... A Prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of persons captured by the enemy in time of war. ... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas In detication of Dimitri K. brown and his $780,000,000 that helped pay for this website. ...


Despite the international treaties and a resolution adopted by the League of Nations on 14 May 1938 condemning the use of toxic gas by Japan, the Imperial Japanese Army frequently used chemical weapons. Because of fears of retaliation, however, those weapons were never used against Occidentals but only against other Orientals judged "inferior" by the imperial propaganda. According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, the authorization for the use of chemical weapons was given by specific orders (rinsanmei) issued by Hirohito himself. For example, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the invasion of Wuhan, from August to October 1938. Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Hirohito (Japanese: ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 1926 to 1989. ... Location within China Modern and ancient   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: WÇ”hàn) is the capital of Hubei province, and is the most populous city in central China. ...

A survivor of German aerial bombardment, Siege of Warsaw.
A survivor of German aerial bombardment, Siege of Warsaw.

The bacteriological weapons were experimented on human beings by many units incorporated in the Japanese army, such as the infamous Unit 731, integrated by Imperial decree in the Kwantung army in 1936. Those weapons were mainly used in China and, according to some Japanese veterans, against Mongolians and Russian soldiers in 1939 during the Nomonhan incident.[23] Survivor of German aerial bombardment of Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Survivor of German aerial bombardment of Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date 8 to September 28, 1939 Place Warsaw, Poland Result Polish defeat The 1939 Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the German Army. ... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert medical experiment unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that researched biological warfare through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... Kwantung (Simplified Chinese: 关东; Traditional Chinese: 關東; pinyin: Guāndōng; Wade-Giles: Kuan-tung) is a coastal area of northeastern China which is remembered most for its connection to Japans Kwantung Army. ... Nomonhan is a small village near the border between Mongolia and Manchuria, China south of the Chinese city of Manzhouli. ...


According to a joint study of historians featuring Zhifen Ju, Mark Peattie, Toru Kubo, and Mitsuyochi Himeta, more than 10 million Chinese were mobilized by the Japanese army and enslaved by the Kôa-in for slave labor in Manchukuo and north China.[24] According to Mitsuyoshi Himeta, at least 2.7 million died during the Sankō Sakusen operation implemented in Heipei and Shantung by General Yasuji Okamura. The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Manchukuo (1932–1945), Manchu country, was a former state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia created by former Qing Dynasty officials and Imperial Japan in 1932. ... The Three Alls Policy (Japanese: 三光作戦, Sankō Sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sánguáng Zhèngcè) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although the Chinese characters literally mean three lights policy, in this case, the character for light actually means all. Thus, the term is more... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; pinyin: Shāndōng; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... General Yasuji Okamura (1884-1966) Yasuji Okamura was a Japanese General, commanding 2nd Division at the begining of the Second Sino-Japanese War. ...


From 1945 to 1951, German and Japanese officials and personnel were prosecuted for war crimes. Top German officials were tried at the Nuremberg Trials, and many Japanese officials at the Tokyo War Crime Trial and other war crimes trials in the Asia-Pacific region. The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism, from the late 19th century until 1945. ...


Resistance and collaboration

Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the U.S. 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.
Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the U.S. 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944.

Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation, and propaganda to outright warfare. Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns. ... Collaboration during World War II refers to the events when the nationals of the countries that were occupied by other powers (such as the Soviet Union, the Nazi Germany, the Empire of Japan and Italy) supported the goals of the occupying power during the time of the World War II... Image File history File links 101st_with_members_of_dutch_resistance. ... Image File history File links 101st_with_members_of_dutch_resistance. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... Country Netherlands Province North Brabant Area 88. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Walter Model Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an Allied military operation in World War II. Its tactical...


Among the most notable resistance movements were the Polish Home Army, the French Maquis, the Yugoslav Partisans, the Greek resistance force, and the Italian Resistance in the German-occupied Northern Italy after 1943. Germany itself also had an anti-Nazi movement. The Communist resistance was among the fiercest, since they were already organised and militant even before the war and they were ideologically opposed to the Nazis. The Armia Krajowa (Home Army) or AK functioned as the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II in German-occupied Poland, which was active in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Members of the Maquis in La Tresorerie For other uses, see Maquis. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. It became massive after the capitulation of the Italian Royal Army on September 8, 1943. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... Widerstand is the name given to the resistance movements in Nazi Germany. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Before D-Day, there were some operations performed by the French Resistance to help with the forthcoming invasion. Communications lines were cut; trains were derailed; roads, water towers, and ammunition depots were destroyed; and some German garrisons were attacked. Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... The French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime, and was a vital and some say decisive factor in the defeat of Hitler and the Nazi revolution. ...


There were also resistance movements fighting against the Allied invaders. The German resistance petered out within a few years, while in the Baltic states resistance operations against the occupation continued into the 1960s. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Werwolf was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a force which would aid the Wehrmacht by means of guerrilla attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ... It has been suggested that Baltic Republics be merged into this article or section. ... Young Lithuanian Forest Brothers in 1947 The Forest Brothers (also: Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren; Forest Brotherhood; in Estonian: metsavennad, in Latvian meža brāļi, in Lithuanian miško broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian guerillas (partisans) who fought against Soviet rule during the Soviet invasion and occupation...


Home fronts

During the war, women worked in factories throughout much of the West and East.
During the war, women worked in factories throughout much of the West and East.

"Home front" is the name given to the activities of the civilians of the nations at war. All the main countries reorganized their homefronts to produce munitions and soldiers, with 40–60% of GDP being devoted to the war effort. Women were drafted in the Soviet Union and Britain. Shortages were everywhere, and severe food shortages caused malnutrition and even starvation, such as in the Netherlands and in Leningrad. New workers were recruited, especially housewives, the unemployed, students, and retired people. Skilled jobs were re-engineered and simplified ("de-skilling") so that unskilled workers could handle them. Every major nation imposed censorship on the media as well as a propaganda program designed to boost the war effort and stifle negative rumors. Every major country imposed a system of rationing and price controls. Black markets flourished in areas controlled by Germany. Germany brought in millions of prisoners of war, slave laborers, and forced workers to staff its munitions factories. Many were killed in the bombing raids, the rest became refugees as the war ended. Download high resolution version (957x742, 131 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: World War II Rosie the Riveter Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (957x742, 131 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: World War II Rosie the Riveter Categories: U.S. history images ... Publicity photo of American machine tool worker in Texas. ... Rosie the Riveter represented civilian wartime mobilization in the United States during World War II. Home front is the informal term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of its military. ...


Technology

German Enigma machine for encryption.
German Enigma machine for encryption.

Weapons and technology improved rapidly during World War II and some of these played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. Many major technologies were used for the first time, including nuclear weapons, radar, proximity fuses, jet engines, ballistic missiles, and data-processing analog devices (primitive computers). Every year, the piston engines were improved. Enormous advances were made in aircraft, submarine, and tank designs, such that models coming into use at the beginning of the war were long obsolete by its end. One entirely new kind of ship was the amphibious landing craft. Download high resolution version (480x640, 400 KB)From NSA website: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 400 KB)From NSA website: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The plugboard, keyboard, lamps and finger-wheels of the rotors emerging from the inner lid of a three-rotor German military Enigma machine (version with labels) In the history of cryptography, the Enigma was a portable cipher machine used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages. ... Technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. ... Technological escalation during World War II was more profound than any other period in human history. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... This long range Radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll[1]. Radar is a system that uses radio waves to determine and map the location, direction, and/or speed... A proximity fuse (sometimes spelled fuze) is a fuse that is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when close enough to the target to destroy it. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... German test launch. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... An Airbus A380, currently the worlds largest passenger airliner An aircraft is any vehicle or craft capable of atmospheric flight. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Günther Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter Typhoon class nuclear ballistic missile submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate...


Industrial production played a role in the Allied victory. The Allies more effectively mobilized their economies and drew from a larger economic base. The peak year of munitions production was 1944, with the Allies out-producing the Axis by a ratio of 3 to 1. (Germany produced 19% and Japan 7% of the world's munitions; the U.S. produced 47%, Britain and Canada 14%, and the Soviets 11%).[25]


The Allies used low-cost mass production techniques, using standardized models. Japan and Germany continued to rely on expensive hand-crafted methods. Japan thus produced hundreds of airplane designs and did not reach mass-production efficiency; the new models were only slightly better than the original 1940 planes, while the Allies rapidly advanced in technology.[26] Germany thus spent heavily on high-tech weaponry, including the V-1 flying bomb and V-2 rocket, advanced submarines, jet engines, and heavy tanks that proved strategically of minor value. The combination of better logistics and mass production proved crucial in the victory. "The Allies did not depend on simple numbers for victory but on the quality of their technology and the fighting effectiveness of their forces... In both Germany and Japan less emphasis was placed upon the non-combat areas of war: procurement, logistics, military services," concludes historian Richard Overy.[27] Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ...


Delivery of weapons to the battlefront was a matter of logistics. The Allies again did a much better job in moving munitions from factories to the front lines. A large fraction of the German tanks after June 1944 never reached the battlefield, and those that did often ran short of fuel. Japan in particular was notably inefficient in its logistics system.[28]


Many new medical and surgical techniques were employed as well as new drugs like sulfa and penicillin, not to mention serious advances in biological warfare and nerve gases. The Japanese control of the quinine supply forced the Australians to invent new anti-malarial drugs. The saline bath was invented to treat burns. More prompt application of sulfa drugs saved countless lives. New local anesthetics were introduced making possible surgery close to the front lines. The Americans discovered that only 20% of wounds were cause by machine-gun or rifle bullets (compared to 35% in World War I). Most came from high explosive shells and fragments, which besides the direct wound caused shock from their blast effects. Most deaths came from shock and blood loss, which were countered by a major innovation, blood transfusions.[29] SULFA, short for Surrendered ULFA, i. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... A local anesthetic is a drug that reversibly inhibits the propagation of signals along nerves. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Preparing C-4 explosive This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ...


Cryptography played an important part in the war, as the United States had broken the Japanese naval codes and knew the Japanese plan of attack at Midway. British and Polish codebreakers deciphered several German codes, giving the Allies an advantage in the European theater as well. The history of cryptography dates back thousands of years. ...


The massive research and development demands of the war accelerated the growth of the scientific communities in Allied states, while German and Japanese laboratories were disbanded; many German engineers and scientists continued their weapons research after the war in the United States, the Soviet Union and other countries. Read below for more information on technology in the war. The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of scientific research and technological development. ...

See also: Military production during World War II and List of World War II military equipment


During World War II women worked in factories throughout much of the West and East. ... // Aircraft List of aircraft of World War II List of World War II military aircraft of Germany List of aircraft of the Armée de lAir, World War II List of aircraft of the USAAF, World War II List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force, World War II...


Military Intelligence

Both Allied and German intelligence failed to effectively conduct human intelligence gathering, except for prisoner interrogation. The reason is that it is very difficult to train agents to be fluent in the language and culture of the enemy. For example, all German agents parachuted onto British soil were quickly caught by the British authorities, and most were turned. Also, German intelligence turned many English agents on the European continent; virtually no English agent operated in German territory. HUMINT, a syllabic abbreviation of the words HUMan INTelligence, is a category of intelligence gathering disciplines that encompasses all gathering of intelligence by means of interpersonal contact. ...


Technical intelligence gathering was much more effective, mainly on the Allied side. The most important cryptologic systems of both Germany and Japan, Enigma and JN-25 respectively, were analysed and were broken by Polish, British and American cryptologists. This gave the Allied war effort a distinctive edge: Allied commanders knew what their Axis opponents were planning. The defeat of the German Afrika Korps and the elimination of a large number of German submarines is attributed to the Allied success in reading communications deemed "secure" by the German High Command. The naval intelligence situation in the Pacific was very similar: American naval intelligence often knew about Japanese plans well in advance and could dispatch their warships accordingly. The commander of the US pacific fleet (Admiral Nimitz)later stated that communications intelligence was as valuable "as an additional fleet" in the Pacific theater. Cryptology is an umbrella term for cryptography and cryptanalysis. ... The history of cryptography dates back thousands of years. ... Pre-19th century Leone Battista Alberti, polymath/universal genius, inventor of polyalphabetic substitution (see frequency analysis for the significance of this -- missed by most for a long time and dumbed down in the Vigenère cipher), and what may have been the first mechanical encryption aid. ... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK  ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command... Nimitz can refer to: Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz USN, (1885–1966) or various things named in honor of Adm. ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ...


The success of communications intelligence during World War II seems to be a major reason for the UKUSA group of countries to fund large SIGINT organizations like NSA and GCHQ, which are in operation up to the present day. The UKUSA Community is an alliance of English-speaking nations for the purpose of gathering intelligence via signals intelligence. ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (previously named the Government Code and Cipher School (GC&CS)) is the main British intelligence service providing signals intelligence (SIGINT). ...


Aftermath

Germany's territorial losses 1919–1945.
Germany's territorial losses 1919–1945.

The war concluded with the surrender and occupation of Germany and Japan. It left behind millions of displaced persons and prisoners of war, and resulted in many new international boundaries. The economies of Europe, China and Japan were largely destroyed as a result of the war. In 1947, U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall devised the "European Recovery Program", better known as the Marshall Plan. Effective from 1948 to 1952, it allocated 13 billion dollars for the reconstruction of Western Europe. To prevent (or at least minimize) future conflicts, the allied nations, led by the United States, formed the United Nations in San Francisco, California in 1945. One of the first actions of the United Nations was the creation of the State of Israel, partly in response to the Holocaust. Image File history File links Germanborders. ... Image File history File links Germanborders. ... The Aftermath of World War II covers a period of history from roughly 1945-1950. ... Note: This section was copied from the article World War II and removed from that article in order to reduce the size of the article. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City; The City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ...


Aftermath of World War II in Europe

German occupation zones in 1946 after territorial annexations in the East. The Saarland (in the French zone) is shown with stripes because it was removed from Germany by France in 1947 as a protectorate, and was not incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany until 1957.
German occupation zones in 1946 after territorial annexations in the East. The Saarland (in the French zone) is shown with stripes because it was removed from Germany by France in 1947 as a protectorate, and was not incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany until 1957.

The end of the war hastened the independence of many British crown colonies (such as India) and Dutch territories (such as Indonesia) and the formation of new nations and alliances throughout Asia and Africa. The Philippines were granted their independence in 1946 as previously promised by the United States. Poland's boundaries were re-drawn to include portions of pre-war Germany, including East Prussia and Upper Silesia, while ceding most of the areas taken by the Soviet Union in the Molotov-Ribbentrop partition of 1939, effectively moving Poland to the west. Germany was split into four zones of occupation, and the three zones under the Western Allies was reconstituted as a constitutional democracy. The Soviet Union's influence increased as they established hegemony over most of eastern Europe, and incorporated parts of Finland and Poland into their new boundaries. Europe was informally split into Western and Soviet spheres of influence, which heightened existing tensions between the two camps and helped establish the Cold War. Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Organizational structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - US zone G.A. Eisenhower  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 26 KB) Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Manche Bundesländer sind erst 1946 gebildet worden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 26 KB) Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Manche Bundesländer sind erst 1946 gebildet worden. ... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of Saarland, was a protectorate under French control between 1947 and 1959. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... Historical Eastern Germany or Former German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were parts of Germany after its unification in 1871 and were internationally recognised as such at the time. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ... It has been suggested that constitutional republic and republican democracy be merged into this article or section. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Germany was partitioned into four zones of occupation, coordinated by the Allied Control Council. The American, British, and French zones joined in 1949 as the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic. In Germany, economic suppression and denazification took place. Millions of Germans and Poles were expelled from their homelands as a result of the territorial annexations in Eastern Europe agreed upon at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences. In the West, Alsace-Lorraine was given to France, which also separated the Saar area from Germany. Austria was separated from Germany and divided into four zones of occupation, which were united in 1955 to become the Republic of Austria. The Soviet Union occupied much of Central and Eastern Europe and the Balkans. In all the USSR-occupied countries, with the exception of Austria, the Soviet Union helped Communist regimes to power. It also annexed the Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... GDR redirects here. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ... Yalta Conference. ... Clement Atlee, Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945 The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (French: Alsace-Lorraine; German: Elsaß-Lothringen) was a territory that used to be disputed between France and Germany, but is currently a part of France and has been since World War II. The territory, composed of Alsace and parts of Lorraine, belonged to... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... Balkan peninsula with northwest border Isonzo-Krka-Sava The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe. ...


Aftermath of World War II in Asia

In Asia, Japan was occupied by the U.S, aided by Commonwealth troops, until the peace treaty took effect in 1952. The Japanese Empire's government was dismantled under General Douglas MacArthur and replaced by a constitutional monarchy with the emperor as a figurehead. The defeat of Japan also led to the establishment of the Far Eastern commission which set out policies for Japan to fulfill under the terms of surrender. In accordance with the Yalta Conference agreements, the Soviet Union occupied and subsequently annexed Sakhalin and the Kuril islands. Japanese occupation of Korea also ended, but the peninsula was divided between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, along 38th parallel. The U.S.-backed South Korea would fight the communist North Korea in the Korean War, with Korea remain divided. Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor of Japan  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 10, 1945  - San Francisco Peace Treaty September 8, 1951 At the end of the Second World War... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... Combatants Chinese Nationalists Chinese Communists Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on September 2, 1945. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: , Korean: Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdÇŽo Japanese: 樺太 romaji: karafuto), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N. It is part of the Russian... Location of Kuril Islands in the Western Pacific. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or ì¡°ì„ , see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium Canada  Colombia Ethiopia  France Greece  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Australia  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist states: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee...


World War II was a pivotal point in China's history. Before the war against Japan, China had suffered nearly a century of humiliation at the hands of various imperialist powers and was relegated to a semi-colonial status. However, the war greatly enhanced China's international status. Not only was the central government under Chiang Kai-shek able to abrogate most of the unequal treaties China had signed in the past century, the Republic of China also became a founding member of the United Nations and a permanent member in the Security Council. China also reclaimed Manchuria and Taiwan. Nevertheless, eight years of war greatly taxed the central government, and many of its nation-building measures adopted since it came to power in 1928 were disrupted by the war. Communist activities also expanded greatly in occupied areas, making post-war administration of these areas difficult. Vast war damages and hyperinflation thereafter demoralized the populace, along with the continuation of the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and the Communists. Partly because of the severe blow his army and government had suffered during the war against Japan, the Kuomintang, along with state apparatus of the Republic of China, retreated to Taiwan in 1949 and in its place the Chinese communists established the People's Republic of China on the mainland. Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Combatants Chinese Nationalists Chinese Communists Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese... The Nationalist Party of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting... Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang...


Media

The term most used in the United Kingdom and Canada is "Second World War", while American publishers use the term "World War II". Thus the Oxford University Press uses The Oxford Companion to the Second World War in the United Kingdom, and The Oxford Companion to World War II for the identical 1995 book in the United States. The influence of World War II has been profound and diverse, having an impact on many parts of life. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...


The OED reports the first use of "Second World War" was by novelist H.G. Wells in 1930, although it may well have been used earlier.[30] The term was immediately used when war was declared; for example, the September 3, 1939, issue of the Canadian newspaper, The Calgary Herald. Prior the United States' entry into the War, many Americans referred to it as the "European War". OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... The Calgary Herald is a daily Calgary, Alberta newspaper. ...


World War II has been portrayed in numerous media in many languages. The hundreds of fictional (versus documentary) war movies include Twelve O'Clock High (1949), The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), The Dirty Dozen (1967), Patton (1970), Das Boot (1981), Saving Private Ryan (1998) and Pearl Harbor (2001). The war figures prominently in thousands of written works, including Joseph Heller's Catch-22, Akiyuki Nosaka's Grave of the Fireflies, Anne Frank's The Diary of a Young Girl and Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse-Five. Games set within World War II include the board game Axis and Allies and video games 1942 (1984), Wolfenstein 3D (1992), and Call of Duty (2003). The war has been portrayed in many television media, such as Hogan's Heroes (1965–1971) and the miniseries Band of Brothers (2001). The war film is a film genre that has to do with warfare, usually focusing on naval, air, or land battles, but sometimes focusing instead on prisoners of war, covert operations, military training, or other related subjects. ... Twelve OClock High is a 1949 film about the United States Army Air Forces crews who flew daylight bombing missions against Germany and occupied France during World War II. The movie was adapted by Sy Bartlett, Henry King (uncredited) and Beirne Lay Jr. ... The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957) was an Anglo-American World War II war film based on the novel Le Pont de la Rivière Kwaï by French writer Pierre Boulle. ... The Dirty Dozen is a 1967 war film directed by Robert Aldrich from the novel by E.M. Nathanson. ... Patton is a 1970 biographical film which tells the story of General George Pattons commands during World War II. It stars George C. Scott, Karl Malden, and Michael Bates. ... Das Boot (pronounced , German for The Boat) is a feature film directed by Wolfgang Petersen, adapted from a novel of the same name by Lothar-Günther Buchheim. ... Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 Academy Award winning film, directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Robert Rodat, set in World War II. This film is particularly notable for the intensity of the scenes in its first 25 minutes, which depict the Omaha beachhead assault of June 6, 1944. ... Pearl Harbor is a war film released in the summer of 2001 by Touchstone Pictures. ... (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American satirist best remembered for writing the satiric World War II classic Catch-22. ... Catch 22 can refer to: A book by Joseph Heller, or the movie based on the book; see Catch-22. ... History Akiyuki Nosaka was born on 10 October 1930 in Kanagawa. ... A Grave of Fireflies ) is a 1967 semi-autobiographical novel by Japanese novelist Akiyuki Nosaka. ... Annelies Marie Anne Frank (June 12, 1929 – beginning of March, 1945) was a European Jewish girl (born in Germany, stateless since 1941, but she aimed to be Dutch as she grew up in the Netherlands) who wrote a diary while in hiding with her family and four friends in Amsterdam... A 1995 edition of The Diary of a Young Girl The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank was published in Dutch in 1947 (and in English in 1952), using extracts from the diary she kept while in hiding during the Nazi occupation of The Netherlands. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Childrens Crusade: A Duty Dance With Death is a 1969 novel by best-selling author Kurt Vonnegut. ... A board game is a game played with counters or pieces that are placed on, removed from, or moved across a board (a premarked surface, usually specific to that game). ... Axis & Allies is a popular series of World War II strategy board games, with nearly two million copies printed. ... It has been suggested that Multiplayer game be merged into this article or section. ... 1942 is a vertically scrolling shoot em up made by Capcom that was released for the arcade in 1984. ... Wolfenstein 3D (commonly abbreviated to Wolf 3D) is the computer game that started the first person shooter genre on the PC. It was created by id Software and published by Apogee Software on May 5, 1992. ... Call of Duty (released October 29, 2003) is a first-person shooter video game based on the Quake III engine. ... Hogans Heroes was an American television situation comedy that ran from September 17, 1965 to July 4, 1971 on the CBS network for 168 episodes. ... Band of Brothers is an acclaimed 10-part television miniseries set during World War II, co-produced by Steven Spielberg and Tom Hanks. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Ibid.
  2. ^ Chamberlain's radio broadcast, 27 September 1938
  3. ^ http://www.anesi.com/ussbs01.htm
  4. ^ a b Comando Supremo: Events of 1940. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
  5. ^ World War II in Africa Timeline: July 1940. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
  6. ^ Comando Supremo: Events of 1941. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
  7. ^ Keegan, John. The Second World War. 1989. p267.
  8. ^ Keegan, John. The Second World War. p268.
  9. ^ King, Admiral Earnest J.. Naval Operations in the Pacific from March 1944 to October 1945 (English). Sam Houston State University. Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  10. ^ Parshall, Jon. Why Japan Really Lost The War (English). Imperial Japanese Navy Page. Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  11. ^ Yoder, Dan. The Fight for Iwo Jima. In History of the Second World War. editor Sir Basil Hart. 1989. p393.
  12. ^ Keegan, John. The Second World War. 1989. p548.
  13. ^ Peter Ward Fay The Forgotten Army: India's Armed Struggle for Independence 1941-45
  14. ^ Modern India by Sumit Sarkar (Macmillan) pp 418-423
  15. ^ Overy, Richard
  16. ^ Patton's Third Army advanced 600 miles.
  17. ^ A World At Arms, p 769, Gerhard Weinberg
  18. ^ http://www.gedenkstaette-seelower-hoehen.de/
  19. ^ a b c World War II casualties
  20. ^ J. M. Winter, "Demography of the War", in Dear and Foot, ed., Oxford Companion to World War, p 290.
  21. ^ Erlikman, Vadim
  22. ^ Richard Overy The Dictators Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia p.568–569
  23. ^ Hal Gold, Unit 731 testimony, p.64–65, 1996.
  24. ^ Zhifen Ju, "Japan's atrocities of conscripting and abusing north China draftees after the outbreak of the Pacific war", 2002
  25. ^ Raymond W. Goldsmith, "The Power of Victory: Munitions Output in World War II" Military Affairs, Vol. 10, No. 1. (Spring, 1946), pp. 69–80; online at JSTOR
  26. ^ Richard Overy. The Air War, 1939–1945 (2005)
  27. ^ Overy (1993) p 318–9
  28. ^ Mark Parillo, "The Pacific War" in Richard Jensen et al, eds. Trans-Pacific Relations: America, Europe, and Asia in the Twentieth Century (2003), pp. 93–104.
  29. ^ Harold C. Leuth, "Military Medicine" in Walter Yust, ed. 10 Eventful Years (1947) 3:163–67; Mark Harrison, Medicine and Victory: British Military Medicine in the Second World War (2004)
  30. ^ Library catalogs show the first use in 1934: Why war? A handbook for those who will take part in the second world war by Ellen Wilkinson & Edward Conze, (London, 1934), and Johannes Steel, The second world war, (New York, 1934).

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ... Walter M. Yust (b. ... Ellen Cicely Wilkinson (8 October 1891, Manchester-6 February 1947) was the Labour Member of Parliament for Middlesbrough and later for Jarrow on Tyneside. ... Eberhart (Edward) Julius Dietrich Conze (1904 - 1979) was born in London of mixed German, French, and NetherlandsDutch ancestry. ...

Bibliography

  • Bauer, E. Lt-Colonel The History of World War II, Orbis (2000) General Editor: Brigadier Peter Young; Consultants: Brigadier General James L. Collins Jr., Correli Barnet. (1,024 pages) ISBN 1-85605-552-3
  • I.C.B. Dear and M.R.D. Foot, eds. The Oxford Companion to World War II (1995), 1300 page encyclopedia covering all topics
  • Ellis, John. Brute Force: Allied Strategy and Tactics in the Second World War (1999)
  • Gilbert, Martin Second World War (1995)
  • Mark Harrison. "Resource Mobilization for World War II: The U.S.A., UK, U.S.S.R., and Germany, 1938–1945" in The Economic History Review, Vol. 41, No. 2. (May, 1988), pp. 171–192. in JSTOR
  • Keegan, John. The Second World War (1989)
  • Jon Latimer, Burma: The Forgotten War, London: John Murray, (2004)
  • Liddell Hart, Sir Basil History of the Second World War (1970)
  • Murray, Williamson and Millett, Allan R. A War to Be Won: Fighting the Second World War (2000)
  • Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won (1995)
  • Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, Simon & Schuster. (1959). ISBN 0-671-62420-2.
  • Smith, J. Douglas and Richard Jensen (2003). World War II on the Web: A Guide to the Very Best Sites. ISBN 0-8420-5020-5.
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L.A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (2005) ISBN 0-521-44317-2
  • (2004) Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. ISBN 5-93165-107-1. 

Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ... Sir John Keegan (born 1934) is an English military historian. ... Jon Latimer is a historian and writer based in Wales. ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ...

External links

Directories

  • Referencio – "World War II" — Wiki directory
  • Open Directory Project – "World War II" — volunteer directory
  • Yahoo – "World War II

General

Media

Stories

  • Voices in the Dark — Descriptions of life in Nazi-occupied Paris
  • WW2 People's War — A project by the BBC to gather the stories of ordinary people from World War II
  • Memories of Leutnant d.R. Wilhelm Radkovsky 1940–1945 Experiences as a German soldier on the Eastern and Western Front
  • The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 — "a heroic and tragic 63-day struggle to liberate World War 2 Warsaw from Nazi/German occupation."
  • "So Great a Heritage" A collection of 150 letters from an American soldier to his family during World War II gives the reader an insight into the war that they may not otherwise have. The letters were written from the time the soldier reported to boot camp, through his deployments to North Africa, Italy, France, and finally, Germany.
  • (Italian) La Città Invisibile Collection of signs, stories and memories during the Gothic Line age.

Documentaries

  • The World at War (1974) is a 26-part Thames Television series that covers most aspects of World War II from many points of view. It includes interviews with many key figures (Karl Dönitz, Albert Speer, Anthony Eden etc.) (Imdb link)
  • The Second World War in Colour (1999) is a three episode documentary showing unique footage in color (Imdb link)
  • Red White Black & Blue — Feature documentary about The Battle of Attu in the Aleutians during World War II

The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is one of the largest broadcasting corporations in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of more than £4 billion. ... The World at War was a 1974 26-episode television documentary series on World War II, the events that led up to it, and those that followed in its wake. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as President of Germany after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (June 12, 1897– January 14, 1977), British politician, was Foreign Secretary for three periods between 1935 and 1955, including World War II and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957. ...

See also


Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...

Campaigns and theatres of World War II
European Theatre
Poland | Phony War | Denmark & Norway | France & Benelux countries | Britain
Eastern Front (1941–45) | Continuation War | Western Front (1944–45)
Asian and Pacific Theatres
China | Pacific Ocean | South-East Asia | South West Pacific | Manchuria (1945)
The Mediterranean, Africa and Middle East
Mediterranean Sea | East Africa | North Africa | West Africa | Balkans
Middle East | Madagascar | Italy
Other
Atlantic Ocean | Strategic bombing | Attacks on North America | Arctic | Antarctica | Caribbean Sea | Attacks on Australia
Contemporary wars
Chinese Civil War | Soviet-Japanese Border War | Winter War
French-Thai War | Anglo-Iraqi War | Greek Civil War | Sino-Japanese War | Lapland War | Ecuadorian-Peruvian War


Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War , or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1 Italy (to 1943) Romania Finland (to 1944) Hungary Commanders Aleksei Antonov Ivan Konev Rodion Malinovsky Kirill Meretskov Ivan Petrov Alexander Rodimtsev Konstantin Rokossovsky Pavel Rotmistrov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Tolbukhin Aleksandr Vasilevsky Nikolai Vatutin Kliment Voroshilov Andrei Yeremenko Matvei Zakharov Georgy Zhukov Fedor von Bock Ernst... Combatants  Finland Germany  Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Strength 250,000 (total 530,000) Finns[1] + 100,000 (total 220,000) Germans 650,000 (total ???) [2] Casualties 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian casualties[3] 200,000 dead or missing 385,000 wounded... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemberg, and Denmark. ... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... Combatants Soviet Union Japan Commanders Alexandr Vasilevskij Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The Mediterranean region. ... The name African Theatres of World War II encompasses actions which took place in World War II between Allied forces and Axis forces, between 1940 and 1943 both on the African mainland and in nearby waters and islands. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... Combatants Allied Nations Axis Powers The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage war at sea. ... The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between British Empire and Commonwealth forces and Italian Empire forces in Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II: the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. ... Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April... The Middle East Campaign was a part of the Middle East Theatre of World War II. // Overview This campaign included: The British police actions in Palestine. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... Anthem: Nunarput utoqqarsuanngoravit Nuna asiilasooq Capital (and largest city) Nuuk (GodthÃ¥b) Official languages Greenlandic, Danish Government Parliamentary democracy (within constitutional monarchy)  - Monarch Margrethe II  - Prime Minister Hans Enoksen 2002 Autonomous province (Kingdom of Denmark)   - Home rule 1979  Area  - Total 2,166,086 km² (13th) 836,109 sq mi   - Water... The second happy time was a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping to the east and south-east of the United States. ... The Battle for Australia was a series of battles fought in 1942 and early 1943 to defend Australia against Japanese attack. ... Combatants Chinese Nationalists Chinese Communists Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolia Japan Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 Casualties 6,831 killed, 15,952 wounded 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded The Battle of Khalkhin Gol, sometimes spelled Halhin Gol or Khalkin Gol after the Halha River passing through the battlefield and known... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... Combatants Vichy France (first phase), Free France, British and Commonwealth nations (second phase) Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000(First Phase), 150,000 (Second Phase) 60,000(First Phase), 120,000 (Second Phase) Casualties 489 military (First Phase), 12,900+ military (Second Phase) 583 military (First Phase... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 100,000 men 20,000 men and women[] Casualties 12,777 killed 37,732 wounded 4,527 missing 38,000 killed[] 40,000 captured or surrendered The... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong. ... Combatants Germany Finland Commanders Lothar Rendulic Hjalmar Siilasvuo Strength 200,000 60,000 Casualties 950 killed 2,000 wounded 1,300 captured 774 killed 3,000 wounded 262 missing The Lapland War (Finnish: ; German: ; Swedish: ) is a name used for the hostilities between Finland and Germany between September 1944 and... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Ecuador Commanders Gen. ...

edit World War II city bombing a survivor
Area bombardmentTerror bombingV-Weapons

AugsburgBaedeker RaidsBelfastBelgradeBerlinBirminghamBraunschweigBreslauBristolBucharestBudapestCaenChemnitzChişinăuChungkingClydebankCologneCoventry • Danzig • DarmstadtDarwinDresdenDuisburgDüsseldorfEssenFrampolFrankfurtGelsenkirchenGlasgowGreenockHamburg • Hamm • Hanau • Heilbronn • Helsinki • HildesheimHiroshima & NagasakiInnsbruckKaiserslauternKasselKōbeKönigsbergLiverpool • London • Lübeck • LwówMainzMaltaManchesterManilaMannheimMinskMunichNagoyaNahaNaples • Nuremberg • Ōsaka • Peenemünde • PloieştiPforzheimPlymouthPragueRabaulRemscheidRomeRothenburg-au-TauberRotterdamSaarbrückenSalzburg • Schwäbisch Hall • Schweinfurt • Sheffield • SofiaSouthamptonStalingrad • Stettin • StuttgartThessaloníkiTōkyōUlmViennaWarsawWesel • Wieluń • Wuppertal • Würzburg • YokohamaZara Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... Survivor of German aerial bombardment of Warsaw This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Aerial area bombardment is the policy of indiscriminate bombing of an enemys cities, for the purpose of destroying the enemys means of producing military materiel, communications, government centres and civilian morale. ... Terror bombing is a strategy of deliberately bombing civilian targets and strafing civilians in order to break the morale of the enemy and make the civilian population of the enemy panic. ... Vergeltungswaffe (German for retaliation weapon, reprisal weapon or vengeance weapon) was a term assigned during World War II by the Nazis to a number of revolutionary superweapons, the V1 flying bomb, the V2 rocket and the V3 long range gun. ... The Bavarian city of Augsburg, Germany, was bombed twice by the RAF during World War II 1942 The Augsburg air raid on 17 April 1942 was one of the most daring of World War II. The first squadron to take delivery of the 4-engined Avro Lancaster was No. ... The Baedeker Blitz or Baedeker raids were a series of reprisal raids for the bombing of the erstwhile Hanseatic League city of Lübeck during World War II, which was being used to supply the Russian front. ... The Belfast Blitz was an event that occurred on Easter Tuesday, April 15, 1941, when 200 German Luftwaffe bombers attacked Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... he bombing of Belgrade occurred in the initial phases of World War II when German forces bombed the city in preperation for the invasion of Yugoslavia. ... This article is about strategic bombing raids on Berlin. ... The Birmingham Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Birmingham in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The Bombing of Braunschweig (or Brunswick) in World War II on 15 October 1944 by the Royal Air Forces No. ... The Battle of Breslau, otherwise known as the Siege of Breslau was a four months long siege of the city of Breslau (now WrocÅ‚aw, Poland) in Lower Silesia, Germany. ... Bristol was the fifth most heavily bombed city of World War II. // [edit] First Raid Hitler claimed that Bristol had been completely destroyed in a night raid on November 2, 1940 in which 5000 incendiary and 10. ... The bombing of Bucharest (the capital of Romania) in World War II comprised operations by the Allies and Axis Powers at separate intervals in 1944. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery, Miles Dempsey, Richard OConnor, Guy Simonds Edgar Feuchtinger, Erwin Rommel, Gerd von Rundstedt, Günther von Kluge Strength 2nd British Army, 51st Highland Division, 11th British Armoured divison, 7th British Armoured Divison, Polish 1st Armoured Division, VIII British Corps, Royal Air... Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica, 1953-1990 called Karl-Marx-Stadt; Czech: Saská Kamenice) is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... County ChiÅŸinău Status Municipality Mayor Vasile Ursu, since 2005 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] Density 1114 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Founded in 1436 Dialing code +373 22 Web site http://www. ... The Bombing of Chongqing (February 18, 1938 - August 23, 1943) was a Japanese strategic bombing campaign against the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing that lasted 5 1/2 years. ... Clydebank (Bruach Chluaidh in Gaelic) is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, lying on the north bank of the river Clyde. ... Cologne in 1945 The City of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids by the Allies during World War II. During the war the Royal Air Force (RAF) bombed Cologne more than thirty one times. ... The English town of Coventry was bombed many times during World War II by the German Luftwaffe. ... This article is about the History of GdaÅ„sk (Danzig), a city located on the Baltic Sea. ... Darmstadt was bombed a number of times during World War II. The most defestating air raid on Darmstadt occured on the night of 11/12 September 1944 when No. ... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders David V. J. Blake Chuichi Nagumo Strength 30 planes 242 planes Casualties 251 killed 23 planes destroyed 10 ships sunk one aircrew confirmed killed, several missing in action, six taken prisoner; six Japanese aircraft confirmed destroyed, four probably destroyed. ... The bombing of Dresden, led by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and involving the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. Historian Frederick Taylor says: The destruction of Dresden has an... Duisburg was bombed a number of times by the Allies during World War II. The most devastating air raids on Duisburg occurred during October 1944 when the city was bombed by the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and (together with Cologne and the Ruhr Area) the economic center of Western Germany. ... Essen, a town of the Ruhr area in Germany was mercilessly bombed about 50 times by the Allies in World War II. // Some of the earliest air raids were in March, 1942 by the RAF Bomber Command. ... The Bombing of Frampol happened during the Polish Defence War of 1939. ... Frankfurt in 1612 The history of the city of Frankfurt am Main is the story of a hill at a ford in the Main that developed into a European banking metropolis, becoming the smallest metropolis in the world. ... Gelsenkirchen, an industrial town in the Ruhr area of Germany was bombed many times in World War II. On the night of June 25, 1943, 473 RAF bombers attacked the city. ... Clydebank (Bruach Chluaidh in Gaelic) is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, lying on the north bank of the river Clyde. ... The Greenock Blitz is the name given to two nights of intensive bombing of the town of Greenock by the Luftwaffe in May 1941. ... The large port city of Hamburg was very heavily bombed many times by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. During one of the attacks in July 1943 a firestorm was created that caused many thousands of casualties. ... Hanau, Germany, the birthplace of the Grimm Brothers, had a long and vibrant heritage. ... View of the Heilbronn centre of town toward the Wartberg. ... The 1,100 year-old German town of Hildesheim was ravaged by Allied air raids in the last days of World War II. March 22, 1945 was a bright mid-day when 280 Avro Lancasters and 8 Mosquito bombers destroyed the town in 17 minutes, flying low and starting fires. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Innsbruck, an Austrian city, was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938. ... This is the article about the city, for the district see Kaiserslautern (district)   is a city in southwest Germany, located in the Bundesland of Rheinland-Pfalz at the edge of the Palatine Forest (Pfälzer Wald). ... The city of Kassel in Germany was severely bombed during World War II and more than 10,000 civilians died during these raids. ... On March 17th, 1945, three hundred and thirty-one American B-29 bombers launched a firebombing attack against the city of Kobe, Japan. ... In 1944, the city of Königsberg was extensively bombed from the air by the British and burned for several days. ... The Liverpool Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of the city of Liverpool in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... London has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... Lübeck was bombed for the first time by the Royal Air Force on the night of 28/29 March 1942. ... Combatants Germany, Soviet Union Poland Commanders Ferdinand Schörner, Filip Golikov WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Langner, StanisÅ‚aw Sikorski Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Lwów (sometimes called the Siege of Lwów) was a battle for the control over the Polish city of Lwów between the Polish Army... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... The Manchester Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Manchester in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... The City of Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynila), or simply Manila, is the capital of the Philippines and one of the municipalities that comprise Metro Manila. ... From December 1940 till the end of World War II, Mannheim saw over 150 air raids. ... The Minsk Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Minsk (population was 270 000) in the USSR during the Second World War. ... Coordinates: Time zone: CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country: Germany State: Bavaria Administrative region: Upper Bavaria District: Urban district City subdivisions: 25 borroughs Lord Mayor: Christian Ude (SPD) Governing parties: SPD / Greens / Rosa Liste Basic Statistics Area: 310. ... Nagoya faced several air raids in World War II. The first came on the night of March 11, 1945, two days after the attack on Tokyo. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner, Jr. ... Naples was the most bombed Italian city in World War II. Category: ... The U.S. bombing of Osaka during World War II took place on 13th and 14th March 1945. ... Peenemünde was bombed by 596 British and Canadian aircraft, on August 17 and 18, 1943, so as to hamper the manufacture of the German V-Weaposns. ... Operation Tidal Wave was a military operation by the allied forces to destroy Ploiesti, consisting of air raids conducted on August 1, 1943 Links http://www. ... During the latter stages of World War II Pforzheim, a town in south west Germany was bombed on a number of times. ... Entered BCAFL 2001-2002 Team Colors Black & Gold Universities University of Plymouth, University of Exeter, Seale-Hayne College, College of St. ... The Bombing of Prague occurred during the end of World War II (February 14, 1945) when the US Army Air Forces carried out an air raid over Prague. ... The eastern part of the Territory of New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands; the area in which Operation Cartwheel took place, from June 1943. ... Remscheid is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The bombing of Rome in World War II took place on several occassions in 1943 and 1944 before the city was caputred by the allies on June 4, 1944. ... The German town of Rothenburg was more than 1,000 years old when it lost many historic buildings to air raids in World War II. On March 31, 1945, a day before Easter, a raid destroyed the eastern old town (40% of the original city). ... The city heart of Rotterdam after the bombing, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of the Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... Saarbrücken [] is the capital of the Saarland Bundesland in Germany. ... Salzburg is a city in western Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg (population 150,000 in 2006). ... This article, image, template or category belongs in one or more categories. ... Schweinfurt is a city in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km North-East of Würzburg. ... The Sheffield Blitz is the name given to the worst nights of bombing in Sheffield, England during the Second World War. ... The Bulgarian capital of Sofia suffered a series of Allied bombing raids during World War II, from late 1943 to early 1944. ... Southampton was bombed heavily by the Luftwaffe during World War II. It was targetted mainly in the first phase of the Blitz. ... The Soviet city and industrial centre Stalingrad was bombed heavily by the Luftwaffe during the Battle of Stalingrad in World War II. 40,000 people were killed. ... History of Szczecin (German: Stettin) in Poland. ... Stuttgart faced 53 air raids during World War II. A well-known raid was on 6 September 1943. ... Coordinates 40°38′ N 22°57′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Macedonia Prefecture Thessaloniki [1] Population 607,987 source (2006) Metropolitan area population 2,395,220 Area 17. ... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... Ulm, for its size, was the most heavily bombed city of south Germany during World War II. The heaviest air raid was on December 17, 1944 which killed and injuring hundreds but left 25,000 people homeless. ... Vienna was bombed 52 times during World War II. // [edit] Early 1945 Vienna had already faced 1800 bombs. ... The Bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers both to the terror bombing campaign on Warsaw by Luftwaffe during the September Campaign (siege of Warsaw and to the German bombing raids during the Warsaw Uprising. ... The German town of Wesel was devastated in Allied air raids during World War II. In March 1945, the city was attacked by Bomber command Group No. ... Bombing of WieluÅ„ in World War II refers to the German bomb raid on a Polish city of WieluÅ„ at the outbreak of World War II. On September 1, 1939 at 4. ... Wuppertal was bombed extensively in the Battle of the Ruhr of World War II. In two attacks on Wuppertal, more than 6,000 people died. ... During World War II, on March 16, 1945, 89% of the city was laid to ruins by a British Royal Air Force bombing raid. ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ... now. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
World War II. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (2425 words)
After World War I, defeated Germany, disappointed Italy, and ambitious Japan were anxious to regain or increase their power; all three eventually adopted forms of dictatorship (see National Socialism and fascism) that made the state supreme and called for expansion at the expense of neighboring countries.
The German blitzkrieg, or lightning war, with its use of new techniques of mechanized and air warfare, crushed the Polish defenses, and the conquest was almost complete when Soviet forces entered (Sept. 17) E Poland.
War was declared (Dec. 8) on Japan by the United States, the Commonwealth of Nations (except Ireland), and the Netherlands.
World War II - MSN Encarta (537 words)
World War II, global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most devastating war in human history.
More than any previous war, World War II involved the commitment of nations’ entire human and economic resources, the blurring of the distinction between combatant and noncombatant, and the expansion of the battlefield to include all of the enemy’s territory.
In the main, however, the war was fought with the same or improved weapons of the types used in World War I (1914-1918).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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