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Encyclopedia > World Trade Center
World Trade Center
World Trade Center was the world's tallest building from 1972 to 1973.*
Preceded by Empire State Building
Surpassed by Sears Tower
Information
Location New York City, New York, USA (Lower Manhattan)
Status Destroyed
Constructed 1966-1973
Destroyed September 11, 2001 (September 11, 2001 attacks)
Height
Antenna/Spire 1,727 ft (526.3 m) [1]
Roof 1,368 ft (417.0 m)
Top floor 1,355 ft (413.0 m)
Technical details
Floor count 110
Floor area 8.6 million sq ft
800,000 m² (1 & 2)
Elevator count 198 (1 & 2)
Companies
Architect Minoru Yamasaki, Emery Roth & Sons
Structural
Engineer
Leslie Robertson, Leslie E. Robertson Associates
Contractor Tishman Realty & Construction Company
Owner Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

*Fully habitable, self-supported, from main entrance to highest structural or architectural top; see world's tallest buildings and structures for other listings.

The World Trade Center in New York City (sometimes informally referred to as the WTC or the Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, mostly designed by American architect Minoru Yamasaki and engineer Leslie Robertson and developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. It was initiated in 1960 by a Lower Manhattan Association created and chaired by David Rockefeller, who had the original idea of building the Center, with strong backing from the then-New York governor, his brother Nelson Rockefeller.[2] The World Trade Center, New York, like most all World Trade Centers located around the globe, belonged to the family of World Trade Centers Association. Larry Silverstein held the most recent lease to the complex, the Port Authority having leased it to him in July 2001.[3] The complex, located in the heart of New York City's downtown financial district, contained 13.4 million square feet (1.24 million m²) of office space, almost four percent of Manhattan's entire office inventory at that time.[4] World Trade Center (in general) - World Trade Centers (or World Trade Centres), usually abbreviated WTC, arose in the United States and Japan in the 1970s, spearheaded by New York Citys World Trade Center. ... Look up WTC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1361 × 1924 pixel, file size: 1. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York on the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... “NY” redirects here. ... Woolworth Building, looking south along Broadway Lower Manhattan, from the Brooklyn Bridge, 2005 Rigid airship the USS Akron over Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912 – February 6, 1986) was an American architect best known for his design of the World Trade Center. ... Emery Roth was an American architect. ... Leslie E. Robertson (1928-) was the chief engineer in charge of design of the now destroyed World Trade Center in New York. ... The Tishman Realty & Construction is a construction management and real estate development company. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario is the worlds second tallest freestanding structure on land at 553. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Woolworth Building, looking south along Broadway Lower Manhattan, from the Brooklyn Bridge, 2005 Rigid airship the USS Akron over Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York. ... Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912 – February 6, 1986) was an American architect best known for his design of the World Trade Center. ... Leslie E. Robertson (1928-) was the chief engineer in charge of design of the now destroyed World Trade Center in New York. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... David Rockefeller, Sr. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... World trade centers arose in the United States and Japan in the 1970s, spearheaded by New York Citys World Trade Center. ... 7 World Trade Center Larry A. Silverstein (born 1932 in Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn, New York) is a Jewish American billionaire real estate investor and operator and the head of Silverstein Properties, a real estate development group. ...


Best known for its iconic 110-story twin towers, the World Trade Center was beset by a fire on February 13, 1975 and a bombing on February 26, 1993. Despite the first two disasters, the World Trade Center was a part of New York City's identity and was recognized all over the world as an icon for the United States of America. is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the second attack on the World Trade Center in 2001, see September 11, 2001 attacks. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


All of the original buildings in the complex were destroyed in the September 11, 2001 attacks. One World Trade Center (1 WTC) and Two World Trade Center (2 WTC)—the North Tower and South Tower, respectively, collapsed, as did 7 World Trade Center (7 WTC). A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City was completed in 1972 at a height of 417 m (1368 feet), distinguishable from the south tower (Two World Trade Center) by the huge antenna on the roof. ... The South Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City was completed in 1973 at a height of 415 m (1362 feet). ... 7 World Trade Center, a building in New York City, is located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. ...


The Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC) was crushed by the collapses of 1 WTC and 2 WTC. 4 World Trade Center (4 WTC), 5 World Trade Center (5 WTC), and 6 World Trade Center (6 WTC) were damaged beyond repair and later demolished. In addition, St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church (not part of the complex) was destroyed by the collapse of 2 WTC; the Deutsche Bank Building was damaged beyond repair and is currently being deconstructed. Marriott with Twin Towers, July 2001 The Marriott World Trade Center Hotel was a 22-story[1] steel-framed building with 825 rooms. ... World Trade Center 4 was a 9-story low-rise office building in the southeast corner of the site, in Lower Manhattan, New York City. ... 5 WTC, upper right corner. ... 6 World Trade Center was the U.S. Customs House: a 537,693 square foot (49,953 m²), 7 story low rise building, in Lower Manhattan, New York City. ... St. ... For the current Deutsche Bank building, see 60 Wall Street View from the southeast in 1997. ... Deconstruction of a Building. ...

Contents

Planning and construction

During the post-World War II period, the United States thrived economically, with increasing international trade. At the time, economic growth in New York City was concentrated in Midtown Manhattan, with Lower Manhattan left out. To help stimulate urban renewal, David Rockefeller, with support from his brother, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller, suggested that the Port Authority should build a "world trade center" in Lower Manhattan.[5] Initial plans, made public in 1961, identified a site along the East River for the World Trade Center.[5] Objections to the plan came from New Jersey Governor Robert B. Meyner, who resented that New York would be getting this $335 million project.[5] Meanwhile, New Jersey's Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (H&M) was facing bankruptcy. Port Authority executive director, Austin J. Tobin agreed to take over control of the H&M Railroad, in exchange for support from New Jersey for the World Trade Center project.[5] View of the World Trade Centers construction from across the Hudson River The building of the World Trade Center was conceived as an urban renewal project, spearheaded by David Rockefeller, to help revitalize Lower Manhattan. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... Midtown Manhattan viewed from the World Trade Center. ... 1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicagos now demolished Cabrini-Green housing project, one of many urban renewal efforts. ... David Rockefeller, Sr. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... World Trade Center (in general) - World Trade Centers (or World Trade Centres), usually abbreviated WTC, arose in the United States and Japan in the 1970s, spearheaded by New York Citys World Trade Center. ... Woolworth Building, looking south along Broadway Lower Manhattan, from the Brooklyn Bridge, 2005 Rigid airship the USS Akron over Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... Robert Baumle Meyner (July 3, 1908 - May 27, 1990) of Phillipsburg, New Jersey was the Democratic Governor of New Jersey from 1954 to 1962. ... A drawing of the northern of the two underground junctions on the New Jersey side. ... Austin J. Tobin (1903 - February 8, 1978), born in Brooklyn, served as the executive director of the Port of New York Authority, the precursor to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, from 1942 until 1972. ...

The iconic view of New York City showing most of its major landmarks, including the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, Empire State Building, and World Trade Center, May 2001
The iconic view of New York City showing most of its major landmarks, including the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, Empire State Building, and World Trade Center, May 2001

With this acquisition, the Port Authority would obtain the Hudson Terminal, and decrepit buildings located above the terminal in Lower Manhattan.[5] The Port Authority decided to demolish these buildings, and use this site along the Hudson River for the World Trade Center.[5] The towers in the complex were designed by architect Minoru Yamasaki with Antonio Brittiochi and Emery Roth & Sons as associate architects. The World Trade Center was one of the most striking American implementations of the architectural ethic of Le Corbusier, as well as the seminal expression of Yamasaki's gothic modernist tendencies. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (1545 × 1024 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (1545 × 1024 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor, was at one time the main entry facility for immigrants entering the United States from January 1, 1892 until November 12, 1954. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York on the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912 – February 6, 1986) was an American architect best known for his design of the World Trade Center. ... Emery Roth was an American architect. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ...

Structural design

The World Trade Center included many structural engineering innovations in skyscraper design and construction. The towers were designed as framed tube structures. There was a frame of closely-spaced columns tied together by deep spandrel beams along the exterior perimeter. The interior had 47 columns, all concentrated in the core. Engineer Felix Samuely used a similar concept in his "Mullion wall" buildings in the early 1950s as did Eero Saarinen in his US Embassy, London (1955-60); but these projects were low to medium rise and may not have been influences. In structural engineering, the tube is the name given to the systems where in order to resist lateral loads (wind seismic, etc. ... Felix J Samuely (1902-1959) was a Structural engineer. ... The Mullion Wall is a structural system in which the load of the floor slab is taken by prefabricated panels around the perimeter. ... Saarinens Gateway Arch frames The Old Courthouse, which sits at the heart of the city of Saint Louis, near the rivers edge. ... The American Embassy in London The Embassy of the United States of America to the Court of St. ...


The perimeter columns supported virtually all lateral loads, such as wind loads, and shared the gravity loads with the core columns.[6] All columns were founded on bedrock, which unlike Midtown Manhattan, where the bedrock is shallow, is at 65 feet (20m) below the surface. Above the seventh floor there were 59 perimeter columns along each face of the building. The perimeter columns had a square cross section, 14 inches on a side (36 cm), and were constructed of welded steel plate.[6] The thickness of the plates and grade of steel were varied over the height of the tower, ranging from 36 ksi to 100 ksi, with the steel strength and plate thickness decreasing with height.[6] The perimeter structure was constructed with extensive use of prefabricated modular pieces, which consisted of three columns, three stories tall, connected together by spandrel plates. The spandrel plates were welded to the columns at the fabrication shop. The modular pieces were typically 52 inches (1.3 m) deep, and extended for two full floors and half of two more floors.[6] Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ...

Looking up, 1992

Adjacent modules were bolted together, with the splices occurring at mid-span of the columns and spandrels. The spandrel plates were located at each floor, and served to transmit shear flow between columns, thus allowing them to work together in resisting lateral loads. The joints between modules were staggered vertically, so the column splices between adjacent modules were not at the same floor.[6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 609 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1071 × 1055 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 609 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1071 × 1055 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


The building's core housed the elevator and utility shafts, restrooms, three stairwells, and other support spaces. The core in 1 WTC was oriented with the long axis east to west, while that of 2 WTC was oriented north to south. The core of each tower was a rectangular area 87 by 135 feet (27 by 41 m) and contained 47 steel columns running from the bedrock to the top of the tower.[6] The columns tapered with height, and consisted of welded box sections at lower floors and rolled wide-flange sections at upper floors. All of the elevators and stairwells were located in the core. For other uses, see Elevator (disambiguation). ...


The large, column-free space between the perimeter and core was bridged by prefabricated floor trusses. The floors supported their own weight, as well as live loads, provided lateral stability to the exterior walls, and distributed wind loads among the exterior walls. The floors consisted of 4 inch (10 cm) thick lightweight concrete slabs laid on a fluted steel deck. A grid of lightweight bridging trusses and main trusses supported the floors. The trusses had a span of 60 feet (18.2 m) in the long-span areas and 35 feet (11.0 m) in the short span area.[6] The trusses connected to the perimeter at alternate columns, and were therefore on 6 foot 8 inch (2.03 m) centers. The top chords of the trusses were bolted to seats welded to the spandrels on the exterior side and a channel welded to the core columns on the interior side. The floors were connected to the perimeter spandel plates with vicsoelastic dampers, which helped reduce the amount of sway felt by building occupants. The trusses supported a 4-inch-thick (10 cm) lightweight concrete floor slab, with shear connections for composite action.[6] This article is about the construction material. ...


Hat trusses (or "outrigger truss") located from the 107th floor to the top of the buildings were designed to support a tall communications antenna on top of each building,[6] though only 1 WTC (north tower) actually had an antenna. The truss system consisted of six trusses along the long axis of core and four along the short axis. This truss system allowed some load redistribution between the perimeter and core columns and supported the transmission tower.


Design innovations

A typical floor layout and elevator arrangement of the WTC towers
A typical floor layout and elevator arrangement of the WTC towers

To solve the problem of wind sway or vibration in the construction of the towers, chief engineer Leslie Robertson took a then unusual approach — instead of bracing the buildings corner-to-corner or using internal walls, the towers were essentially hollow steel tubes surrounding a strong central core. The 208 feet (63.4 m) wide facade was, in effect, a prefabricated steel lattice, with columns on 39 inch (100 cm) centers acting as wind bracing to resist all overturning forces; the central core took the majority of the gravity loads of the building. A very light, economical structure was built by keeping the wind bracing in the most efficient area, the outside surface of the building, thus not transferring the forces through the floor membrane to the core, as in most curtain-wall structures. The core supported the weight of the entire building and the outer shell containing 240 vertical steel columns called Vierendeel trusses around the outside of the building, which were bound to each other using ordinary steel trusses. In addition, 10,000 dampers were included in the structure. With a strong shell and core such as this, the exterior walls could be simply light steel and concrete. With the massive core and lightweight shell for structural integrity, Robertson created a tower that was extremely light for its size. This method of construction also meant that the twin towers had high load-bearing walls. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bold text For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Leslie E. Robertson (1928-) was the chief engineer in charge of design of the now destroyed World Trade Center in New York. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... In architecture and structural engineering, a truss is a structure comprising one or more triangular units which are constructed with straight slender members whose ends are connected at joints. ...


The buildings were also the second supertall buildings to use sky lobbies, after the John Hancock Center in Chicago.[7] Skylobbies are floors where commuters can switch from an express elevator that goes only to the sky lobbies to a local elevator that goes to each floor in a section. The local elevators were stacked on top of each other, within the same elevator shaft. Located on the 44th and 78th floors of each tower, the sky lobbies enabled the elevators to be used efficiently while taking up a minimum of valuable office space.[8] Altogether, the World Trade Center had 95 express and local elevators.[9] This system was inspired by the New York City Subway system, whose lines include local stations where local trains stop and express stations where all trains stop.[10] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The former World Trade Centers twin towers used sky lobbies, located on the 44th and 78th floors of each tower. ... Several buildings bear this name, all built by John Hancock Insurance and named after John Hancock. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... For other uses, see Elevator (disambiguation). ... Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit. ...


The site of the World Trade Center was located on landfill, with the bedrock located 65 feet below.[11] In order to construct the World Trade Center, it was necessary to build the "bathtub", with the slurry wall along the West Street side of the site, which serves the purpose of keeping water from the Hudson River out. The slurry method involves digging a trench, and as excavation proceeds, filling the space with a "slurry" mixture, comprised of bentonite which plugs holes and keeps water out. When the trench was dug out, a steel cage was inserted, with concrete poured in, forcing the "slurry" out. The "slurry" method was devised by Port Authority chief engineer, John M. Kyle, Jr. Slurrywall excavator A slurry wall is a type of wall used to build tunnels, open cuts and foundations in areas of soft earth close to open water or with a high ground water table. ... The last elevated portion of the West Side Highway by Trump Place apartment complex The West Side Highway (officially the Joe DiMaggio Highway, formerly the Miller Highway) is a mostly-surface section of New York State Route 9A (NY 9A) that runs from West 72nd Street along the Hudson River... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... Bentonite - USGS Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite, (Na,Ca)0. ...


Construction

1 World Trade Center and 2 World Trade Center under construction; Empire State Building and PanAm Building seen in Midtown, 1970

Groundbreaking for the construction of the World Trade Center was on August 5, 1966.[12] The construction was under the auspices of the semiautonomous Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Thirteen square blocks of low rise buildings in Radio Row, some of which predated the American Civil War, were razed to clear the site for construction. Image File history File links World_trade_center_new_york_city_construction_flickr. ... Image File history File links World_trade_center_new_york_city_construction_flickr. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York on the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... MetLife Building as seen from the Empire State Building, 2005 The MetLife Building, originally the Pan Am Building, is located at 200 Park Avenue in New York City. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... Radio Row was a warehouse district in lower Manhattan, New York City. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


The excavation of the foundations of the WTC complex, known as the Bathtub, was particularly complicated since there were two subway tubes close by needing protection without service interruption. A six-level basement was built in the foundations. The excavation of about 1 million cubic yards (760,000 ) of earth and rock created a $90 million real estate asset for the project owner, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which helped offset the enormous loss in revenues which came from the tax breaks given to the Trade Center itself. The soil was used to create 23 acres (93,000 m²) of landfill in the Hudson River next to the World Trade Center site, which became the site of Battery Park City (still under development). The Bathtub refers to the underground foundation area at the site of the World Trade Center and accompanying buildings in New York City in the United States of America. ... Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit. ... The cubic yard (symbols yd³, cu. ... The cubic metre (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... Battery Park City is a 90 acre (0. ...


In 1970, construction was completed on One World Trade Center, with its first tenants moving into the building in December 1970. Tenants first moved into Two World Trade Center in January 1972.[13] When the World Trade Center twin towers were completed, the total costs to the Port Authority had reached $900 million.[14] The ribbon cutting ceremony was on April 4, 1973.[15] Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


Architectural criticism

Although the towers became an undeniable icon of New York City, they were not without flaws and were handicapped in many ways. Initially conceived, (as the name suggests) as a complex dedicated to companies and organizations directly taking part in "world trade," they at first failed to attract the expected clientele. During the early years, various governmental organizations became key tenants of the World Trade Center, including the State of New York. It was not until the 1980s that the city's perilous financial state eased, after which an increasing number of private companies — mostly financial firms tied to Wall Street — became tenants. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ...


Moreover, the trade center's "superblock", which replaced a more traditional, dense neighborhood, was regarded by some critics as an inhospitable environment that disrupted the complicated traffic network typical of Manhattan. For example, in his book The Pentagon of Power, the technical historian Lewis Mumford denounced the center as an "example of the purposeless giantism and technological exhibitionism that are now eviscerating the living tissue of every great city." On the other hand, Mr. Yamasaki saw the expanse as a focal point of serenity amidst the chaos of the city. The twin tower's narrow office windows, only 18 inches wide, were also disliked by many for impairing the view from the buildings.[16] This design element reflected on Yamasaki's fear of heights and desire to make building occupants secure with narrow windows.[16] City Blocks are a part of the fictional universe recounted in the Judge Dredd series that appears in the UK comic book 2000 AD. // Overview Also known as starscrapers or stratoscrapers (compare skyscraper), they are the most common form of mass-housing in Mega-City One, averaging a population of... Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian of technology and science. ... Acromegaly (from Greek akros high and megalos large - extremities enlargement) is a hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH). ... View through the glass floor of the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada. ...


For many years, the immense Austin J. Tobin Plaza was unwelcoming, and often beset by brisk winds at the ground level.[17] In 1999, the outdoor plaza reopened after undergoing $12 million renovations, which involved replacing marble pavers with gray and pink granite stones, adding new benches, planters, new restaurants and food kiosks, and outdoor dining areas.[18] In later years, the plaza became a center for outdoor concerts and other activities. Venus de Milo, front. ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ...


The complex

The Twin Towers

Ultimately the complex came to consist of seven buildings, but its most notable features were the main twin towers. Each of the WTC towers had 110 stories. 1 WTC (the North Tower, which featured a massive 360-foot high TV antenna added in 1978) stood 1,368 feet (417 m) high,[19] and 2 WTC (the South Tower, which contained the observation deck) was 1,362 feet (415 m) high.[19] The length and breadth of the towers were 208 feet (63.4 m) x 208 feet (63.4 m). Although only Tower 1 featured an antenna, the structure of each building was designed to carry a broadcast mast, and in the basement of the complex, The Mall at the World Trade Center was Manhattan's largest mall until 9-11. Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... Map of the mall prior to its destruction. ...

The WTC site building arrangement
The WTC site building arrangement
The lobby of the World Trade Center
The lobby of the World Trade Center
The large antenna on top of the North Tower, from the South Tower's observation deck

When completed in 1972, 1 WTC became the tallest building on Earth, unseating the Empire State Building after a 40 year reign. 2 WTC became the second tallest building in the world when completed in 1973. The difference in height between the two towers was because of a Port Authority request to have two floors, the 43rd and the 67th, in 1 WTC raised, the lower of the taller floors being a cafeteria for PANY workers. 2 WTC did not need these facilities, so it remained 1,362 feet. Regardless, the WTC towers held the height record only briefly. As the building neared completion in 1973, work had already begun on Chicago's Sears Tower, which ultimately reached 1,450 feet (442 m).[20] With the World Trade Center's destruction, the Empire State Building again became the tallest building in New York, after spending almost 30 years as the third-tallest in the city. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links WTC_lobby_19-8-00. ... Image File history File links WTC_lobby_19-8-00. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (968x671, 393 KB) Summary Retouched version of World_Trade_Center_Observation_Deck_New_York_City_1999. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (968x671, 393 KB) Summary Retouched version of World_Trade_Center_Observation_Deck_New_York_City_1999. ... In architecture, a deck is a constructed flat surface capable of supporting weight, similar to a floor but typically constructed outdoors and usually (though not always) connected to a building. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The towers' sheer size was the subject of a joke during a press conference unveiling the landmarks. Minoru Yamasaki was asked: "Why two 110-story buildings? Why not one 220-story building?" His response was: "I didn't want to lose the human scale". Another popular joke among New York urbanites that died out late in the 1970s from overtelling was that the towers looked like the boxes in which the Chrysler Building and Empire State Building were packaged. Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912 – February 6, 1986) was an American architect best known for his design of the World Trade Center. ... The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York on the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ...


Of the 110 stories, eight were set aside for technical services (mechanical floors) Level B6/B5, Floors 7/8, 41/42, 75/76 and 108/109, in four two-floor areas evenly spread up the building. All the remaining floors were free for open-plan offices. Each floor of the towers had 40,000 square feet of space for occupancy.[9] Each tower had 3.8 million square feet (350,000 ) of office space. Altogether the entire complex of seven buildings had 11.2 million square feet (1.04 km²) of space. A mechanical floor, mechanical penthouse, or mechanical level is a floor of a high-rise building that is dedicated to mechanical and electronics equipment. ... is a defined and legal term in building construction and building codes. ... A square foot is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 foot (unit of length) long. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ...


During the 1990s, approximately 500 companies had offices in the complex, including many financial companies such as Morgan Stanley, Aon Corporation, Salomon Brothers, as well as the Port Authority itself. Electrical service to the towers was supplied by Consolidated Edison (ConEd) at 13,800 volts. This service passed through the World Trade Center Primary Distribution Center (PDC) and sent up through the core of the building to electrical substations located on the mechanical floors. The substations "stepped" the 13,800 primary voltage down to 480/277 volt secondary power and further to 120/208 volt general power and lighting service. The complex also was served by emergency generators located in the sublevels of the towers and on the roof of 5 WTC.[21][22] Morgan Stanley (NYSE: MS) is an investment bank and retail broker provider headquartered in New York City. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article deals with Salomon Brothers. ...


The 110th Floor of 1 WTC (North Tower) housed commercial and public service radio & television transmission equipment. The roof of 1 WTC contained a vast array of transmission antennas, including the 360 ft (approx 110m) center antenna mast, which was rebuilt in 1999 by Dielectric Inc. to accommodate DTV. The center mast contained the television signals for almost all NYC television broadcasters: WCBS-TV 2, WNBC-TV 4, WNYW 5, WABC-TV 7, WWOR-TV 9 Secaucus, WPIX 11, WNET 13 Newark, WPXN-TV 31, and WNJU 47. It also had four NYC FM broadcasters on it as well: WPAT-FM 93.1, WNYC 93.9, WKCR 89.9, and WKTU 103.5.[23] Access to the roof was controlled from the WTC Operations Control Center (OCC) located in the B1 level of 2 WTC. Digital television (DTV) is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound by means of digital signals, in contrast to analog signals used by analog (traditional) TV. DTV uses digital modulation data, which is digitally compressed and requires decoding by a specially designed television set, or a... WCBS-TV, channel 2, is the flagship station of the CBS television network, located in New York City. ... WNBC-TV, NBC4 is the flagship TV station of the NBC television network, with studios located in Rockefeller Center in Manhattan. ... WNYW, channel 5, is the flagship television station of the News Corporation-owned Fox Broadcasting Company, located in New York City. ... WABC-TV, channel 7, is the flagship station of the Walt Disney Company-owned American Broadcasting Company, located in New York City. ... WWOR-TV, channel 9, is a MyNetworkTV-affiliated television station licensed to Secaucus, New Jersey, and serving the New York City metropolitan area. ... Secaucus is a town in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. As of the United States 2000 Census, the town population was 15,931. ... WPIX, channel 11, is a television station in New York City. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - City 67. ... WPXN-TV, which broadcasts on channel 31 in New York City, is the flagship station of the ION Television network, formerly known as Pax TV and i. ... WNJU is the Telemundo flagship station for the New York City area. ... WPAT-FM, known on-air as 93. ... WNYC (93. ... WKCR is a college radio station in New York City. ... 103. ...


The World Trade Center complex was protected by an extensive fire detection and voice evacuation paging system upgraded after the 1993 bombing. Fire Command Stations, staffed by Fire Safety Directors were located in the lobbies of each building and the Operations Control Center (OCC) monitored these systems. An extensive study of the performance of World Trade Center Fire Protection Systems was conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) following 2001-09-11.[24] Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Observation deck and Windows on the World

Midtown Manhattan from the observation deck of the south tower
Midtown Manhattan from the observation deck of the south tower

Although most of the space in the WTC complex was off-limits to the general public, 2 WTC (South Tower) featured a public observation area named "Top Of The World." When visiting the observation deck, visitors would first pass through security checks added after the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Next, visitors were whisked to the 107th floor indoor observatory at a height of 1,310 feet (399 m) and greeted with a 360 degree view of the New York City skyline, and exhibitions including a three-dimensional scale model of Manhattan, and a simulated helicopter ride around the city. Weather permitting, visitors could take two short escalator rides up from the 107th floor and visit what was the world's highest outdoor viewing platform. At a height of 1,377 feet (420 m), visitors were able to take in a view of the North Tower and New York City unlike any other. On a clear day, it was claimed that visitors could see up to 45 miles (72 km) in any given direction. An anti-suicide fence was placed on the roof itself, with the viewing platform set back and elevated above it, requiring only an ordinary railing and leaving the view unobstructed. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Midtown Manhattan viewed from the World Trade Center. ... For the second attack on the World Trade Center in 2001, see September 11, 2001 attacks. ... Molėtai Astronomical Observatory An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


The North Tower (1 WTC) had a restaurant on the 107th floor called Windows on the World, which was an elegant restaurant known as a place for big celebrations, such as weddings. In its last full year of operation, 2000, Windows on the World reported revenues of $37.5 million, making it the highest-grossing restaurant in the United States. Windows on the World. ...


The other buildings

Five smaller buildings stood around the 16 acre (65,000 m²) block. One was the 22-floor Vista Hotel (3 WTC) at the southwest corner of the site, that was crushed between the two towers. Three low-rise buildings (4 WTC, 5 WTC, and 6 WTC) in the same hollow tube design as the towers also stood around the plaza. 6 World Trade Center, at the north west corner, housed the United States Customs Service and the U.S. Commodities Exchange. 5 World Trade Center was located at the northeast corner, above the PATH station, and 4 World Trade Center was at the southeast corner. In 1987, a 47-floor office building called 7 WTC was built north of the block. Beneath the World Trade Center complex was an underground shopping mall, which in turn had connections to various mass transit facilities, including the New York City Subway system and the Port Authority's own PATH trains connecting Manhattan to Jersey City, Hoboken, and Newark. An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... 6 World Trade Center was the U.S. Customs House: a 537,693 square foot (49,953 m²), 7 story low rise building, in Lower Manhattan, New York City. ... U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), a bureau of the United States Department of Homeland Security, is charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. trade laws. ... A commodities exchange is an exchange where various commodities and derivatives products are traded. ... 5 WTC, upper right corner. ... Late-night and weekend service: The World Trade Center PATH station, originally opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal. ... World Trade Center 4 was a 9-story low-rise office building in the southeast corner of the site, in Lower Manhattan, New York City. ... 7 World Trade Center, a building in New York City, is located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. ... Map of the mall prior to its destruction. ... Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit. ... Hoboken- and Newark-bound platform at Exchange Place station in Jersey City. ... Location of Jersey City within Hudson County Coordinates: , Country State County Hudson Government  - Mayor Jerramiah T. Healy  - Business Administrator Brian P. OReilly Area  - City 21. ...


One of the world's largest gold depositories was stored underneath the World Trade Center, owned by a group of commercial banks. The 1993 bomb detonated close to the vault, but it withstood the explosion, as did the towers. Seven weeks after the September 11th attacks, $230 million in precious metals were removed from basement vaults of 4 WTC, which included 3,800 100-Troy-ounce registered gold bars and 30,000 1,000-ounce silver bars.[25] GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Life of the World Trade Center

On a typical weekday 50,000 people worked in the towers,[9] with another 200,000 passing through as visitors. The complex was so large that it had its own zip code, 10048. The towers offered spectacular views from the observation deck (located on top of the South Tower) and the Windows on the World restaurant (located on top of the North Tower). The Twin Towers became known worldwide, appearing in movies, TV shows, postcards, merchandise, magazines and much more, and became a New York icon, such as the Empire State Building, or Statue of Liberty. French high wire acrobatic performer Philippe Petit walked between the towers on a tightrope in 1974, and Brooklyn toymaker George Willig scaled the south tower in 1977. Mr. ... 10048 is the zip code assigned to the former World Trade Center twin towers in New York City. ... Windows on the World. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York on the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... Petit at WTC, 1974 Philippe Petit (born August 13, 1949) is a French high wire artist who gained fame for his illegal walk between the former Twin Towers in New York City on August 7, 1974. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... George Willig (aka the human fly or the spiderman) was a mountain-climber from Queens, New York, United States, who climbed the South Tower (Tower 2; 2 WTC) of the World Trade Center on May 26, 1977. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


February 13, 1975 fire

On February 13, 1975, the WTC North Tower was beset by a fire which spread over nearly half of the 11th floor. The fire spread to other floors through openings in the floor slabs which were used to carry phone wires. The fires on other floors were extinguished almost immediately, and the main fire was put out in a few hours. Fireproofing protected the steel from melting and there was no structural damage to the tower. This event led to the installation of a sprinkler system in both towers. Firefighters claim that had the sprinklers been installed when the tower was built, the fire probably would not have spread as much as it did. Other than the damage caused by the fire, a few floors below suffered water damage from the extinguishing of the fires above. is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bombing of February 26, 1993

On February 26, 1993 at 12:17 PM, a Ryder truck filled with 1,500 pounds (680 kg) of explosives was planted by Ramzi Yousef and detonated in the underground garage of the North Tower, opening a 100 foot (30 m) hole through 5 sublevels of concrete leaving six people dead and 50,000 other workers and visitors gasping for air in the shafts of the 110 story towers. For the second attack on the World Trade Center in 2001, see September 11, 2001 attacks. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Ryder NYSE: R is a popular truck rental and leasing company for companies distribution and supply chain efforts. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Ramzi Ahmed Yousef or Ramzi Mohammed Yousef (also transliterated as Ramzi Yusuf, Ramzi Youssef) (Arabic: رمزي يوسف ), birth name possibly Abdul Basit Mahmoud Abdul Karim (Arabic: عبد الباسط كريم) and also known by dozens of aliases,[1] is a Kuwaiti of Pakistani descent who was one of the planners of the 1993 World Trade Center... This article is about the construction material. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Damage underground due to the bombing

Many people inside the North Tower were forced to walk down darkened stairwells which contained no emergency lighting, some taking two hours or more to reach safety. As the Port Authority was a bistate agency, the towers were exempt from New York City building codes. Subsequent to the bombing The Port Authority installed emergency lighting in the stairwells. It is believed that this lighting saved many lives during the events of September 11, 2001. Image File history File links WTC_1993_ATF.jpg Summary From http://www. ... Image File history File links WTC_1993_ATF.jpg Summary From http://www. ... A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


In 1997 and 1998, six Islamist extremists were convicted and sentenced to life in prison for their roles in the bombing. According to a presiding judge, the conspirators' chief aim at the time of the attack was to destabilize the north tower and send it crashing into the south tower, toppling both landmarks. For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ...


As a memorial to the victims of the bombing of the tower, a reflecting pool was installed with the names of those who had been killed in the blast. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, relief workers found a single fractured piece of the fountain etched with the word "John"; to date it is the only remaining part of the 1993 memorial that survived the collapse of the towers. One famous reflecting pool lies between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.. A reflecting pool is a structure often used in memorials. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Lease

In 1998, plans were approved by the Port Authority to privatize the World Trade Center.[26] In 2001, the Port Authority sought to lease the World Trade Center to a private entity. Bids for the lease came from Vornado Realty Trust, a joint bid between Brookfield Properties Corporation and Boston Properties,[27] and a joint bid by Silverstein Properties and The Westfield Group.[28] By privatizing the World Trade Center, it would be added to the city's tax rolls.[28] The lease was also intended to raise funds for other Port Authority projects.[29] On February 15, 2001, the Port Authority announced that Vornado Trust Realty had won the lease for the World Trade Center, paying $3.25 billion for the 99-year lease.[30] Vornado Realty outbid Silverstein by $600 million, though Silverstein upped his offer to $3.22 billion. However, Vornado insisted on last minute changes to the deal, including a shorter 39-year lease, which the Port Authority considered nonnegotiable.[31] Vornado later withdrew and Silverstein's bid for the lease to the World Trade Center was accepted on April 26, 2001,[32] and closed on July 24, 2001.[33] Vornado Realty Trust NYSE: VNO is a New York based Real estate investment trust. ... Brookfield Properties Corporation TSX: BPO NYSE: BPO is a Toronto-based North American commercial real estate company. ... A well respected, self managed real estate investment trust (REIT) based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Westfield Group is a multinational company that owns shopping centres in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Vornado Realty Trust NYSE: VNO is a New York based Real estate investment trust. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


September 11, 2001

With the Statue of Liberty in the foreground, the World Trade Center is shown on fire
With the Statue of Liberty in the foreground, the World Trade Center is shown on fire

On September 11, 2001 at 8:46 a.m. Eastern Time, Al Qaeda suicide hijackers crashed American Airlines Flight 11 into the northern facade of the North Tower.[34][35] Seventeen minutes later, at 9:03 a.m., a second team of hijackers crashed United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower,[35][36] which collapsed and disintegrated at 9:59 a.m. At 10:28 a.m., the North Tower collapsed and disintegrated. At 5:20 p.m., 7 World Trade Center collapsed. The four remaining buildings in the WTC plaza sustained heavy damage from debris, and were ultimately demolished. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Ground Zero debris with markup showing building locations. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (AM, Latin for before noon) and post meridiem (PM, Latin for after noon). Each period consists of 12 hours numbered 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5... “Eastern Daylight Time” redirects here. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: Warrior of God) is an international alliance of militant Sunni jihadist organizations. ... Flight 11 redirects here. ... United Airlines Flight 175 was a morning flight that regularly flew from Logan International Airport in East Boston, Massachusetts to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) in Los Angeles, California. ... 7 World Trade Center, a building in New York City, is located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. ...


At the time of the incident, media reports suggested that tens of thousands might have been killed in the massacre, as on any given day upwards of 50,000 people could be inside the towers. Ultimately, 2,750 [37] death certificates were filed relating to the 9/11 attacks, as of May 23, 2007. Of these, 1,614 (59%) were identified from recovered physical remains. 340 Emergency personnel and 60 police officers were killed in the collapse of the Twin Towers. Morgan Stanley was the largest tenant in the World Trade Center, with approximately 2,500 employees in the South Tower and 1,000 in the North Tower.[38] For the following 8½ months, the World Trade Center site cleanup and recovery continued 24 hours a day and involved thousands of workers. The massive pile of debris smoked and smoldered for 99 days. is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Morgan Stanley (NYSE: MS) is an investment bank and retail broker provider headquartered in New York City. ... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 in 2006 The World Trade Center site is the 16-acre (6. ...


Film and media

The World Trade Center was an American icon and has been featured in numerous films, as well as appearing in many television shows, cartoons, comic books, computer/video games and music videos. The Twin Towers have appeared in popular television shows such as Friends, Sex and the City, The Simpsons and Family Guy. The Twin Towers have also appeared prominently in popular films such as Escape From New York, Godspell, the 1976 King Kong, Armageddon, and Artificial Intelligence (A.I.). The Towers have also been featured in music videos by popular artists such as The Spice Girls, Madonna, Linkin Park, and Limp Bizkit. The World Trade Center has been featured in numerous films, as well as made appearances in many television shows, cartoons, comic books, and computer/video games. ... Film may refer to: photographic film a motion picture in academics, the study of motion pictures as an art form a thin skin or membrane, or any covering or coating, whether transparent or opaque a thin layer of liquid, either on a solid or liquid surface or free-standing Film... For the use of the word in a general sense, see Friendship. ... Sex and the City is a popular American cable television program. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Family Guy is an Emmy award winning American animated television series about a nuclear family in the fictional town of Quahog (IPA or ), Rhode Island. ... Escape from New York is a 1981 science fiction/action film directed and scored by John Carpenter. ... Godspell, released in 1973, is the film adaptation of the Broadway musical Godspell. ... King Kong (also known as King Kong: The Legend Reborn) is a 1976 American motion picture produced by Dino de Laurentiis and directed by John Guillermin. ... For other films with this name, see Armageddon (disambiguation). ... Artificial Intelligence: A.I. is a science fiction film co-produced, written, and directed by Steven Spielberg and released in 2001. ... The Spice Girls were a British vocal girl band. ... Madonna Louise Ciccone Ritchie (born August 16, 1958), better known as simply Madonna, is a six-time Grammy[1] and one-time Golden Globe award winning American pop singer, songwriter, record and film producer, dancer, actress, author and fashion icon. ... Linkin Park is a rock band from Agoura Hills, California. ... Limp Bizkit (alternately written as limpbizkit) is a nu metal band from Jacksonville, Florida. ...


The events surrounding September 11 are portrayed in several documentaries and movies, including two major motion pictures made in 2006, Oliver Stone's World Trade Center and Paul Greengrass' United 93. Several movies released shortly after 9/11 digitally erased the Twin Towers from skyline shots. As of 2007 most reruns of popular television shows have chosen to leave the Twin Towers in airings of the show such as cut scenes in Friends and episodes of The Simpsons. is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known simply as Oliver Stone, is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director and screenwriter. ... World Trade Center is a dramatic film based on the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center towers of New York City(NY), USA, released by Paramount Pictures on August 9, 2006. ... Paul Greengrass (b. ... United 93 (formerly named Flight 93) is a 2006 Academy Award-nominated and BAFTA Award-winning docudrama written and directed by Paul Greengrass that chronicles events aboard United Airlines Flight 93, which was hijacked during the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For the use of the word in a general sense, see Friendship. ... Simpsons redirects here. ...


Rebuilding the World Trade Center

World Trade Center site on September 11, 2006; early stages of construction and foundation work for the Freedom Tower (shown here) were paused in observance of the fifth anniversary
World Trade Center site on September 11, 2006; early stages of construction and foundation work for the Freedom Tower (shown here) were paused in observance of the fifth anniversary
New World Trade Center
Towers
Freedom Tower (Tower 1) Height: 1,776 ft (541.3 m)
200 Greenwich Street (Tower 2) Height: 1,350 ft (411 m)
175 Greenwich Street (Tower 3) Height: 1,255 ft (383 m)
150 Greenwich Street (Tower 4) Height: 975 ft (297 m)
130 Liberty Street (Tower 5) Height: 743 ft (226 m)
7 World Trade Center Height: 750 ft (228 m)
Memorial and Museum
Reflecting Absence (Memorial)
International Freedom Center
Drawing Center
Transit
Transportation Hub
The proposed Freedom Tower

The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, the agency charged with coordinating the reconstruction of the World Trade Center site, selected the master plan, Memory Foundations by Daniel Libeskind,[39] which includes the 1,776 ft (541 m) Freedom Tower. The height of 1,776 feet (541 m) was chosen as a reference to the year of American independence. A new 7 World Trade Center office building, which was not part of the site master plan, officially opened on May 23, 2006. Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links Applications-development. ... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 in 2006 The World Trade Center site is the 16-acre (6. ... The World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition was an open, international memorial contest, initiated by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), as per the specifications of architect Daniel Libeskind, to design a World Trade Center Site Memorial (later renamed the World Trade Center Memorial) on a portion of the reconstructed... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixel Image in higher resolution (2248 × 1674 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixel Image in higher resolution (2248 × 1674 pixel, file size: 1. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the building in Florida of the same name, see Freedom Tower (Miami). ... For the building in Florida of the same name, see Freedom Tower (Miami). ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... The unofficially named World Trade Center Tower 5 is a proposed building in New York City. ... 7 World Trade Center, a building in New York City, is located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. ... In August 2006, the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began construction on the Memorial and Museum. ... The International Freedom Center (IFC) was a proposed museum to be located adjacent to the site of Ground Zero at the former Twin Towers in New York City, US. It was selected in 2004 to comprise a cultural space near to the memorial for victims of the September 11, 2001... The Drawing Center is a museum and educational center located in Lower Manhattan in New York City (USA). ... Late-night and weekend service: The World Trade Center PATH station, originally opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal. ... Freedom Tower at night. ... Freedom Tower at night. ... For the building in Florida of the same name, see Freedom Tower (Miami). ... The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) was formed after the September 11 attacks to plan the reconstruction of Lower Manhattan and distribute nearly $10 billion in federal funds aimed at rebuilding downtown Manhattan. ... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 in 2006 The World Trade Center site is the 16-acre (6. ... A vision of the planned Memory Foundations The Memory Foundations is the name given by Daniel Libeskind to his site plan selected by officials as what is to be built on the former World Trade Center site in New York City. ... Daniel Libeskind in front of his extension to the Denver Art Museum. ... For the building in Florida of the same name, see Freedom Tower (Miami). ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... 7 World Trade Center, a building in New York City, is located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation sponsored the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition, an international design competition for the World Trade Center Memorial in spring 2003. The winning design, Michael Arad and Peter Walker's Reflecting Absence, was chosen in January 2004. The World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition was an open, international memorial contest, initiated by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), as per the specifications of architect Daniel Libeskind, to design a World Trade Center Site Memorial (later renamed the World Trade Center Memorial) on a portion of the reconstructed... In August 2006, the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began construction on the Memorial and Museum. ... Michael Arad is an Israeli citizen and architect who was selected to design the World Trade Center Memorial in New York City. ...


The World Trade Center name will continue to be used as name of the site, as will the New York City Subway and PATH train stations that serve the complex. A temporary PATH station, largely following the layout of the original, is the first part of the complex to have reopened. Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit. ... Hoboken- and Newark-bound platform at Exchange Place station in Jersey City. ... Late-night and weekend service: The World Trade Center PATH station, originally opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal. ...


On November 22, 2004, New York Governor George Pataki named the living former presidents as honorary members of the board rebuilding the World Trade Center. is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is an American politician who was the 57th Governor of New York serving from January 1995 until January 1, 2007. ...


On May 18, 2005, Donald Trump, long-time opponent of the Freedom Tower, proposed the Twin Towers II plan to rebuild the Twin Towers with various safety, structural, and technological improvements. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946 in Queens, New York, New York) is an American business executive, entrepreneur, television personality and author. ... Twin Towers II Twin Towers II is a design by engineering graduate Kenneth Gardner and architect Herbert Belton (deceased). ...


On June 29, 2005, a redesigned Freedom Tower was unveiled which more closely resembled the character of the fallen towers. The new design also boasted several safety improvements over previous proposals. is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 15, 2005, Sir Norman Foster was announced as the architect who will design the second of five new office towers planned for the site. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Armadillo, Sir Norman Fosters Clyde Auditorium in Glasgow Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank OM Kt (born June 1, 1935) is a British architect. ...


On March 13, 2006 workers arrived at the World Trade Center site to remove remaining debris and start surveying work. This marks the official start of construction of the WTC Memorial and Museum.[40] is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In April 2006, a tentative agreement was reached by the owner of the site, The Port Authority, and private developer Larry Silverstein. The main elements of that agreement are that Silverstein ceded rights to develop the Freedom Tower and Tower Five in exchange for financing with Liberty Bonds for Tower Two, Three, and Four which are considered to be the most marketable properties of the site. On April 27, 2006, a groundbreaking ceremony was held for the Freedom Tower.[41] Liberty bonds are a special type of war bonds that were sold to support the allied cause in World War I. It could be redeemed for the orginal value of the bond with interest. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In May 2006, architects Richard Rogers and Fumihiko Maki were announced as the architects for Towers Three and Four, respectively. For the American composer, see Richard Rodgers. ... Spiral house in Tokyo Fumihiko Maki (槇文彦, Maki Fumihiko) (born Tokyo, September 6, 1928) is a Japanese architect. ...


The final designs for Towers Two, Three and Four were unveiled on September 7, 2006. Tower Two, or 200 Greenwich Street, will have a roof height of 1,254 feet (382 m) and a 96-foot (29 m) tripod spire for a total of 1,350 feet (411 m). Tower Three, or 175 Greenwich Street will have a roof height of 1,155 feet (352 m) and an antennae height of 1,255 feet (383 m). Tower Four, or 150 Greenwich Street, will have an overall height of 946 feet (288 m).[42] is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ...


As of late 2006, work at the World Trade Center site continued. Foundation work has started on the Freedom Tower, Calatrava Hub, and the memorials. By the end of 2006, the site was expected to look like the massive construction project that built the previous World Trade Center.


On June 22, 2007 the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announced that JP Morgan Chase will build Tower 5, a 42 story building on Site 5 currently occupied by the Deutsche Bank Building. [43] Kohn Pedersen Fox was officially chosen as the architect for the building on July 17, 2007[44]
is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. ... The unofficially named World Trade Center Tower 5 is a proposed building in New York City. ... The architectural firm of Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates (KPF) was founded in 1976 by A. Eugene Kohn, William Pedersen, and Sheldon Fox. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge Robert Moses (December 18, 1888 - July 29, 1981) was the master builder of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County. ... Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912 – February 6, 1986) was an American architect best known for his design of the World Trade Center. ... This article reviews some of the technical nuts and bolts of radio communications at the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center incident. ... 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City was completed in 1972 at a height of 417 m (1368 feet), distinguishable from the south tower (Two World Trade Center) by the huge antenna on the roof. ... The South Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City was completed in 1973 at a height of 415 m (1362 feet). ... Seven World Trade Center, building 7 of the World Trade Center in New York City, was completed in 1987 at a height of 174 m (570 feet). ... The World Trade Center has been featured in numerous films, as well as made appearances in many television shows, cartoons, comic books, and computer/video games. ... For the building in Florida of the same name, see Freedom Tower (Miami). ...

References

  1. ^ SkyscraperPage - One World Trade Center, source:Federal Communications Commission
  2. ^ The Height of Ambition, New York Times September 8, 2002.
  3. ^ Port of New York and New Jersey (July 21, 2001). Governor Pataki, Acting Governor DiFrancesco Laud Historic Port Authority Agreement To Privatize World Trade Center. Press release.
  4. ^ Buildings.com. Four Percent of Manhattan's Total Office Space Was Destroyed in the World Trade Center Attack.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Gillespie, Angus K. (1999) Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center, Chapter 1, Rutgers University Press
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Final Report on the Collapse of the World Trade Center (chapter 1). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (September 2005).
  7. ^ Otis History: The World Trade Center. Otis Elevator Company. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  8. ^ Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). "Chapter 2", Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press. 
  9. ^ a b c Ruchelman, Leonard I. (1977). The World Trade Center: Politics and Policies of Skyscraper Development.. Syracuse University Press, p. 11. 
  10. ^ Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press, p. 76. 
  11. ^ Iglauer, Edith. "The Biggest Foundation", The New Yorker, November 4 1972. 
  12. ^ Federal Emergency Management Agency (May 2002). "Chapter 1", World Trade Center Building Performance Study. 
  13. ^ Lew, H. S., Richard W. Bukowski, and Nicholas J. Carino. Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Structural and Life Safety Systems (pdf). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
  14. ^ Cudahy, Brian J. (2002). "Chapter 3", Rails Under the Mighty Hudson: The Story of the Hudson Tubes, the Pennsy Tunnels, and Manhattan Transfer. Fordham University Press. 
  15. ^ World Trade Center - Minoru Yamasaki. Greatbuildings.com. Retrieved on 2006-04-06.
  16. ^ a b Pekala, Nancy. "Profile of a lost landmark; World Trade Center", Journal of Property Management, November 1, 2001. 
  17. ^ Dunlap, David W. "At New Trade Center, Seeking Lively (but Secure) Streets", The New York Times, December 7, 2006. 
  18. ^ World Trade Center Plaza Reopens with Summer-long Performing Arts Festival. PANYNJ (June 9, 1999).
  19. ^ a b World Trade Center, New York City. Emporis. Retrieved on 2006-04-13.
  20. ^ Sears Tower Building Information. Retrieved on 2006-09-11.
  21. ^ World Trade Center Building Performance Study. FEMA. Retrieved on 2007-03-08. “Six 1,200-kilowatt(kW) emergency power generators located in the sixth basement (B-6) level provided a secondary power supply.”
  22. ^ Amy Florence Fischbach (January 1, 2001). Towering security. CEE News. Retrieved on 2007-03-08. “E-J Electric set four generators on the roof of Tower 5, which was nine stories, as opposed to the 110-story Towers 1 and 2. E-J then ran high-voltage feeder cable to Towers 1, 2, 4 and 5, installed three substations and distributed power to the tenants.”
  23. ^ http://www.fcc.gov/
  24. ^ http://wtc.nist.gov/NISTNCSTAR1-4C.pdf
  25. ^ Rediff.com – Buried WTC gold returns to futures trade
  26. ^ Herman, Eric. "PA to ease WTC tax load, rent would be cut to offset hike by city", New York Daily News, February 6, 2001. 
  27. ^ Bagli, Charles V.. "Bidding for Twin Towers", The New York Times, January 31, 2001. 
  28. ^ a b Cuozzo, Steve. "Larry Lusts for Twin Towers; Silverstein has an Eye on WTC's; Untapped Retail Potential", New York Post, January 30, 2001. 
  29. ^ Herman, Eric. "Port Authority Gets Final Bids on WTC", New York Daily News, January 31, 2001. 
  30. ^ "Brookfield Loses Lease Bid", Toronto Star, February 23, 2001. 
  31. ^ Bagli, Charles V.. "As Trade Center Talks Stumble, No. 2 Bidder Gets Another Chance", The New York Times, March 20, 2001. 
  32. ^ Bagli, Charles V.. "Deal Is Signed To Take Over Trade Center", The New York Times, April 27, 2001. 
  33. ^ Smothers, Ronald. "Leasing of Trade Center May Help Transit Projects, Pataki Says", The New York Times, July 25, 2001. 
  34. ^ N-Number Inquiry Results. Federal Aviation Administration.
  35. ^ a b 9/11 Commission Report. The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States.
  36. ^ N-Number Inquiry Results. Federal Aviation Administration.
  37. ^ NYC links first death to 9/11 toxic dust. Associated Press (May 23, 2007). Retrieved on May 24, 2007.
  38. ^ Goldstein, Amy, Cheryl W. Thompson. "Jet Crash Victims' Stories Start To Emerge; Loved Ones Describe Lives, Last Contacts", The Washington Post, September 12, 2001. 
  39. ^ Lower Manhattan Development Corp.. Selected Design for the WTC Site as of February 2003.
  40. ^ Westfeldt, Amy. "Construction Begins On World Trade Center Memorial", New York Sun, March 13, 2006. 
  41. ^ Construction Begins at Ground Zero (AP story)
  42. ^ Designs Unveiled for Freedom Tower’s Neighbors
  43. ^ JP Morgan releases WTC tower plans
  44. ^ Kohn Responds to WTC5 Criticisms.

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a bi-state agency (operated pursuant to an interstate compact) that runs most of the regional transportation infrastructure, including the bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the New York–New Jersey Port District. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... The Otis Elevator Company is the worlds largest manufacturer of vertical transportation systems, principally elevators and escalators. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New FEMA seal The Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA is an agency of the United States government dedicated to swift response in the event of disasters, both natural and man-made. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Preceded by
Empire State Building
Tallest Building in the World
1973
Succeeded by
Sears Tower
Preceded by
Empire State Building
Tallest Building in New York City
1973—2001
Succeeded by
Empire State Building
Preceded by
Empire State Building
Building with the most floors
1973-2001
Succeeded by
Sears Tower

Coordinates: 40°42′42″N, 74°00′45″W Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912 – February 6, 1986) was an American architect best known for his design of the World Trade Center. ... View of the World Trade Centers construction from across the Hudson River The construction of the World Trade Center was conceived as an urban renewal project, spearheaded by David Rockefeller, to help revitalize Lower Manhattan. ... For the second attack on the World Trade Center in 2001, see September 11, 2001 attacks. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Ground Zero debris with markup showing building locations. ... 7 World Trade Center Larry A. Silverstein (born 1932 in Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn, New York) is a Jewish American billionaire real estate investor and operator and the head of Silverstein Properties, a real estate development group. ... Tolls collected at the Holland Tunnel and other crossings help fund the Port Authority. ... The World Trade Center has been featured in numerous films, as well as made appearances in many television shows, cartoons, comic books, and computer/video games. ... Marriott with Twin Towers, July 2001 The Marriott World Trade Center Hotel was a 22-story[1] steel-framed building with 825 rooms. ... World Trade Center 4 was a 9-story low-rise office building in the southeast corner of the site, in Lower Manhattan, New York City. ... 5 WTC, upper right corner. ... 6 World Trade Center was the U.S. Customs House: a 537,693 square foot (49,953 m²), 7 story low rise building, in Lower Manhattan, New York City. ... 7 World Trade Center, a building in New York City, is located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. ... Late-night and weekend service: The World Trade Center PATH station, originally opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal. ... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 in 2006 The World Trade Center site is the 16-acre (6. ... For the building in Florida of the same name, see Freedom Tower (Miami). ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... A rendering of the new World Trade Center as completed. ... The unofficially named World Trade Center Tower 5 is a proposed building in New York City. ... In August 2006, the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began construction on the Memorial and Museum. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
World Trade Center :: World Trade Center, New York, New York, United States :: Glass Steel and Stone (14658 words)
Three and a half years ago the trade center was taken from me.It left a hole in my heart and in the sky.Many people were lost,many survived.Ostrages hide there heads in a hole in the ground,the proud the strong,place foundations in the holes in the ground and build great towers.
I Believe the World Trade Center should be rebuilt exactly as it was It would be the best memorial to the people who lost their lives, a living memorial.
I was in the Observatory in the World Trade Center in New York twice.
World Trade Center - Minoru Yamasaki - Great Buildings Online (1968 words)
World trade means world peace and consequently the World Trade Center buildings in New York...
The World Trade Center is a living symbol of man's dedication to world peace...
WTC 7, a substantial 47 story office building in its own right, built in 1987, was damaged by the collapsing towers, caught fire, and later in the afternoon also totally collapsed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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