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Encyclopedia > World Series Cricket
The WSC logo.

World Series Cricket (WSC) was a break away professional cricket competition staged between 1977 and 1979 and organised by Kerry Packer for his Australian television network, Channel Nine. The matches ran in opposition to established international cricket. World Series Cricket drastically changed the nature of cricket, and its influence continues to be felt today. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Kerry Francis Bullmore Packer AC (17 December 1937 – 26 December 2005) was an Australian publishing, media and gaming tycoon. ...


The series originated due to two main factors - the widespread view that players were not paid sufficient amounts to make a living from cricket, and that Packer wished to secure the exclusive broadcasting rights to Australian cricket, then held by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ...


After the Australian Cricket Board (ACB) refused to accept Channel Nine's bid to gain exclusive television rights to Australia's test matches in 1976, Packer set up his own series by secretly signing agreements with leading Australian, English, Pakistani, South African and West Indian players, most notably England captain Tony Greig, West Indies captain Clive Lloyd, Australian captain Greg Chappell and former Australian Captain Ian Chappell. Packer was aided by businessmen John Cornell and Austin Robertson, both of whom were involved with the initial setup and administration of the series. Cricket Australia logo Cricket Australia (ABN 53 006 089 130) an Australian Public Company, Limited By Guarantee, formerly the Australian Cricket Board, is the governing body for professional cricket in Australia. ... The logo of the England Cricket Team which shows the three Lions of England below a five-pointed crown The England cricket team is a cricket team which represents England and Wales, operating under the auspices of the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). ... Anthony Tony William Greig (born October 6, 1946) is a former test cricketer and currently a commentator. ... Clive Hubert Lloyd CBE, born 31 August 1944 in Georgetown, British Guiana (now Guyana), is a former West Indies cricketer. ... Gregory Stephen Chappell (born 7 August 1948 in Unley, South Australia) is a former cricketer who captained Australia between 1975 and 1977 and then joined the breakaway World Series Cricket (WSC) organisation, before returning to the Australian captaincy in 1979, which he held until 1983. ... Ian Michael Chappell (born September 26, 1943 in Unley, South Australia) is a former Australian Test cricketer, who captained Australia between 1971 and 1975 before becoming one of the central figures in the breakaway World Series Cricket (WSC) organisation. ... John Cornell (born 1941 in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia) is an film producer and actor. ... Austin Ocker Robertson (born November 21, 1907) was an Australian rules footballer who played with South Melbourne in the VFL. Robertson debuted with South Melbourne at the age of 18 and played for the club between 1927 and 1937, during which time he was also a world champion professional sprinter. ...

Contents

Kerry Packer and the Australian television industry

In the mid-1970s, the Australian television industry was at the crossroads. Since its inception in 1956, the commercial stations had developed a reliance on imported

The Nine logo, 1970s.
The Nine logo, 1970s.

programs, particularly from the United States, which proved cheaper to buy. Agitation for more Australian-made programming gained impetus from the "TV: Make it Australian" campaign in 1970. This led to a government-imposed quota system in 1973.[1] The advent of colour transmissions in 1975 markedly improved sport as a television spectacle and, importantly, counted as local content. However, sports administrators perceived live telecasts to have an adverse effect on attendances. The correlation between sports, corporate sponsorship and television exposure was not evident to Australian sports administrators at the time. Image File history File links Old_Nine_Network. ... Image File history File links Old_Nine_Network. ...


After the death of his father Sir Frank in 1974, Kerry Packer assumed control of Channel Nine, one of the many media interests owned by the family's company Consolidated Press Holdings (CPH) [2] With Nine's ratings languishing, Packer sought to turn the network around via an aggressive strategy that included more sports programming. Firstly, he secured the rights to the Australian Open. He spent millions of dollars revamping the Australian Golf Club in Sydney as a permanent home for the tournament.Jack Nicklaus was hired to do the re-design and appear in the tournament.[3] Packer was a fan of cricket, which was undergoing a resurgence in popularity during the mid-1970s. In 1976, Packer sought the rights to televise Australia's home Test matches, the contract for which was about to expire. He approached the ACB with an offer of AU$1.5 million for three years (eight times the previous contract), yet he was rebuffed.[4] The ACB felt loyal to the ABC, which had broadcast the game for twenty years when the commercial networks showed little interest in the game. Packer believed that there was an "old-boy network" element to the decision,[5] and he was furious at the dismissive way that his bid was handled. The government-funded ABC could not hope to match a commercial network's bid, but they were awarded another three-year contract worth only $210,000, commencing with the 1976-77 season. Sir Frank Packer (December 3, 1906–May 1, 1974), was an Australian media proprietor who controlled Australian Consolidated Press and the Nine television network. ... The Nine Network, or Channel Nine, is an Australian television network based in Willoughby, a suburb on the North Shore of Sydney. ... Australian Consolidated Press (ACP), a member of Publishing and Broadcasting Ltd. ... The Australian Open is one of the principal annual golf tournaments on the PGA Tour of Australasia. ... Jack William Nicklaus (born January 21, 1940), also known as The Golden Bear,[1] is a professional golfer, and is widely regarded as the greatest golfer of all time, with his records in Major championships owing to this. ... Cricket Australia logo Cricket Australia (ABN 53 006 089 130) an Australian Public Company, Limited By Guarantee, formerly the Australian Cricket Board, is the governing body for professional cricket in Australia. ...


Determined to get some cricket on Channel Nine, Packer put an offer to the Test and County Cricket Board (TCCB) to telecast the Australian tour of England scheduled for 1977. His interest was further stimulated by a proposal to play some televised exhibition matches, an idea presented to him by the West Australian businessmen John Cornell and Austin Robertson.[6] Robertson managed several high profile Australian cricketers such as Dennis Lillee. The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) is the governing body of cricket in England and Wales. ...


Packer took this idea, then fleshed it out into a full series between the best Australian players and a team from the rest of the world. His mistrust of cricket's administrators deepened when the ACB recommended the TCCB accept an offer for their broadcasts rights from the ABC, even though the ABC was offering about thirty per cent less than Packer.[7] For the first time, the game's officialdom had a demonstration of Packer's financial wherewithal: he immediately doubled his original offer and won the contract.[8] But he never forgot the machinations involved in winning the bid.


Secret signings

Packer's planning of the proposed "exhibition" series was audacious. In early 1977, he began contracting a list of Australian players provided by recently-retired Australian test captain Ian Chappell. A bigger coup was achieved when Packer convinced the England captain Tony Greig to not only sign on, but to act as an agent in signing many players around the world.[9] By the time the season climaxed with the

Kerry Packer.

Centenary Test match between Australia and England at Melbourne in March 1977, about two dozen players had committed to Packer's enterprise, which as yet had no grounds to play on, no administration and was secret to all in the cricket world. It was a measure of the players' dissatisfaction with official cricket that they were prepared to sign up for what was still a vague concept and still keep everything covert.[10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Centenary Test refers to two matches of Test cricket between the English cricket team and the Australian cricket team, the first in 1977 and the second in 1980. ... The logo of the England Cricket Team which shows the three Lions of England below a five-pointed crown The England cricket team is a cricket team which represents England and Wales, operating under the auspices of the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). ... “MCG” redirects here. ...


By the time the Australian team arrived to tour England in May 1977, thirteen of the seventeen members of the squad had committed to Packer. News of the WSC plans were inadvertently leaked to Australian journalists, who broke the story on 9 May. Immediately, all hell broke loose in the hitherto conservative world of cricket. Not unexpectedly, the English were critical of what they quickly dubbed the "Packer Circus" and reserved particular vitriol for the English captain Tony Greig, for his central role in organising the break-away. Greig retained his position in the team, but was stripped of the captaincy and ostracised by everyone in the cricket establishment, most of whom had been singing his praises just weeks before. Anthony Tony William Greig (born October 6, 1946) is a former test cricketer and currently a commentator. ...


It seemed certain that all Packer players would be banned from test and first class cricket. The Australian players were a divided group and the management made their displeasure clear to the Packer signees.[11] Dispirited by this turn of events and hampered by poor form and indifferent weather, Australia crashed to a 3-0 defeat, surrendering the Ashes won two years before.


Court case

A largely unknown Kerry Packer arrived in London in late May 1977.[12] He appeared on David Frost's The Frost Programme to debate his concept with commentators Jim Laker and Robin Marlar. Marlar's aggressive, indignant interrogation of Packer came unstuck when Packer proved to be articulate, witty and confident that his vision was the way of the future.[13] The show significantly raised Packer's profile and converted some to his way of thinking. The main goal of his trip was to meet the game's authorities and reach some type of compromise. He made a canny move by securing Richie Benaud as a consultant. Benaud's standing in the game and his journalistic background helped steer Packer through the Byzantine politics of the game. Sir David Paradine Frost, OBE (born April 7, 1939) is an English television presenter. ... James Charles (Jim) Laker (February 9, 1922, Frizinghall, near Bradford, Yorkshire–April 23, 1986, Putney, London) was a cricketer who played for England in the 1950s. ... Robin Geoffrey Marlar (born 2 January 1931) is an English cricketer and cricket journalist. ... Richard Richie Benaud OBE (born October 6, 1930 in Penrith, New South Wales) is a former Australian cricketer. ...

Richie Benaud, who played a key role as a consultant and commentator for WSC.

Cricket's world governing body, the International Cricket Council (ICC), now entered a controversy initially perceived as an Australian domestic problem. They met with Packer, Benaud and two assistants at Lord's on 23 June to discuss the WSC plans.[14] After ninety minutes of compromise from both sides had almost created common ground, Packer demanded that the ICC award him the exclusive Australian television rights after the 1978-79 season ended. It wasn't in the power of the ICC to do so[15] and Packer stormed from the meeting to deliver the following unadulterated declaration of war:[16] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ICC logo The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the governing body for international Test match and One-day International cricket. ... The Pavilion The Grand Stand Match in progress The Media Centre at Lords Cricket Ground This memorial stone to Lord Harris is in the Harris Garden at Lords Lords Cricket Ground is a cricket ground in St Johns Wood in London, at grid reference TQ268827. ...

Had I got those TV rights I was prepared to withdraw from the scene and leave the running of cricket to the board. I will take no steps now to help anyone. It's every man for himself and the devil take the hindmost.

This outburst undid any goodwill that Packer had created during his earlier television appearance, and alarmed his contracted players, who viewed his scheme as being as much philanthropic as commercial.[17] The ICC decided to treat Packer's scheme with contempt when a month later they decided Packer's matches would not be given first-class status and the players involved would be banned from test match and first class cricket.


A number of the signed players now considered withdrawing.[18] Jeff Thomson and Alvin Kallicharan had their contracts torn up when it was discovered that they had binding agreements with a radio station requiring them to play for Queensland.[19] Packer moved quickly to shore up support, meeting with the players and taking legal action to prevent third parties from inducing players to break their contracts. To clarify the legal implications (including the proposed bans), Packer backed a challenge to the TCCB in the High Court by three of his players: Tony Greig, Mike Procter and John Snow.[20] For more coverage of cricket, go to the Cricket portal. ... Alvin Isaac Kallicharran (born March 21, 1949) was a West Indian batsman who played from 1972 to 1981. ... The Queensland Bulls are the Brisbane-based Queensland representative cricket team in Australias domestic cricket tournaments: Pura Cup (formerly Sheffield Shield), 4-day matches with first-class status, since the 1926/27 season Ford Ranger One Day Cup, 1-day (50 over per side) tournament with List-A status... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (usually known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales (which under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, is to be known as the... Mike Procter (born Michael John Procter September 15, 1946) was a South African cricketer. ... John Augustine Snow (born 13 October 1941), usually known as plain John Snow was a prominent cricketer who played for Sussex and England during the 1960s and 1970s. ...


The case began on 26 September 1977 and lasted seven weeks. The cricket authorities counsel said that if the top players deserted traditional cricket then gate receipts would decline. Mr. Packer's lawyers stated that the ICC had tried to force the Packer players to break their contracts and to prevent others from joining them. Justice Sir Christopher Slade considered the following nine points needed to be considered:[21]


i) Are the contracts between WSC and its players void?


ii) Has WSC established that, as at August 3, and subject to any statutory immunity conferred by the 1974 Act,[22]it was a good cause of action in tort against the ICC based on inducement of breach of contract?


iii) Has WSC established that as at August 3 and subject as aforesaid, it had a good cause of action in tort against the TCCB based on the same grounds?


iv) Subject to the provisions of the 1974 Act, are the new ICC rules void as being in restraint of trade?


v) Subject to aforesaid, are the proposed new TCCB rules void as being in restraint of trade?


vi) Is the ICC an employers' association within the 1974 Act?


vii) Is the TCCB an employers' association?


viii) If either the ICC or TCCB or both be employers' associations, does this itself bar any cause of action that would otherwise exist?


ix) In the light of the answers, what relief (if any) should be given to (a) the individual plaintiffs and (b) WSC?



Justice Slade in his judgment said professional cricketers need to make a living and the ICC should not stand in the way just because their own interests may be damaged. He said the ICC may have stretched the concept of loyalty too far. Players could not be criticized for entering the contracts in secrecy as the main authorities would deny the players the opportunity to enjoy the advantages offered by WSC.


The decision was a blow to the cricket authorities as they had to pay court costs. English County cricket teams were pleased as their players who had signed to play for Packer were still eligible to play for them.


"Supertests", the West Indies and drop-in pitches

Official cricket won a series of minor victories - Packer was unable to use the terms "test match" or call their team of Australians "Australia", or use the official rules of cricket, which are the copyright of the MCC.[23] Lords 2005 The Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC), founded in 1787, is a private members club and was the original governing body of cricket in England and across the world. ...


So the five-day matches became "Supertests", played by the "WSC Australian XI" and Richie Benaud set to work writing rules and playing conditions for the series. Most importantly, WSC was shut out of traditional cricket venues, so Packer leased two Australian football stadiums, VFL Park in Melbourne and Football Park in Adelaide, Perth's Gloucester Park (a trotting track), and the Sydney Showground. Waverley Park (formerly VFL Park and then AFL Park) was an often controversial Australian rules football stadium in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Melbourne (pronounced ) is the second most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 3. ... AAMI Stadium, formerly known as Football Park, is the home of Australian rules football in South Australia. ... Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia, with a population of over 1. ... Gloucester Park is a harness racing course in Perth, Western Australia. ... Sydney Showground is located in Moore Park, New South Wales. ...

Viv Richards, the West Indian who was the most successful batsman of WSC.
Viv Richards, the West Indian who was the most successful batsman of WSC.

The obvious problem was preparing grass pitches of suitable standard at these venues, where none had existed previously. By common consensus, it was considered impossible to create the pitches in such a short time.[24] However, Packer hired the brilliant curator John Maley away from the Gabba ground in Brisbane, and he pioneered the concept of "drop-in" pitches.[25] These pitches were grown in hothouses outside the venue, then dropped into the playing surface with cranes. This revolutionary technique was the unsung highlight of the first season of WSC - without them, WSC would have been a folly.[26] Image File history File links Vivian_richards_crop. ... Image File history File links Vivian_richards_crop. ... The Brisbane Cricket Ground is a major sports stadium in the Queensland capital of Brisbane. ... A drop-in pitch is a cricket pitch which is prepared away from the ground or venue in which it is used, and literally dropped-in to place for a cricket match. ...


Another unexpected element of the series was the emergence of a West Indian side. The concept was originally envisaged as Australia versus the rest of the world. When the West Indians were offered contracts that would pay them more than they could earn in an entire career, they all signed with alacrity. However, WSC erred by using the West Indian players in the World team as well, which contributed to the feeling that the matches were exhibitional in nature, ie. they were not (in Australian parlance) "fair dinkum" .


The first WSC game, a 'Supertest" between the Australians and the West Indians began at VFL Park on December 2 1977. The standard of the cricket was excellent, but the crowds were poor, which was emphasised by the stadium's capacity of 79,000. The official Test match played in Brisbane at the same time, featuring the weakened Australian team and India, attracted far more spectators. is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Brisbane (pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Queensland, as well as the third largest city in Australia. ...


First season: 1977-78

Employing personality-based marketing, WSC placed great emphasis on the "gladitorial" aspect of fast bowling and heavily promoted players such as Dennis Lillee, Imran Khan, Michael Holding and Andy Roberts. Few spin bowlers were signed by WSC. Packer himself was doubtful of the effectiveness of slow bowling. To counteract the continual rotation of pace bowlers on pitches of unproven quality, WSC batsmen felt the need to increase their bodily protection. In the Sydney Supertest on 16 December, Australian David Hookes was hit a sickening blow from a bouncer bowled by West Indian Andy Roberts.[27] Paradoxically, the effect of Hookes' broken jaw, captured graphically by Nine's cameras, served to "legitimise" the WSC matches as true contests and not mere exhibitions. Dennis Keith Lillee (born July 18, 1949 in Subiaco, Western Australia) was an Australian cricketer. ... Imran Khan (Urdu/Pashto: عمران احمد خان نیازی) (Imran Ahmad Khan Niazi; son of Ikram Ullah Khan Niazi Shermankhel) born November 25, 1952, in Mianwali is an Oxbridge educated Pakistani former cricketer turned politician and philanthropist. ... Michael Anthony Holding (born February 16, 1954) was a West Indian cricketer. ... Anderson Montgomery Everton Andy Roberts (born 29 January 1951 on the island of Antigua in the West Indies) is a former West Indian cricketer. ... David Hookes (born May 3, 1955 in Adelaide; died January 19, 2004 in Melbourne) was an Australian cricketer and Victorian cricket coach. ... Anderson Montgomery Everton Andy Roberts (born 29 January 1951 on the island of Antigua in the West Indies) is a former West Indian cricketer. ...

Dennis Lillee, one of WSC's star personalities, promotes the cause. Lillee has recently claimed that WSC was originally his idea.

This incident had another effect: the first helmets appeared on batsmens' heads.[28] Initially, Englishman Dennis Amiss sported a motorcycle helmet when batting in WSC,[29] and he was quickly followed by many other players. Protective cricket equipment developed rapidly, and by the end of WSC,[30] virtually all batsmen in WSC and official test matches were sporting some form of protective headwear. Image File history File linksMetadata DKLillee. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DKLillee. ... Dennis Leslie Amiss (born April 7, 1943 in Harborne, Birmingham, Warwickshire) was an English cricketer, who played cricket for both Warwickshire County Cricket Club and England. ...


WSC decided to place greater emphasis on one-day cricket than had been previously seen in Australia. A one day series, the "International Cup" featuring the Australian, West Indian and World teams, was played alongside six Supertests in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth. The first day/night match, played at Melbourne's VFL Park, attracted some curiosity value, but generally the paying public were indifferent to the series. Many took a lead from the hostile press, and official cricket benefited from a dramatic test series played between Australia and a touring Indian team. The ACB's masterstroke was the appointment of the 41 year-old Bobby Simpson as Australian captain, after a ten-year retirement from first-class cricket. He led a young, unknown team to a 3-2 series victory which was not decided until the last test in Adelaide. Big crowds attended the tests, and the media was very supportive of the ACB throughout the summer. A night match at Old Trafford. ... Robert (Bob) Baddeley Simpson (born February 3, 1936 in Sydney, Australia) is a cricketer who played first-class cricket for New South Wales and Western Australia as well as Test cricket for Australia. ...


By contrast, Packer was seen disconsolately counting cars as they arrived in the car park at some of his matches. He held one glimmer of hope, however. The best attended matches had been the day-night fixtures, and this format would become the backbone of the programming for the second season. In hindsight, his organisation's ability to even stage the games at such short notice was a triumph and excellent fine-tuning for what was to come. So far, the ACB had enjoyed the backing of the press and the true aficionados of the game. But a series of misfortunes and poor decisions came to plague the ACB in their battle to stay ahead of Packer.


The official Australian team headed to the Caribbean under Bobby Simpson in March 1978. The West Indies cricket officials had no wish to buy into the ACB-Packer fight and decided to select all of their WSC players for the tests.


The united front weakens

Between the two WSC seasons, the united front presented by the ICC countries began to erode. The highest ill-feeling toward Packer existed in England, but many officials of the county clubs were prepared to keep Packer players on their books.


The West Indies were the most financially vulnerable nation, and only voted for the original ICC in the interests of unity.[31] The financial and political problems of the recent tour by Australian tour led them to begin negotiations with Packer for a WSC series in the Caribbean during the spring of 1979. Initially, Pakistan took a hard line and refused to select their Packer players,[32] but changed to a more pragmatic approach when WSC signed additional Pakistanis during the off season.[33] Ostensibly, India were not involved as yet, but rumours abounded that their captain Bishan Bedi and star batsman Sunil Gavaskar had signed WSC options.[34] Bishan Singh Bedi (sometimes spelt as Bishen Singh Bedi) born September 25, 1946 in Amritsar, was an Indian cricketer. ... Sunil Manohar Gavaskar   (Marathi:सुनिल मनोहर गावसकर) (born July 10, 1949 at Bombay, Maharashtra), nicknamed Sunny, was a cricket player during the 1970s and 1980s for Bombay and India. ...


New Zealand's chief administrator, Walter Hadlee, had advocated a compromise from the start. Now he had no objection to WSC making a brief tour of his country in November, nor was he going to stop the Kiwis' best player, his son Richard, from appearing with WSC. The South Africans, banned from official cricket due to the apartheid policy of their government, were keen to see their individual cricketers compete with the world’s best. Some were prepared to acclaim South Africa as the best side of the world on the basis of the performances of some of their players in WSC. Walter Arnold Hadlee (born 4 June 1915 in Lincoln, Canterbury, New Zealand) is a former cricketer and Test match captain. ... Sir Richard John Hadlee MBE (born July 3, 1951) is a former New Zealand cricketer. ...


Meanwhile, WSC continued to up the stakes for the embattled ACB, optioning a number of young Australians and signing more overseas players: they now had well over 50 cricketers under contract. After organising the tours of New Zealand and the West Indies, WSC began making noises about a tour to England and signing enough players for stand-alone England and Pakistan teams.

The lights that Kerry built? The NSW government paid for the installation of lights at the SCG in time for WSC's second season, 1978-79.
The lights that Kerry built? The NSW government paid for the installation of lights at the SCG in time for WSC's second season, 1978-79.

A second tier tour was created for the 1978-79 season, taking the game to provincial centres around Australia and giving back-up players an opportunity to play regularly. This tour covered a 20,000 kilometer route between Cairns in Queensland to Devonport in Tasmania. WSC created the "Cavaliers" for this secondary tour, a similar concept to the Cavalier teams of the 1960s in England. The team captained by Eddie Barlow was made of recently retired cricketers, such as Rohan Kanhai, David Holford and Ian Redpath and occasionally young Australians such as Trevor Chappell. These matches brought cricket to venues that rarely saw big games. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Cairns is a regional city located in far north Queensland, Australia. ... Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114 (7th)  - Product per capita  $33,243/person (8th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  489,600 (6th)  - Density  7. ... Edgar (Eddie) John Barlow (born 12 August 1940 in Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa; died 30 December 2005 in Jersey) was a South African cricketer. ... Rohan Bholalall Kanhai (born December 26, 1935 in Port Mourant, Berbice, British Guiana) was a right-handed West Indian batsman in the late fifties, sixties and early seventies. ... David Anthony Jerome Holford (born April 16, 1940, Upper Collymore Rock, St Michael, Barbados) is a former West Indian cricketer who played in 24 Tests from 1966 to 1977. ... Ian Ritchie Redpath (born May 11, 1941 in Geelong, Victoria) is a former Australian cricketer. ... Trevor Martin Chappell (born October 21, 1952) was an Australian cricketer, a member of the South Australian Chappell family which excelled at cricket. ...


Packer demonstrated his political clout by getting New South Wales premier Neville Wran to overturn the ban on WSC and allow matches to be played at the traditional home of the game, the Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG). To boot, Wran had his government foot the bill to install lights good enough for Packer to use. WSC also gained access to Brisbane's Test ground, The Gabba, and were offered use of the Adelaide Oval, which was rejected. Perth and Adelaide were dropped from the intinerary. A strategy of focusing on audiences in Melbourne and Sydney was now in place. The Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG) (, ) is a cricket stadium in Sydney. ... The Brisbane Cricket Ground is a major sports stadium in the Queensland capital of Brisbane. ... The Adelaide Oval is a sports stadium in Adelaide, South Australia. ...


Second season: 1978-79

The war swung dramatically in Packer's favour on 28 November 1978 when the first day-night match on a traditional cricket ground was played at the SCG between the WSC Australian and West Indian teams. A near-capacity crowd of 44,377 turned out to watch the limited overs contest, serving a warning to the ACB. A few days later, the official Australian team was humbled in the first Test against England at Brisbane, a precursor to a 5-1 thrashing for a side now captained by the unprepared Graham Yallop. Even Yallop felt himself unsuited to the position, and his team was unable to compete with an experienced, professional England side. Although the Englishmen merely defeated the opposition presented, they further damaged the ACB's cause by playing slow, grinding cricket. Consequently, attendances were poor and the media clamoured for the Australian team to return to full strength. Graham Neil Yallop (October 7, 1952 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) played cricket for Australia. ...


On the other hand, WSC, with its aggressive marketing, nighttime play and plethora of one-day matches, had increased both attendances and television ratings. The targeted audience of women and children flocked to WSC, which seemed to have updated cricket to the late twentieth century. The playing standard remained high, and most participants of the series later commented that it was the toughest cricket that they ever played, Tests included.


The Supertest final at the SCG between Australian and the World teams, played under lights, drew almost 40,000 spectators over three days. The sixth Australia-England Test at the same venue a week later was attended by just 22,000 people for four days of play. Later in the season, the ACB scheduled two Tests against Pakistan, which brought the number of Tests played by Australia to eight. This overkill further damaged the ACB's finances. The Pakistanis played their WSC men in what turned out to be an ill-tempered series.[35]


WSC then headed to the Caribbean for a tense, hard fought series that players from both Australia and West Indies declared the best they ever played in. A riot marred the Trinidad Supertest, but the five Supertests and 12 one-day matches went some way toward reducing the debts of the West Indies board. The last cricket action of WSC occurred on 10 April 1979, the final day of a drawn Supertest at Antigua. The West Indies and Australia finished the series 1-1. Queens Park Oval Queens Park Oval, in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, is the largest cricket ground in the West Indies and has hosted more Test matches than any other ground in the Caribbean. ...


The rapprochement

By 1979, the ACB was in desperate financial straits and faced with the prospect of fighting an opponent who had seemingly bottomless cash resources. In two seasons, the combined losses of the two biggest cricket associations, New South Wales and Victoria, totaled more than half a million dollars. However, Packer too was feeling the financial pinch - many years later, WSC insiders claimed that the losses he incurred were very much higher than the amounts quoted at the time. During March of that year, Packer instigated a series of meetings that hammered out an agreement on the future of Australian cricket. The New South Wales Blues are an Australian first class cricket team based in Sydney, New South Wales. ... The Victorian Bushrangers are an Australian cricket team based in Melbourne, Victoria. ...


When the truce was formally announced on 30 May 1979, a surprise was in store for followers of the game. Not only had the Channel Nine won the exclusive rights to telecast Australian cricket, it was granted a ten-year contract to promote and market the game through a new company, PBL Marketing. The ACB capitulation infuriated the English authorities and the ICC as they had provided much in the way of financial and moral support to the ACB, which now appeared to have sold out to Packer.[36] The Nine Network, or Channel Nine, is an Australian television network based in Willoughby, a suburb on the North Shore of Sydney. ...

The feeling in many quarters was that when the Australian Board first found Packer at their throats, the rest of the cricket world supported them to the hilt; even to the extent of highly expensive court cases which cricket could ill afford. Now, when it suited Australia, they had brushed their friends aside to meet their own ends.

The WSC Australian players (on tour in the West Indies at the time) had no input into the negotiations. This left some disillusioned and apprehensive that they may suffer discrimination from the ACB in the coming years. The ACB opted to not select WSC-contracted players for the tours of England (for the 1979 World Cup) and India (for six tests) later in the year. Both tours produced sub-standard Australian performances, and both were led by Kim Hughes, who emerged as the figure that epitomised the cricket establishment.[37] The Cricket World Cup in 1979 (aka Prudential Cup, 1979) was the second edition of the tournament. ... Kimberley John Hughes (born January 26, 1954, Margaret River, Western Australia) is a former Australian cricketer and Test and ODI captain who played in 70 Tests and 97 ODIs from 1977 to 1985. ...


For the 1979-80 season, Greg Chappell was restored as Australian captain and the team contained an even mixture of WSC and non-WSC players. The season's schedule mimicked the WSC format. England and the West Indies toured, playing three Tests each against Australia, with a triangular one-day tournament (the World Series Cup) interspersed among the tests. Again, Australia's results were mediocre - they defeated England in the tests (which were not for the Ashes), but lost 0-2 to the West Indies and failed to make the final of the one-day tournament. The format of the season received heavy criticism, but still made a healthy profit, much of which went to PBL rather than the ACB. Gregory Stephen Chappell (born 7 August 1948 in Unley, South Australia) is a former cricketer who captained Australia between 1975 and 1977 and then joined the breakaway World Series Cricket (WSC) organisation, before returning to the Australian captaincy in 1979, which he held until 1983. ... The World Series Cup was the name of the annual cricket tournament that took place in Australia every year between the home side and two touring teams. ...


Legacy

World Series Cricket changed the game in many, many ways. Due to the punishing schedule, cricketers had to be fitter than ever before. The West Indies in particular dominated world cricket during the 1980s due to World Series Cricket.[38]

Clive Lloyd receives the 1979 World Cup, the beginning of a decade of dominance for the West Indies, the team that benefitted most from WSC.
Clive Lloyd receives the 1979 World Cup, the beginning of a decade of dominance for the West Indies, the team that benefitted most from WSC.

Night matches have become very common in most nations, and one-day cricket has become the most widely followed form of the game (though this is being threatened by Twenty20 cricket). Players are full-time professionals, and at least in the larger cricketing nations are very well-paid, mainly through television rights; broadcasters now have a huge say in the running of the game. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A view of the Twenty20 match between England and Sri Lanka at the Rose Bowl. ...


However, the traditional form of the game, Test cricket, is still played around the world, and in recent seasons has challenged one-day cricket for the interest of the public. Indeed, membership of a Test Cricket side is often seen as being more prestigious for players, both due to the more challenging nature of the format and the higher turnover rate of one day players. Kerry Packer described his involvement in World Series Cricket as "half-philanthropic". A Test match between South Africa and England in January 2005. ...


In the Australian team, there was a division between the players who stayed loyal to the official XI and the Packer rebels. Especially between players such as Dennis Lillee, Rod Marsh, former WSC players and Kim Hughes who stuck with the official side. The division went on into the 1980s. Many of WSC's players fitted back into the official Australian side, though a handful of players from outside WSC remained at the highest level, most notably Allan Border. Dennis Keith Lillee (born July 18, 1949 in Subiaco, Western Australia) was an Australian cricketer. ... Rodney William Marsh (born Armadale, Perth, Australia November 4, 1947) was an Australian Wicket keeper. ... Kimberley John Hughes (born January 26, 1954, Margaret River, Western Australia) is a former Australian cricketer and Test and ODI captain who played in 70 Tests and 97 ODIs from 1977 to 1985. ... Beyond Ten Thousand — an autobiographical book about Allan Border (book cover) Allan Robert Border (born July 27, 1955 in Sydney, New South Wales) is a former Australian cricket captain. ...


The ACB continued to use the name "World Series Cup" to describe the one-day international tournament it held during each summer, usually involving Australia and two other international teams. This format was from WSC's International Cup. The name was used until the mid 1990's. The World Series Cup was the name of the annual cricket tournament that took place in Australia every year between the home side and two touring teams. ...


The Players

Australia: Ian Chappell (captain), Greg Chappell, Rick McCosker, Ian Davis, David Hookes, Doug Walters, Rod Marsh, Ray Bright, Dennis Lillee, Max Walker, Len Pascoe, Bruce Laird, Martin Kent, Rob Langer, Wayne Prior, Gary Gilmour, Ross Edwards, Richie Robinson, Kepler Wessels, Mick Malone, Ian Redpath, Trevor Chappell, Kerry O'Keeffe, Jeff Thomson, Graeme Watson, Graham McKenzie, Denis Yagmich, Ashley Mallett. Ian Michael Chappell (born September 26, 1943 in Unley, South Australia) is a former Australian Test cricketer, who captained Australia between 1971 and 1975 before becoming one of the central figures in the breakaway World Series Cricket (WSC) organisation. ... Gregory Stephen Chappell (born 7 August 1948 in Unley, South Australia) is a former cricketer who captained Australia between 1975 and 1977 and then joined the breakaway World Series Cricket (WSC) organisation, before returning to the Australian captaincy in 1979, which he held until 1983. ... Richard Bede McCosker (born December 11, 1946, Inverell, New South Wales) is a former New South Wales and Australian cricketer. ... Ian Davis (born in Kent, UK, 1952), is the Managing Director of McKinsey & Company since succeeding Rajat Gupta on July 1, 2003. ... David Hookes (born May 3, 1955 in Adelaide; died January 19, 2004 in Melbourne) was an Australian cricketer and Victorian cricket coach. ... Doug Walters (born December 21, 1945) was an Australian cricketer. ... Rodney William Marsh (born Armadale, Perth, Australia November 4, 1947) was an Australian Wicket keeper. ... Raymond James Bright (born July 13, 1954 in Footscray, Melbourne, Victoria) is a former Australian Test and one-day international cricketer. ... Dennis Keith Lillee (born July 18, 1949 in Subiaco, Western Australia) was an Australian cricketer. ... Max Walked plays the tall blonde guy on the Canadian television show, 15/Love. ... Leonard Stephen Pascoe (born February 13, 1950, Bridgetown, Western Australia, as Len Durtanovich) is a former Australian Test and ODI cricketer. ... Bruce Malcolm Laird (born November 21, 1950, Mount Lawley, Western Australia) is a former Western Australian and Australian cricketer. ... Martin Francis Kent (born November 23, 1953, Mossman, Queensland) is a former Australian cricketer who played in 3 Tests and 5 ODIs in 1981. ... Robert Samuel Langer (October 3, 1948 - ) was an Australian cricketer who played for the Western Warriors in the 1970s and 1980s. ... Wayne Prior (b. ... Gary John Gilmour (b. ... Ross Edwards (born December 1, 1942 , Cottesloe, Western Australia) is a former Western Australian and Australian cricketer. ... Richard Daryl Robinson (born June 8, 1946, East Melbourne, Victoria) is a former Australian cricketer who played in 3 Tests and 2 ODIs in 1977. ... For more coverage of cricket, go to the Cricket portal. ... Michael Francis (Mick) Malone (born October 9, 1950, Scarborough, Western Australia is a former Western Australian and Australian cricketer. ... Ian Ritchie Redpath (born May 11, 1941 in Geelong, Victoria) is a former Australian cricketer. ... Trevor Martin Chappell (born October 21, 1952) was an Australian cricketer, a member of the South Australian Chappell family which excelled at cricket. ... Kerry James Skull OKeeffe (born November 25, 1949, Hurstville, New South Wales) is a former Australian cricketer and now a commentator for ABC Radio. ... For more coverage of cricket, go to the Cricket portal. ... Graeme Donald Watson (born March 8, 1945, Kew, Victoria) is a former Australian cricketer who played in 5 Tests and 2 ODIs from 1966 to 1972. ... Graham (Garth) Douglas McKenzie (born June 24, 1941, Perth, Western Australia) is a former Australian and Western Australian cricketer. ... Ashley Mallett was an Australian cricketer who played in 38 Tests and 9 One-day Internationals between 1968 and 1980. ...


Rest of the World: Tony Greig (captain), Alan Knott, Derek Underwood, Denis Amiss, Bob Woolmer, John Snow (England); Mike Procter, Barry Richards, Clive Rice, Garth Le Roux, Eddie Barlow (South Africa); Mushtaq Mohammad, Javed Miandad, Asif Iqbal, Imran Khan, Zaheer Abbas, Majid Khan, Haroon Rasheed, Sarfraz Nawaz, Taslim Arif (Pakistan). Anthony Tony William Greig (born October 6, 1946) is a former test cricketer and currently a commentator. ... Alan Philip Eric Knott (born April 9, 1946) was an English cricketer, a wicket-keeper-batsman for the England Test side between 1967 and 1981. ... Derek Underwood is an English cricketer born on June 8, 1945. ... Dennis Leslie Amiss (born April 7, 1943 in Harborne, Birmingham, Warwickshire) was an English cricketer and cricket administrator. ... Robert Andrew Woolmer (14 May 1948 – 18 March 2007) was an international cricketer, professional cricket coach and also a professional commentator. ... There have been several people named John Snow: Dr. John Snow (physician), the founder of epidemiology and a major contributor to the development of anaesthesia John W. Snow, current United States Secretary of the Treasury John Snow (cricketer), English cricketer See also Jon Snow (A Song of Ice and Fire... Mike Procter (born Michael John Procter September 15, 1946) was a South African cricketer. ... Barry Richards (born July 21 1945) was one of South Africas finest ever cricketers and arguably the greatest opening batsman produced by his country. ... Clive Edward Butler Rice (b. ... Garth Stirling Le Roux (b. ... Edgar (Eddie) John Barlow (born 12 August 1940 in Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa; died 30 December 2005 in Jersey) was a South African cricketer. ... Mushtaq Mohammad Crickter - Pakistan Full name Mushtaq Mohammad Born 22 November 1943, Junagadh, Gujarat, India Batting style Right-hand bat Bowling style Legbreak googly Test debut Pakistan v West Indies at Lahore - Mar 26-31, 1959 Last Test Australia v Pakistan at Perth - Mar 24-29, 1979 ODI debut New... Mohammad Javed Miandad (Urdu: محمد جاوید میانداد ) (born June 12, 1957), known in the Cricketing World as Javed Miandad (Urdu: جاوید میانداد), was born in Karachi, Pakistan. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Imran Khan (Urdu/Pashto: عمران احمد خان نیازی) (Imran Ahmad Khan Niazi; son of Ikram Ullah Khan Niazi Shermankhel) born November 25, 1952, in Mianwali is an Oxbridge educated Pakistani former cricketer turned politician and philanthropist. ... Syed Zaheer Abbas Kirmani (Urdu: سید ظہیر عباس کرمانی) (born 24 July 1947) is a former Pakistani cricketer. ... Majid Khan is a former cricket player, specialist batsman and former captain of the Pakistan cricket team. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Taslim Arif Abbasi (born May 1, 1954, Karachi, Sind) is a former Pakistani cricketer who played in 6 Tests and 2 ODIs in 1980. ...


West Indies: Clive Lloyd (captain), Roy Fredericks, Gordon Greenidge, Michael Holding, Viv Richards, Jim Allen, Collis King, Derek Murray, David Holford, Andy Roberts, Wayne Daniel, Lawrence Rowe, Joel Garner, Albert Padmore, Desmond Haynes, Richard Austin, Colin Croft, Bernard Julien, Rohan Kanhai, Lance Gibbs. Clive Hubert Lloyd CBE, born 31 August 1944 in Georgetown, British Guiana (now Guyana), is a former West Indies cricketer. ... Roy Clifton Fredericks (born 11 November 1942, Blairmont, British Guyana, died 5 September 2000, New York, USA) was a West Indian cricketer who played from 1968 to 1977. ... Cuthbert Gordon Greenidge was a West Indian cricketer, born May 1, 1951 in Black Bess, St. ... Michael Anthony Holding (born February 16, 1954) was a West Indian cricketer. ... Sir Isaac Vivian Alexander Richards (born St Johns, Antigua on 7 March 1952), better known by his second name, Vivian or, more popularly, simply as Viv is a former West Indian cricketer. ... Jim Allen is a British writer. ... Collis Llewellyn King (b. ... Derek Murray is an Irish Gaelic Footballer who plays for Dublin and Round Towers (C). ... David Anthony Jerome Holford (born April 16, 1940, Upper Collymore Rock, St Michael, Barbados) is a former West Indian cricketer who played in 24 Tests from 1966 to 1977. ... Anderson Montgomery Everton Andy Roberts (born 29 January 1951 on the island of Antigua in the West Indies) is a former West Indian cricketer. ... Wayne Wendell Daniel (b. ... Lawrence George Rowe (born January 8, 1949) in Kingston, Jamaica was a West Indian cricketer. ... Joel Garner (born December 16, 1952) also known as Big Joel or Big Bird, was a West Indian cricket player, and a member of the highly regarded late 70s and early 80s West Indies cricket sides. ... Albert Leroy Padmore (b. ... Desmond Leo Haynes (born February 15, 1956 in Barbados) is a West Indian cricketer and cricket coach. ... Richard Arkwright Austin (b. ... Colin Croft was a West Indian cricketer. ... Bernard Denis Julien (b. ... Rohan Bholalall Kanhai (born December 26, 1935 in Port Mourant, Berbice, British Guiana) was a right-handed West Indian batsman in the late fifties, sixties and early seventies. ... Lancelot Richard Gibbs (born 29 September 1934 in Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana]) was a West Indies cricketer, one of the most successful spin bowlers in Test cricket history. ...


Miscellany

  • During the life of WSC, 56,126 runs were made and 2,364 wickets taken.[39] The 1977 ruling of the ICC that the matches were not first-class has remained, so none of the WSC players' records include the runs and wickets of the WSC era.[40]
  • Originally, the balls used in day-night matches were to be yellow, not white.
  • WSC's advertising jingle "C'mon Aussie, C'mon" was released as a single and was number one on the Australian charts in February 1979.[41]
  • The first match to feature coloured uniforms was a limited overs match, WSC Australia versus WSC West Indies at the SCG, played under lights on 17 January 1979. Therefore, the vast majority of WSC matches were played in whites.

References

  • Cashman, Richard et al. - editors (1996): The Oxford Campanion to Australian Cricket, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0 19 553575 8.
  • Haigh, Gideon (1993): The Cricket War - the Inside Story of Kerry Packer's World Series Cricket, Text Publishing. ISBN 1 86372 027 8.
  • McFarline, Peter (1977): A Game Divided, Hutchinson Australia. ISBN 0 09 130680 9.
  • Pollard, Jack (1982): Australian Cricket: The Game and the Players, Hodder and Stoughton.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Australian Heritage Council. Accessed 29 July 2007.
  2. ^ Sydney Morning Herald. Accessed 29 July 2007.
  3. ^ Sydney Morning Herald. Accessed 29 July 2007.
  4. ^ Haigh (1993), p 34.
  5. ^ McFarline (1977), p 157.
  6. ^ Lillee (2003), p 129.
  7. ^ Haigh (1993), p 41.
  8. ^ Ibid.
  9. ^ Wisden Cricketer magazine. Accessed 28 July 2007.
  10. ^ Pollard (1982), p. 1138.
  11. ^ The Age. Accessed 28 July 2007
  12. ^ Haigh (1993), p 67.
  13. ^ McFarline (1977), p 33.
  14. ^ McFarline (1977), p56.
  15. ^ McFarline (1977), pp 56-57.
  16. ^ Haigh (1993), p 76.
  17. ^ Haigh (1993), p 77.
  18. ^ McFarline (1977), pp 61-62.
  19. ^ McFarline (1977), pp 100-101.
  20. ^ Haigh (1993), p 101. The ICC was not a defendant in the case as it had no legal "personality" at the time.
  21. ^ Wisden 1978. Accessed on 29 July 2007.
  22. ^ The Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974, replaced by the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992. See: The UK Statute Law database, Ministry of Justice. Accessed 30 July 2007.
  23. ^ Marylebone Cricket Club. Accessed 29 July 2007.
  24. ^ Lillee (2003), p 131.
  25. ^ Cashman et al. (1996), p 327. After WSC concluded, Maley was the curator of the WACA ground in Perth from 1980-88.
  26. ^ Lillee (2003), p 132.
  27. ^ Cricinfo.com. Accessed 29 July 2007.
  28. ^ Haigh (1993), p 132.
  29. ^ BBC Sport forum. Accessed 28 July 2007.
  30. ^ Australia Innovates project. Accessed on 29 July 2007.
  31. ^ Wisden 1979. Accessed on 29 July 2007.
  32. ^ Wisden 1979. Accessed on 29 July 2007.
  33. ^ Cricinfo.com. Accessed 29 July 2007.
  34. ^ Wisden 1979. Accessed 29 July 2007.
  35. ^ Wisden 1980. Accessed 10 August 2007.
  36. ^ Wisden 1980. Accessed 28 July 2007.
  37. ^ Cricinfo.com. Accessed 10 August 2007.
  38. ^ Caribbean Impact. Accessed 29 July 2007.
  39. ^ Haigh (1993), p 326.
  40. ^ Cricinfo.com. Accessed 30 July 2007.
  41. ^ Australian music charts archive. Accessed 29 July 2007.

See also

Cricket Portal

The Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of mens One-Day International (ODI) cricket. ... The Melbourne Cricket Ground hosts an ODI match between Australia and India. ... During the isolation of South Africa from international cricket during the apartheid regime from 1970 to 1991, a number of government sponsored international cricket tours were organised (see International cricket in South Africa (1971 to 1981)). In the 1980s, these tours were known as the South African rebel tours and... The Indian Cricket League (ICL) is a proposed private cricket league that will run parallel to the existing cricket league managed by Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI). ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

External links

  • WSC Supertests Scorecards 1977-78 - Cricket Archive.
  • WSC Supertests Scorecards 1978-79 - Cricket Archive
  • WSC Australia v WSC West Indies WSC International Cup November 28th 1978 - Cricket Archive
  • The World Series: gone but not forgotten - Greg Baum - The Age May 31 2003
History of Test Cricket

Upto 1883 | 1884 to 1889 | 1890 to 1900 | 1901 to 1914 | 1918-1939 | 1946-1960 | 1961-1970 | 1971-1980 | Supertests | South African rebel tests | 1981-1990 | 1991-2000 | 21st century For more coverage of cricket, see the cricket portal. ... For more coverage of cricket, see the cricket portal. ... For more coverage of cricket, go to the Cricket portal. ... England in Australia 1901/2. ... // Match length: 4 Days. ... See also: International cricket in South Africa (1971 to 1981) During the isolation of South Africa from international cricket through the apartheid regime from 1970 to 1991, the Government of South Africa sponsored a number of international cricket tours. ... This article contains an as-yet incomplete list of Test matches from the cricketing season of 1990-91 to the season 2000. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
World Series Cricket - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (511 words)
World Series Cricket (WSC) was a professional cricket competition from 1977 to 1979, set up by Kerry Packer in opposition to the "official" international competition.
The series had its genesis through a combination of two main factors - the fact that players were not paid sufficient amounts to make a living from cricket, and that Packer wished to secure the exclusive broadcasting rights to Australian cricket, then held by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
After two seasons of WSC, a deal was signed between the ACB and Packer, with the Nine network getting broadcasting rights to Australian cricket, the players becoming paid professionals, and the introduction of a regular one-day international series featuring the innovations of WSC.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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