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Encyclopedia > World Health Organization
World Health Organization

Acronym: WHO Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Flag of the World Health Organization
Flag of the World Health Organization Image File history File links Flag_of_WHO.svg Flag of WHO from the Open Clip Art website. ... The olive branches symbolise peace. ...

Formation 7 April 1948
Type Specialized agency of the United Nations
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
Membership 193 member states
Official languages Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish
Director-General Margaret Chan
Website http://www.who.int/

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organization, which had been an agency of the League of Nations. The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coat of arms of the Canton of Geneva Coat of arms of the City of Geneva Geneva (French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh Genevra, Spanish: Ginebra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zurich), located where Lake Geneva (French: Lac de Genève or Lac L... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun OBE, JP, MSc. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ...

Contents

Mission

WHO's constitution states that its objective "is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health."[1] Its major task is to combat disease, especially key infectious diseases, and to promote the general health of the people of the world.


Establishment

The World Health Organization is one of the original agencies of the United Nations, its constitution formally coming into force on the first World Health Day (7 April 1948) when it was ratified by the 26th member state.[2] Prior to this its operations, as well as the remaining activities of the League of Nations Health Organization, were under the control of an Interim Commission following an International Health Conference in the summer of 1946.[3] The transfer was authorized by a Resolution of the General Assembly.[4] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... World Health Day is celebrated every year on 7th April, under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization ( WHO). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General assembly could be: The United Nations General Assembly General Assembly (presbyterian church), a supreme governing body, such as the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland See also List of Christian denominations#Presbyterian and Reformed Churches The General Assembly of Unitarian...


Summary of activities

As well as coordinating international efforts to monitor outbreaks of infectious disease such as SARS, malaria, and AIDS, it also has programs to prevent and treat such diseases. WHO supports the development and distribution of safe and effective vaccines and pharmaceutical diagnostics and drugs. After years of fighting smallpox, WHO declared in 1979 that the disease had been eradicated - the first disease in history to be completely eliminated by deliberate human design. WHO is nearing success in developing vaccines against malaria and schistosomiasis and aims to eradicate polio within the next few years. The organization has already endorsed the world's first official HIV/AIDS Toolkit for Zimbabwe from October 3, 2006, making it an international standard.[5] Sars may refer to any of the following: Severe acute respiratory syndrome, commonly abbreviated as SARS Michael Sars, a Norwegian biologist, father of Georg Sars Georg Sars, a Norwegian biologist, son of Michael Sars Special Administrative Regions, commonly abbreviated as SARs Sars, Perm Krai, an urban settlement in Perm Krai... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a parasitic disease caused by several species of flatworm. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition to its work in eradicating disease, WHO also carries out campaigns — for example, to boost consumption of fruits and vegetables worldwide, or to discourage tobacco consumption. Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Experts met at the WHO headquarters in Geneva in February 2007, and their advances in pandemic influenza vaccine development reported encouraging progress. More than 40 clinical trials have been completed or are ongoing. Most of them have focused on healthy adults. Some companies, after completing safety analyses in adults, have initiated clinical trials in the elderly and in children. All vaccines were safe and well tolerated in all age groups tested.[6]


WHO also conducts research: for instance, whether or not the electromagnetic field surrounding cell phones has a negative influence on health. Some of this work can be controversial, such as the April 2003 WHO report which recommended that sugar be no more than 10% of a healthy diet, which led to lobbying by the sugar industry against this recommendation.[7] The electromagnetic field is a physical field that is produced by electrically charged objects and which affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. ... Cellular redirects here. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ...


Additional Responsibilities

In addition to WHO's stated mission, international treaties assign the Organization a variety of responsibilities. For instance, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances call on WHO to issue binding scientific and medical assessments of psychoactive drugs and recommend how they should be regulated. In this way, WHO acts as a check on the power of the drug policymaking Commission on Narcotic Drugs. Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... At the presiding table, from left to right: Mr. ...


WHO also compiles the widely followed International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The tenth revision of the ICD was released in 1992 and a searchable version is available online on the WHO website. Later revisions are indexed and available in hard copy versions. The WHO does not permit simultaneous classification in two separate areas. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ...


The WHO also maintains a model list of essential medicines that countries' health care systems should make available and affordable to people. Essential medicines, as defined by the World Health Organization are those drugs that satisfy the health care needs of the majority of the population; they should therefore be available at all times in adequate amounts and in appropriate dosage forms, at a price the community can afford. ...


Structure

WHO Headquarters in Geneva
WHO Headquarters in Geneva

WHO Member States appoint delegations to the World Health Assembly, WHO's supreme decision-making body. All UN member states are eligible for WHO membership, and, according to the WHO web site, “Other countries may be admitted as members when their application has been approved by a simple majority vote of the World Health Assembly.” The WHO has 193 member states. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2784 × 1856 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2784 × 1856 pixel, file size: 2. ... The World Health Assembly is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 192 member states. ...


The Republic of China (Taiwan) was one of the founding members of the WHO, but was compelled to leave after the People’s Republic of China was admitted to the UN in 1972 and Taiwan left the UN. Taiwan has applied for participation in the WHO as a 'health entity' each year since 1997, but is denied each year because of pressure from China. China claims sovereignty over Taiwan, and its position is therefore that Taiwan is already in the WHO system through China. In practice, however, Taiwanese doctors and hospitals are denied access to WHO information and Taiwanese journalists are denied accreditation to participate in WHO activities.


The WHO Assembly generally meets in May each year, and as well as appointing the Director-General (for five-year terms), supervises the financial policies of the Organization, and reviews and approves the proposed programme budget. The Assembly elects 34 members who are technically qualified in the field of health for three-year terms to an Executive Board. The main functions of the Board are to give effect to the decisions and policies of the Assembly, to advise it and generally to facilitate its work.


Membership

WHO has 193 Member States, including all UN Member States except Liechtenstein , and 2 non-UN-members, Niue and the Cook Islands. Territories that are not UN Member States may join as Associate Members (with full information but limited participation and voting rights) if approved by an Assembly vote: Puerto Rico and Tokelau are Associate Members. Entities may also be granted observer status - examples include the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Holy See (Vatican City). There are currently 191 member states in the United Nations. ... Observer status is a process defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Constitution which permits the World Health Assembly (WHA) to invite any organization, international or national, governmental or non-governmental, which has responsibilities related to those of the Organization, to appoint representatives to participate, without right of vote, in... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ...


Funding

WHO is financed by contributions from member states and from donors.In recent years, WHO's work has involved more collaboration, currently around 80 such partnerships, with NGOs and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as with foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. Voluntary contributions to the WHO from national and local governments, foundations and NGOs, other UN organizations, and the private sector, now exceed that of assessed contributions (dues) from its 193 member nations. [1]PDF (30.1 KiB) NGO redirects here. ... This is a list of pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are major manufacturers on global or national markets : Abbott Laboratories Able Laboratories Akzo Nobel Allergan Almirall Prodesfarma Alphapharm Altana (previously Byk Gulden) ALZA, part of Johnson & Johnson Amgen AstraZeneca, formed from the merger of Astra AB and Zeneca Group PLC... The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is the worlds largest charitable foundation. ... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


People

The day-to-day work of WHO is carried out by its Secretariat, which is staffed by some 8,500 health and other experts and support staff, working at headquarters, in the six regional offices, and in the individual representation offices in 147 countries. WHO is also represented by WHO Goodwill Ambassadors. WHO Goodwill Ambassadors are celebrity advocates of the World Health Organization (WHO) and utilize their talent and fame to advocate for health and well-being. ...


Regional Offices

Regional offices and regions of the WHO:      Africa; HQ: Brazzaville, Congo      Americas; HQ: Washington, D.C., USA      Eastern Med.; HQ: Cairo, Egypt      Europe; HQ: Copenhagen, Denmark      South East Asia; HQ: New Delhi, India      Western Pacific; HQ: Manila, Philippines
Regional offices and regions of the WHO:      Africa; HQ: Brazzaville, Congo      Americas; HQ: Washington, D.C., USA      Eastern Med.; HQ: Cairo, Egypt      Europe; HQ: Copenhagen, Denmark      South East Asia; HQ: New Delhi, India      Western Pacific; HQ: Manila, Philippines

Quite uncharacteristically for a UN Agency, the six (6) Regional Offices of WHO have a remarkable amount of autonomy. Each Regional Office is headed by a Regional Director (RD), who is elected by the Regional Committee for that Region, for a once-renewable five-year term. The name of the RD-elect is then transmitted to the WHO Executive Board, at the headquarters in Geneva, which proceeds to confirm the appointment. It is rare that an elected Regional Director not be confirmed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 46 KB) Summary Map of World Health Organisation regional offices. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 46 KB) Summary Map of World Health Organisation regional offices. ... This article is about the city named Brazzaville. ... The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is an international public health agency with 100 years of experience in working to improve health and living standards of the countries of the Americas. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ...


The Regional Committee of WHO for each region consists of all the Health Department heads, in all the governments of the countries that constitute the Region. Aside from electing the Regional Director, the Regional Committee is also in charge of setting the guidelines for the implementation of all the Health and other policies adopted by the World Health Assembly, within their region. The Regional Committee also serves as a progress review board for the actions of WHO within the Region. The World Health Assembly is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 192 member states. ...


The Regional Director is effectively the head of the WHO for their particular region. The RD manages and/or supervises a staff of health and other experts, at the regional headquarters and in specialised centres. The RD is also the direct supervising authority — concomitantly with the WHO Director General — of all the heads of WHO country offices within their region, known as WHO Representatives.


The Regional Offices are:

  • Regional Office for Africa (AFRO)I, with headquarters in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. AFRO includes most of Africa, with the exception of Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, and Morocco which belong to EMRO. Somalia is also not counted as it does not have an official government, though it is in the process of getting one.
  • Regional Office for Europe (EURO), with headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Regional Office for South East Asia (SEARO), with headquarters in New Delhi, India. North Korea is served by SEARO.
  • Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO), with headquarters in Cairo, Egypt. EMRO includes the countries of Africa, and particularly in the Maghreb, that are not included in AFRO, as well as the countries of the Middle East.
  • Regional Office for Western Pacific (WPRO), with headquarters in Manila, Philippines. WPRO covers all the Asian countries not served by SEARO and EMRO, and all the countries in Oceania. South Korea is served by WPRO.
  • Regional Office for the Americas (AMRO), with headquarters in Washington, D.C., USA. It is better known as the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Since it predates the establishment of WHO, PAHO is by far the most autonomous of the 6 regional offices.

This article is about the city named Brazzaville. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is an international public health agency with 100 years of experience in working to improve health and living standards of the countries of the Americas. ...

Country Offices

The World Health Organization operates 147 country and liaison offices, in all its regions. The presence of a country office is generally motivated by a need, stated by the member country. There will generally be one WHO country office in the capital, occasionally with antenna-offices in the provinces or sub-regions of that country.


The country office is headed by a WHO Representative (WR), who is a trained physician, not a national of that country, and who holds ranks, and is due privileges and immunities, similar to those of a Head of Diplomatic Mission or a diplomatic Ambassador. In most countries, the WR (like Representatives of other UN agencies) is de facto and/or de jure treated like an Ambassador - the distinction here being that instead of being an Ambassador of one sovereign country to another, the WR is a senior UN civil servant, who serves as the "Ambassador" of WHO to the country where they are accredited. Hence the slightly less glamorous title of Representative, or Resident Representative. An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The country office consists of the WR, and several health and other experts, both foreign and local, as well as the necessary support staff. The main functions of WHO country offices include being the primary adviser of that country's government in matters of health and pharmaceutical policies.


International liaison offices serve largely the same purpose as country offices, but generally on a smaller scale. These are often found in countries that want WHO presence and cooperation, but do not have the major health system flaws that require the presence of a full-blown country office. Liaison offices are headed by a liaison officer, who is a national from that particular country, without diplomatic immunity.


Some WHO-private sector partnerships

Directors-General of WHO

The late Lee Jong-wook, past Director-General of the World Health Organization
Name Country/Region Term of Office
Brock Chisholm Canada 1948–1953
Marcolino Gomes Candau Brazil 1953–1973
Halfdan T. Mahler Denmark 1973–1988
Hiroshi Nakajima Japan 1988–1998
Gro Harlem Brundtland Norway 1998–2003
Lee Jong-wook South Korea 2003–2006 (died on May 22)
Anders Nordström Sweden 2006
Margaret Chan Hong Kong,China January 4, 2007–

Jong-Wook Lee, Director-General of the World Health Organization. ... Jong-Wook Lee, Director-General of the World Health Organization. ... Lee Jong-wook (12 April 1945, Seoul, South Korea – 22 May 2006, Geneva), was the Director-General of the World Health Organization. ... Director-general is the professional head of a UK Executive Agency which contains other agencies headed by directors. ... Dr. George Brock Chisholm (May 18, 1896 - February 4, 1971) was a Canadian World War I veteran, medical practitioner and the first Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO). ... Dr Marcolino Gomes Candau of Brazil was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1911. ... Dr Halfdan T. Mahler of Denmark was born on 21 April 1923 at Vivild, Denmark. ... Dr Hiroshi Nakajima of Japan, was born at Chiba City, Japan, on 16 May 1928. ... Gro Harlem Brundtland [IPA: gro hɑɭɛm brʉntlɑnd] (born April 20, 1939) is a Norwegian politician, diplomat, and physician, and an international leader in sustainable development and public health. ... Lee Jong-wook (12 April 1945, Seoul, South Korea – 22 May 2006, Geneva), was the Director-General of the World Health Organization. ... Anders Nordström is a Swedish physician who is currently serving as Acting Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO). ... Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun OBE, JP, MSc. ...

Other notable persons associated with WHO

Kevin M. De Cock, MD, is a Belgian scientist. ... Arata Kochi, a Japanese physician and public health expert, is the director of the World Health Organizations malaria program. ... Former head of the World Health Organizations AIDS program. ... Dr. David Nabarro (born in 1949),is the current Executive Director of Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments, a department under the World Health Organization. ... Dr. Peter Piot (* 1949 in Leuven/Belgium) ist Under Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director of the UN specialized agency UNAIDS. After he qualified as a Doctor of Medicine at the University of Ghent in 1974, he became co-discoverer of the Ebola virus in Zaire in... Andrija Å tampar (September 1, 1888 - June 26, 1958) was a distinguished scholar in the field of social medicine from Croatia. ... Carlo Urbani (October 19, 1956 - March 29, 2003) was an Italian physician and the first to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as a new disease. ... David L. Heymann, MD (born 1946 in Pennsylvania, USA) is Executive Director, Communicable Diseases of the World Health Organization (WHO). ...

Personnel policy

The World Health Organization is an agency of the United Nations and as such shares a core of common personnel policy with other agencies. UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Smokers

The World Health Organization has recently banned the recruitment of cigarette smokers, to promote the principle of a tobacco-free work environment.


World Health Report

The annual World Health Report, first published in 1995, is the WHO's leading publication. Each year the report combines an expert assessment of global health, including statistics relating to all countries, with a focus on a specific subject. The World Health Report 2007 - A safer future: global public health security in the 21st century was published on August 23, 2006.


Statistics

The WHO website A guide to statistical information at WHO has an online version of the most recent WHO health statistics.
According to The WHO Programme on Health Statistics:

The production and dissemination of health statistics for health action at country, regional and global levels is a core WHO activity mandated to WHO by its Member States in its Constitution. WHO produced figures carry great weight in national and international resource allocation, policy making and programming, based on its reputation as "unbiased" (impartial and fair), global (not belonging to any camp), and technically competent (consulting leading research and policy institutions and individuals).

Controversies

Ionizing radiation

Dr. Michel Fernex, Wladimir Tchertkoff, and Dr. Christopher Busby, on June 27, 2007, in front of the WHO building in Geneva
Dr. Michel Fernex, Wladimir Tchertkoff, and Dr. Christopher Busby, on June 27, 2007, in front of the WHO building in Geneva

There is pending controversy on the relation between the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Since May 28, 1959, there has been an agreement between these organizations, confirmed by World Health Assembly resolution WHA12.40[citation needed]. Numerous people, including Michel Fernex (a retired medical doctor from the WHO[citation needed]), have criticized this agreement as preventing the WHO from properly conducting its activities relating to health effects of ionizing radiation. Notably it is argued that the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe are significantly played down by the WHO because of this agreement. The WHO has concluded on 50 near-immediate deaths and potentially 4,000 cancers in the longer term, but other accounts quote between 50,000 and 150,000 people [8] already died, and several hundreds of thousands people are ill, handicapped, etc.[9] Kofi Annan said that seven million people are affected by the catastrophe.[10] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2784 × 1856 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2784 × 1856 pixel, file size: 2. ... Dr. Michel Fernex Michel Fernex is a Swiss medical doctor, from the Medical Faculty University of Basel. ... Wladimir Tchertkoff in front of the WHO building, asking for a modification of the WHO-IAEA agreement, 26 April 2007 Wladimir Tchertkoff is a Swiss journalist who realized with Emanuela Andreoli in 2003 the film The Sacrifice, a documentary on the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant. ... Christopher Busby Christopher Busby is a chemist born in 1945 from United Kingdom. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Dr. Michel Fernex Michel Fernex is a Swiss medical doctor, from the Medical Faculty University of Basel. ... The Chernobyl Nuclear power plant The Chernobyl accident which occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union) is widely regarded as the worst in the history of nuclear power generation. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


Particularly, the proceedings of the 1995 Geneva conference and the report of the Kiev 2001 conference on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster were never published, which is very unusual. Dr. Hiroshi Nakajima, former WHO Director-General, admitted in a Swiss television interview that these documents had been censored based on the agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency.[11] Since April 27, 2007, a permanent presence opposite the main driveway to WHO premises is maintained in protest against the agreement between WHO and IAEA.[12] Dr Hiroshi Nakajima of Japan, was born at Chiba City, Japan, on 16 May 1928. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


See also

World Health Day is celebrated every year on 7th April, under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization ( WHO). ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... This article is about the French city. ... WHO Centre for Health Development (Kobe) The WHO Centre for Health Development (WKC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... This article is about the Japanese city. ...

References

Henrik Karl Nielsen: The World Health Organisation - Implementing the right to health, 2. edition, Copenhagen 2001

  1. ^ Constitution of the World Health Organization. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  2. ^ Chronicle of the World Health Organization, April 1948. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  3. ^ Chronicle of the World Health Organization, 1947. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  4. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61 session 1 Establishment of the World Health Organization on 14 December 1946
  5. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-10/04/content_5167991.htm
  6. ^ http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/notes/2007/np07/en/index.html
  7. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,940287,00.html
  8. ^ Ukrainian Ministry of Public Health, April 1995.
  9. ^ http://www.nirs.org/mononline/consequ.htm
  10. ^ "Chernobyl is a word we would all like to erase from our memory. It [opened] a Pandora's box of invisible enemies and nameless anxieties in people's minds, but which most of us probably now think of as safely relegated to the past. Yet there are two compelling reasons why this tragedy must not be forgotten... First, if we forget Chernobyl, we increase the risk of more such technological and environmental disasters in the future. Second, more than seven million of our fellow human beings do not have the luxury of forgetting. They are still suffering, every day, as a result of what happened 14 years ago. Indeed, the legacy of Chernobyl will be with us, and with our descendants, for generations to come." Kofi Annan, United Nations Secretary General, http://www.wagingpeace.org/menu/action/urgent-actions/chernobyl/
  11. ^ Interview of Dr. Nakajima by Dr. Michel Fernex, in the movie of Wladimir Tchertkoff, Nuclear Controversies.
  12. ^ For an Independent WHO

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one which all member nations have equal representation. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Michel Fernex Michel Fernex is a Swiss medical doctor, from the Medical Faculty University of Basel. ... Wladimir Tchertkoff in front of the WHO building, asking for a modification of the WHO-IAEA agreement, 26 April 2007 Wladimir Tchertkoff is a Swiss journalist who realized with Emanuela Andreoli in 2003 the film The Sacrifice, a documentary on the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant. ...

External links

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World Health Organization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1564 words)
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
The WHO was established by the UN on April 7, 1948.
WHO is nearing success in developing vaccines against malaria and schistosomiasis and aims to eradicate polio within the next few years.
World Health Organization - definition of World Health Organization in Encyclopedia (615 words)
Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health.
The WHO inherited much of the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organisation (HO), which had been an agency of the League of Nations.
In addition to its work in eradicating disease, the WHO also carries out campaigns — for example, to boost consumption of vegetables worldwide, or to discourage tobacco consumption – and conducts research: for instance, into whether or not the electromagnetic field surrounding cell phones has a negative influence on health.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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