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Encyclopedia > Works inspired by J. R. R. Tolkien
After Tolkien
Reception of
Adaptations of
Works inspired by

The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film-makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the "father" of the entire genre of "high fantasy.[1] The production of such derivative works is sometimes of doubtful legality, because Tolkien's published works will remain copyrighted until 2043. The film, stage and merchandise rights of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are owned by Tolkien Enterprises, while the rights of The Silmarillion and other material remain with The J.R.R. Tolkien Estate Ltd. The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... Centuries: 20th century - 21st century - 22nd century Decades: 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s 2030s - 2040s - 2050s 2060s 2070s 2080s 2090s Years: 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 - 2043 - 2044 2045 2046 2047 2048 2043 (MMXLIII)[link title January Excepted expiration from the Arizona-Sonora pipline communication. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... Tolkien Enterprises is a company controlled by Saul Zaentz. ... The Tolkien Estate is the legal body which manages the copyrights of J. R. R. Tolkiens works. ...

Contents

Art and illustration

The earliest illustrations of Tolkien's works were drawn by the author himself. In 1937, The Hobbit was first illustrated by professional draughtsmen for the American edition. Tolkien was very critical of these, and in 1946 he rejected illustrations by Horus Engels for the German edition of the Hobbit as "too Disnified." Disney redirects here. ...


Milein Cosman illustrated Farmer Giles of Ham in 1948, and Tolkien was not happy with this work, either. In 1949, Cosman was replaced by Pauline Baynes, who became Tolkien's favourite illustrator and who created drawings for The Adventures of Tom Bombadil as well as for Farmer Giles of Ham. Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, an accomplished and critically-acclaimed painter, was inspired to illustrations to The Lord of the Rings in the early 1970s. She sent them to Tolkien, who was struck by the similarity to the style of his own drawings.[citation needed] In 1977, Queen Margrethe's drawings were published in the Danish translation of the book, which was reissued in 2002,[2] redrawn by the British artist Eric Fraser.[citation needed] Milein Cosman - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Pauline Baynes (born 1922, in Hove, Sussex) is an English book illustrator, whose work encompasses more than 100 books. ... Margrethe II (Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid) (born 16 April 1940) is the Queen regnant of Denmark. ... Eric George Fraser (June 11, 1902 – 1983) was famous for illustrating classic scenes from mythology, such as Beowulf fighting the dragon. ...


Tim and Greg Hildebrandt were also well-known Tolkien illustrators during the first decades after the publication of The Lord of the Rings. The Brothers Hildebrandt are twin brothers who together worked as fantasy and science fiction artists. ...


In the 1970s, British artist Jimmy Cauty created a best-selling poster of the Hobbit for the retailer Athena.[3] James Cauty, Jimmy or Jimi, also known as Rockman Rock, was born in Devon, England in 1956 and not much is known about him until, as a 17-year old artist, he painted a popular Lord of the Rings poster (and later, a counterpart based on The Hobbit) for Athena. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation). ...


Probably the widest-known Tolkien illustrators of the 1990s and 2000s are John Howe, Alan Lee, and Ted Nasmith — Alan Lee for illustrated editions of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, Ted Nasmith for illustrated editions of The Silmarillion, and John Howe for the cover artwork to several Tolkien publications. (Howe and Lee were also involved in the creation of Peter Jackson's movie trilogy as concept artists — Nasmith was also invited to take part in the films, but was forced to reluctantly decline due to a personal crisis at the time.) In 2004, Lee won an Academy Award for Best Art Direction for his work on the third film in the trilogy, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King.[4] John Howe 2003 John Howe (born August 21, 1957 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) is a book illustrator, living in Neuchatel, Switzerland. ... Alan Lee 2003 in (New Zealand) Alan Lee (born August 20, 1947) is an English book illustrator and movie conceptual designer. ... Ted Nasmith Ted Nasmith is a Canadian artist, illustrator and architectural renderer. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Other artists who have found inspiration in Tolkien's works include Catherine Karina Chmiel, Inger Edelfeldt, Anke Katrin Eißmann, Roger Garland, Michael Hague, Tove Jansson (of Moomin fame, illustrator of Swedish and Finnish translations of The Hobbit), Tim Kirk, Angus McBride, Kay Miner, and Jenny Dolfen. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Anke Katrin Eißmann (b. ... Michael Hague (born September 8, 1948) is an American illustrator, primarily of childrens fantasy books. ... Tove Marika Jansson ( ; August 9, 1914 – June 27, 2001) was a Finnish novelist, painter, illustrator and comic strip author. ... For other uses, see Moomin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... Tim Kirk is a five-time winner of the Hugo Award for Best Fan Artist, the most prestigious awards in science fiction and fantasy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jenny Dolfen (b. ...


Audio

Three radio plays based on The Lord of the Rings have been made, broadcast in 1955–1956, 1979 and 1981 respectively. The first and last ones were produced by the BBC. The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... Radio drama (audio drama), which had its greatest popularity in the United States and in most other countries before the spread of television, depends on dialogue, music and sound effects to help the listener imagine the story in her or his minds eye. In the television era, some audio... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Music

Donald Swann set music to The Road Goes Ever On, a collection of Tolkien's lyrics and poems. The work was approved by Tolkien himself.[5] Donald Ibrahím Swann (September 30, 1923–March 23, 1994) was a British composer, musician and entertainer. ...


Tom Rapp set most of The Verse of the One Ring ("Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky...") to music as "Ring Thing" in Pearls Before Swine's second album, Balaklava (1968). Tom Rapp (born 1947) is an American composer and folk singer. ... For other uses of the phrase Pearls Before Swine, see Pearls Before Swine (disambiguation). ...


The Tolkien Ensemble published four CD's from 1997 to 2005 with the aim to create "the world's first complete musical interpretation of the poems and songs from The Lord of the Rings". The project was given approval by both the Tolkien Estate and Harper Collins Publishers. Queen Margarethe II of Denmark gave permission to use her illustrations in the CD layout. The Tolkien Ensemble (founded in 1995) is a Danish ensemble with the aim to create the worlds first complete musical interpretation of the poems and songs from The Lord of the Rings. They published four CDs from 1997 to 2005. ... The Tolkien Estate is the legal body which manages the copyrights of J. R. R. Tolkiens works. ... Collins was a Scottish printing company founded by a schoolmaster, William Collins, in Glasgow in 1819. ...


"The Hobbitons" released a CD in 1996 with song versions of poems of the Hobbit and from The Adventures of Tom Bombadil. The Hobbitons was the name of a Dutch folk group who released a CD in 1996, containing 16 tracks of poems by J. R. R. Tolkien, from The Hobbit, The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, and The Lord of the Rings. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ...


Other musicians inspired by Tolkien include Za Frûmi, Battlelore, David Arkenstone, Summoning, Blind Guardian, Mostly Autumn, Bo Hansson, and Led Zeppelin (certainly "Over The Hills and Far Away", "Misty Mountain Hop", "The Battle of Evermore," and "Ramble On," with debate about some parts of Stairway to Heaven). Za Frûmi is a Swedish music group that was formed 2000. ... This article is about the metal band. ... David Arkenstones music is usually found under a New age music section in music stores. ... Summoning is an Austrian epic/atmospheric black metal band. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mostly Autumn in concert Mostly Autumn is a British band, producing music influenced at least by progressive rock and Celtic music genres. ... Bo Hansson was born on 10th April 1943 in Gothenberg, Sweden, and is a musician. ... For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... The Battle of Evermore is an acoustic guitar and mandolin song by English rock band Led Zeppelin, featured on their fourth album, Led Zeppelin IV, released in 1971. ... Ramble On is a song by English rock band Led Zeppelin from their 1969 album Led Zeppelin II. It was co-written by Jimmy Page and Robert Plant, and was recorded in 1969 at Juggy Sound Studio, New York, on the bands first concert tour of the United States. ... This article is about the Led Zeppelin song. ...


Neil Peart, Canadian rock composer and drummer for Rush, has based many of his lyrics on Tolkien, most notably "Rivendell" and "the Necromancer". Neil Ellwood Peart (pronounced ) OC, (born September 12, 1952 in Hamilton, Ontario) is a Canadian musician and author. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band originally formed in August 1968, in the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario; presently comprised of bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ...


Blind Guardian has written many songs relating to Middle-earth, including the full concept album Nightfall in Middle Earth that follows The Silmarillion. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nightfall in Middle-Earth is a concept album by Blind Guardian, released in 1998. ...


"In The House Of Tom Bombadil" is an instrumental song from Nickel Creek's self-titled album from 2000.


"Riddles In The Dark" is an instrumental song from Nickel Creek mandolinist Chris Thile's solo album Not All Who Wander Are Lost, released in 2001. Nickel Creek is an American acoustic music trio. ... Chris Thile (IPA: )[5] (born February 20, 1981) is a musician from The United States, best known as mandolinist and vocalist for the progressive acoustic trio, Nickel Creek. ...


Enya composed and recorded a song entitled, "Lothlórien", on the release, "Shepherd Moon". This song is also available in "A Box of Dreams" (Clouds) and in, "Only Time-The Collection" (disc two).


Ensio Kosta composed in 1980–1982 a chamber music series called "Music Of Middle-earth", with movements like "Awakening of Shire", "Incantation", "Winding Paths", "Lament of Galadriel", "Riders of Rohan", and "Grey Havens".


Johan de Meij’s first symphony “The Lord of the Rings” is based on the novel. The symphony consists of five separate movements, each illustrating a personage or an important episode from the series. The symphony was written in the period between March 1984 and December 1987, and had its première in Brussels on 15th March 1988.
The movements are:
I. GANDALF (The Wizard)
II. LOTHLORIEN (The Elvenwood)
III. GOLLUM (Sméagol)
IV. JOURNEY IN THE DARK
a. The Mines of Moria
b. The Bridge of Khazad-Dûm
V. HOBBITS
Johannes Abraham (Johan) de Meij (born November 23, 1953) is a Dutch conductor, trombonist, and composer. ...


Leonard Rosenman composed music for the Ralph Bakshi animated movie and Howard Shore composed the music for the three Peter Jackson films (see Music of The Lord of the Rings film trilogy). Leonard Rosenman (born September 7, 1924 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American film, television and concert composer. ... Ralph Bakshi (October 29, 1938) is an American director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... Howard Leslie Shore (born October 18, 1946) is an Oscar, Golden Globe and Grammy Award-winning Canadian composer, best known for composing the scores to The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and films of David Cronenberg. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... The music for the The Lord of the Rings film trilogy was composed, orchestrated and conducted by Howard Shore. ...


A.R. Rahman collaborated with Värttinä to compose the music for the stage adaptation "The Lord of the Rings Musical". A. R. Rahman Allah Rakha Rahman, born January 6, 1967 as A.S. Dileep Kumar in Chennai, India, is a popular Indian film music composer. ... Värttinä (Finnish for spindle) is a Finnish folk music band that was started as a project by Sari and Mari Kaasinen back in 1983 in the village of Rääkkylä, in Karelia, the southeastern region of Finland. ...


Black metal band Gorgoroth take their name from an area of Mordor This article is about the black metal band. ... Mount Doom and Barad-dûr in Mordor, as depicted in the Peter Jackson film. ...


The Loss and the Silence, a string quartet by Ezequiel Viñao (inspired by the story of Aragorn and Arwen.) The piece was commissioned for the 100th anniversary of the Juilliard School and was premiered by the Juilliard String Quartet. Ezequiel Viñao (born July 21, 1960) is an Argentine-American composer. ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... The Juilliard School is one of the worlds premier performing arts conservatories, in New York City. ... The Juilliard String Quartet is a classical music string quartet founded in 1946 at the Juilliard School in New York. ...


The band Gatsbys American Dream have a song from their album Volcano titled 'A Mind of Metal and Wheels', which is what Fangorn says to describe Sarumon. Gatsbys American Dream [sic] is a prolific Seattle-based Indie rock band. ...


A comprehensive list of music "inspired by or referential to the fiction writings of J.R.R. Tolkien" can be seen at the Tolkien Music List.


Film

Tolkien originally sold the film, stage and merchandise rights of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings to United Artists in 1968, but they never made a film, and in 1976 the rights were sold to Tolkien Enterprises, a division of the Saul Zaentz Company. The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... This article is about the film studio. ... Tolkien Enterprises is a company controlled by Saul Zaentz. ... It has been suggested that The Saul Zaentz Film Center be merged into this article or section. ...


In the early seventies John Boorman was planning a film of The Lord of the Rings, but the plans never went further because of movie studio politics. Some of the work done was resurrected for the film Excalibur in 1981. John Boorman (born January 18, 1933 in Shepperton, Surrey, United Kingdom), is a British filmmaker, currently based in Ireland, best known for his feature films such as Point Blank, Deliverance, Excalibur, and The General. ...


Ralph Bakshi directed an animated movie adaptation of The Lord of the Rings in 1978 (partly made with the rotoscope technique), which covered only the first half of The Lord of the Rings. Rankin-Bass covered the second half with a children's TV animation The Return of the King (1980); earlier they had made a TV animation of The Hobbit (1977). Ralph Bakshi (October 29, 1938) is an American director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... Rotoscoping is a technique where animators trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ... Rankin-Bass (aka Videocraft International) is an American production company, known for its seasonal television specials. ... The Return of the King is an animated adaptation of the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien which was released by Rankin-Bass as a TV special in 1980. ... J. R. R. Tolkiens The Hobbit was adapted into an animated television movie by the team at Rankin-Bass Productions in 1977. ...


The Lord of the Rings was adapted as a trilogy of films (200103), directed by Peter Jackson. This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ...


The split of Tolkien's works between Tolkien Enterprises and the Tolkien Estate means that none of the Tolkien Enterprises' products can include source material from outside The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, and therefore a film or stage version of The Silmarillion is highly unlikely. Tolkien Enterprises is a company controlled by Saul Zaentz. ... The Tolkien Estate is the legal body which manages the copyrights of J. R. R. Tolkiens works. ...


Language

Literature

Many authors have found inspiration in Tolkien's work as well. Following the success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings in the 1960s, publishers were quick to try to meet a new demand for literate fantasy in the American marketplace. Ballantine, under the direction of editor Lin Carter, published public domain and relatively obscure works under the banner of the Ballantine Adult Fantasy series. Lester Del Rey, however, sought for new books that would mirror Tolkien's work, and published Terry Brooks' The Sword of Shannara (accused at the time of direct plagiarism of Tolkien's book) and Stephen Donaldson's The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, the Unbeliever. Nick Perumov created sequel stories about Middle-earth, and Dennis L. McKiernan's Iron Tower trilogy was intended to be a direct sequel to The Lord of the Rings but had to be altered. For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... Linwood Vrooman Carter (June 9, 1930 - February 7, 1988) was an American author of science fiction and fantasy, as well as an editor and critic. ... Launched in 1969 (presumably in response to the growing popularity of Tolkiens works), the Ballantine Adult Fantasy series reissued a number of works of fantasy literature, which were out of print or dispersed in back issues of pulp magazines (or otherwise not easily available in the United States), in... Lester del Rey (Ramon Felipe Alvarez-del Rey) (June 2, 1915 - May 10, 1993) was an American science fiction author and editor. ... Terence Dean Terry Brooks (born January 8, 1944) is a writer of fantasy fiction. ... This article is about the fantasy novel. ... For other uses, see Plagiarism (disambiguation). ... Stephen Reeder Donaldson (born May 13, 1947) is an American fantasy and science fiction novelist. ... The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, the Unbeliever is a trilogy of fantasy novels by Stephen R. Donaldson. ... Nikolai Perumov (or Nick Perumov) is a reknowned Russian fantasy and science fiction writer. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... Dennis L. McKiernan is an American writer best known for his fantasy novel The Iron Tower. ... Dennis L. McKiernans The Iron Tower trilogy is one of the best high fantasy sagas out there. ...


Throughout the next two decades, the term fantasy became synonymous with the general aspects of Tolkien's work: multiple races including dwarves and elves, a quest to destroy a magical artifact, and an evil that seeks to control the world. The plot of Novelist Pat Murphy's There and Back Again mirrors that of The Hobbit, but is transposed into a science-fiction setting involving space travel. Eragon and Eldest, the first two parts of the as-yet unfinished Inheritance cycle by Christopher Paolini largely rehashed The Lord of the Rings, and creatures such as elves and dwarves in his books bear similar qualities to the elves and dwarves of Middle-earth. Some people have gone so far as to accuse Paolini of plagiarism, but this is still under debate.[citation needed] Even the Harry Potter series mirrors themes from and copies names and ideas from The Lord of the Rings, as the current plot focusing on the destruction of horcruxes to defeat Voldemort mirrors the destruction of the One Ring to defeat Sauron. Name similarities include Longbottom leaf/ Neville Longbottom, Aragorn/ Aragog, and other notable similarities are the obvious similarities between the Nazgûl and the dementors; the spiders in Mirkwood and those in the Forbidden Forest; the Orcs and Men that fall under Sauron's power and influence and the Death Eaters that fall under Voldemort's influence and power; and the White Council and the Order of the Phoenix. For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Pat Murphy (Patrice) is an award-winning American author of science fiction and fantasy novels. ... This article is about the novel written by Christopher Paolini. ... Eldest is the second book in the planned Inheritance Cycle by Christopher Paolini. ... The Inheritance Cycle, formerly the Inheritance Trilogy, is a series of fantasy novels written by author Christopher Paolini that has sold more than 8 million copies worldwide. ... Christopher Paolini (born November 17, 1983 in Southern California) is an American writer. ... For alternate meanings, see Lightning (disambiguation). ... This page is about a mythological race. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Lord Voldemort (born c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy writings, Orcs or Orks are a race of creatures who are used as soldiers and henchmen by both the greater and lesser villains of The Silmarillion and The Lord of the Rings — Morgoth, Sauron and Saruman. ...


Parody

  • Probably the best-known parody of Tolkien is Bored of the Rings (1968).
  • The Veggie Tales episode Lord of the Beans.
  • "The Dork of The Rings"(2006) is a film by Richardson Productions LLC and stars Bryce Cone as Frudo Buggins. The film features an introduction by Lord Of The Rings actor and stuntman Kiran Shah.

Bored of the Rings (BOTR) is the shared title of various independent parodies of The Lord of the Rings (LOTR), a novel by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Veggie Tales is a series of childrens books and computer animated videos conveying Christian ideals to children via humorous, anthropomorphic vegetable-shaped characters. ... Lord of the Beans is the 27th episode in the VeggieTales animated series. ... Kiran Shah, born in 1956 is an actor and a stuntman, born in Nairobi, Kenya. ...

Poetry

Some people were inspired to compose poems in Quenya or Sindarin, the two most developed of Tolkien's created languages. For example, Helge Kåre Fauskanger translated the first two chapters of Genesis into Quenya. Tyalië Tyelelliéva is a journal dedicated to poems in the Elvish languages. Quenya is one of the fictional languages spoken by the Elves (the Quendi) the ones who speak. The first-found children of Ilúvatar, in the fantasy works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Tyalië Tyelelliéva is a journal on Tolkienian linguistics edited by Lisa Star since 1994. ...


Scholarship

Main article: Tolkien research
See also: Themes in The Lord of the Rings

Tolkien has also been the subject of a number of academic works. Vinyar Tengwar and Parma Eldalamberon are journals focusing on linguistic study of Tolkien's works. The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of academic research, studying different facets such as Tolkien as a writer of fantasy literature Tolkiens invented languages As A Writer Splintered Light: Logos And Language In Tolkiens World Verlyn Flieger (1st Edition 1983, Revised Edition 2002... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vinyar Tengwar is a linguistic journal published by the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship, dedicated to the scholarly study of the invented languages of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Parma Eldalamberon (Quenya The Book of Elven-tongues) is a journal of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship dedicated to the linguistics of J. R. R. Tolkiens Languages of Middle-Earth. ...


External link: A Bibliography of Scholarly Studies of J. R. R. Tolkien and His Works by Michael D.C. Drout


Games

There are multiple model-based games, trading card games, board games and video games that take place in Middle-earth, most depicting scenes and characters from The Lord of the Rings. In a broader sense, many fantasy role-playing games such as Dungeons and Dragons and DragonQuest were strongly influenced by Tolkien's works. Such games feature creatures such as Orcs, Trolls, Elves, Dwarves, Halflings, Ents which are common to Tolkien's mythos even if they do not take place in Middle-earth. This article is about computer and video games. ... This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... The original Dungeons & Dragons set Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&D or DnD) is a fantasy role-playing game (RPG) published by Gary Gygax and David Arneson in January 1974. ... Dragonquest is a novel written by Anne McCaffrey and is part of her Dragonriders of Pern series. ...


Video games

Main article: Middle-earth in video games

The books have been reproduced in video game form a number of times during the 1980s and 2000s, including Melbourne House's Lord of the Rings, Shadows of Mordor, War in Middle-earth; Interplay's Lord of the Rings Vol. 1 and Lord of the Rings Vol. 2.; Electronic Arts' action platformer adaptations of The Two Towers and The Return of the King, real-time strategy games The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth and The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II, and the role-playing game The Lord of the Rings: The Third Age, all based on the Jackson films; and Sierra Entertainment's action platformer based on The Fellowship of the Ring. There is also a PSP Game titled The Lord of the Rings: Tactics based on the Jackson films, a MMORPG by Turbine, The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar. The Two Towers (MUD) is also set in Tolkien's world. While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J. R. R. Tolkiens works and the many other works making up the high fantasy settings based upon them, relatively few games have been directly adapted from his world of Middle-earth. ... Melbourne House is a game development studio owned by Atari and based in Melbourne, Australia. ... War in Middle- Earth was a turn-based strategy game released for the Spectrum, Commodore 64, Amstrad CPC, Commodore Amiga and Atari ST in 1988 by Australian company Melbourne House. ... Interplay redirects here. ... Electronic Arts (EA) (NASDAQ: ERTS) is an American developer, marketer, publisher, and distributor of computer and video games. ... Platform games, or platformers, are a very popular genre of video games that originated in the early 1980s. ... Dune 2 (1992), an early RTS A real-time strategy (RTS) game is a type of computer strategy game which does not have turns like conventional turn-based strategy video or board games. ... The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth Categories: Computer and video game stubs | Real-time strategy computer games | 2004 computer and video games | Multiplayer online games | Windows games ... This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... The Lord of the Rings: The Third Age Categories: Computer and video game stubs | 2004 computer and video games | GameCube games | PlayStation 2 games | Xbox games ... Sierra Entertainment is an American computer game developer and publisher headquartered in Los Angeles, California. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The PlayStation Portable (officially abbreviated PSP)[5] is a handheld game console manufactured and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. ... Players interacting in Ultima Online, a classic MMORPG. Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) is a genre of online computer role-playing games (CRPGs) in which a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world. ... Turbine, Inc. ... The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar (LotRO) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) set in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth during the time of The Lord of the Rings. ... The Two Towers mud is a fantasy multiplayer text based online role-playing game set in Tolkien’s universe at the time of events in the second volume of Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings. ...


Other games

Games Workshop have made a miniature wargame called The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game, which, while part of the film trilogy's merchandise, combines elements from both the books and films. Many of Games Workshop's other battle games that are not directly related to the books have had some key background based on it. For the unrelated defunct American company, see Game Designers Workshop. ... Miniature wargaming is a form of wargaming designed to incorporate miniatures or figurines into play. ... The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game (abbreviated as LotR SBG), often referred to by players as Lord of the Rings, is a tabletop miniature wargame produced by Games Workshop (GW). ...


Several other games have been based directly on The Lord of the Rings and related works, including, amongst many, Iron Crown Enterprises' Middle-earth Role Playing game (1982–1999) and Middle-earth Collectible Card Game (1995-1999), as well as The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game (2001) made by Decipher, Inc. All of these predate Jackson's film trilogy except for Decipher's card game, which is part of the latter's merchandise. Iron Crown Enterprises has produced role playing, board, miniature, and collectible card games for over 20 years. ... MERP uses 2 ten-sided dice Middle-earth Role Playing (MERP) is a now out-of-print role-playing game based on Tolkiens writings and published by Iron Crown Enterprises (I.C.E.). // The setting for MERP is an expanded version of J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle Earth. ... Middle-earth Collectible Card Game (MECCG) is a collectible card game released by Iron Crown Enterprises in late 1995. ... This article is about the trading card game by Decipher. ... see also: 2000 in games, 2002 in games Games Released or Invented in 2001 Amber Sparks:Ultimate Destruction(remake) Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting released for the 3rd edition Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. ... Decipher, Inc. ...


Decipher also created the Lord of the Rings Roleplaying Game, a role-playing game based on the Jackson films. The Lord of the Rings Roleplaying Game, released by Decipher Inc. ...


Board games include Risk: Lord of the Rings Trilogy Edition and another simply entitled Lord of the Rings, as well as the Middle Earth Games from Simulations Publications, Inc. containing the games War of the Ring (strategic, covering all three books), Gondor (tactical, covering the siege of Minas Tirith) and Sauron (covering the decisive battle of the Second Age) in 1977. A more recent strategic game covering all three books, called War of the Ring, was released in 2004. There are also Trivial Pursuit and Monopoly editions based on The Lord of the Rings, as well as a The Lord of the Rings Trivia Game quiz game. Chess sets have also been created with the figures based on people and other characters from The Lord of the Rings. Risk: Lord of the Rings Trilogy Edition is a board game based upon the game Risk, set, however, in J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional land of Middle-earth rather than the actual Earth. ... Lord of the Rings is a family board game designed by Reiner Knizia based on The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Simulations Publications, Inc. ... see also: 1976 in games, 1978 in games Games Released or Invented in 1977 Cosmic Encounter Imperium Ogre Squad Leader The Arab-Israeli Wars Traveller Victory in the Pacific See also 1977 in video gaming Categories: 1977 | Game stubs ... Box Art for War of the Ring War of the Ring is a strategy board game produced by Fantasy Flight Games. ... see also: 2003 in games, 2005 in games Games Released or Invented in 2004 San Juan (a card game based upon the board game Puerto Rico) Categories: Stub | 2004 ... Trivial Pursuit is a board game where progress is determined by a players ability to answer general knowledge, popular culture questions. ... This article is about the board game. ...


Homages

The creators of the Dungeons and Dragons role-playing game were also strongly influenced by Tolkien. The game has (clearly Tolkien-influenced) dwarves and elves as playable characters, and formerly had hobbits as well. After being threatened with a lawsuit by the Tolkien estate, they replaced hobbits with the similar "halflings" — a term also used in The Lord Of the Rings. In most versions of the game, halflings were especially good at being thieves/rogues, a nod to Bilbo the thief in The Hobbit. The Kender of Krynn (from the Dragonlance Campaign setting) are again essentially renamed hobbits, although the innate racial personalities contrast greatly. His works also indirectly inspired the Warcraft series via their use in Games Workshop's battle games. The original Dungeons & Dragons set Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&D or DnD) is a fantasy role-playing game (RPG) published by Gary Gygax and David Arneson in January 1974. ... This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... The Kender Tasslehoff Burrfoot on the right Kender are a fictional race unique to the Dragonlance world, a setting of the Dungeons & Dragons role playing game, most popularized by a large series of novels which take place there. ... Krynn is the fictional world of the Dragonlance setting. ... The current edition Dragonlance logo, as seen on all books published in the more recent times. ... Warcraft: Orcs & Humans is a real-time strategy computer game developed and published by Blizzard Entertainment in 1994. ... For the unrelated defunct American company, see Game Designers Workshop. ...


Equally common is the use of the term orc for a variety of hobgoblin type creatures in later fantasy although Tolkien created this modern usage of the word. Even more removed genre games such as Shadowrun and Warhammer 40,000 use the term, therein spelt Ork, possibly to sidestep possible legal issues (though Tolkien actually preferred -k in late writings). For other uses, see Orc (disambiguation). ... This article is about the pen & paper RPG. For other uses, see Shadowrun (disambiguation). ... Warhammer 40,000 (informally known as Warhammer 40K, WH40K, W40K or just 40K) is a science fantasy game produced by Games Workshop. ...


The Canadian animated television series: Odd Job Jack had an episode in the second season called "The Lord of the Three Ringed Binder" which parodied the Lord of the Rings. Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ... Odd Job Jack is a Canadian animated comedy television show featuring Don McKellar, about one guys misadventures in temporary employment. ...


References

  1. ^ Mitchell, Christopher. J. R. R. Tolkien: Father of Modern Fantasy Literature (Google Video). "Let There Be Light" series. University of California Television. Retrieved on 2006-07-20..
  2. ^ Queen Margrethe II of Denmark. Hello Magazine. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.
  3. ^ Spencer, Neil, "A guerrilla raid on the arts establishment", The Guardian (Manchester) ISSN 0261-3077 , 31 October 1993, The Observer Review Page.
  4. ^ 76th Academy Awards. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.
  5. ^ Bard: Poems and Songs of Middle Earth - Notes

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Fan fiction (also spelled fanfiction and commonly abbreviated to fanfic) is fiction written by people who enjoy a film, novel, television show or other media work, using the characters and situations developed in it and developing new plots in which to use these characters. ... Fan fiction (also spelled fanfiction and commonly abbreviated to fanfic) is fiction written by people who enjoy a film, novel, television show or other media work, using the characters and situations developed in it and developing new plots in which to use these characters. ... This article is about the novel. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of academic research, studying different facets such as Tolkien as a writer of fantasy literature Tolkiens invented languages As A Writer Splintered Light: Logos And Language In Tolkiens World Verlyn Flieger (1st Edition 1983, Revised Edition 2002... For other uses, see Hobbit (disambiguation) and There and Back Again (disambiguation). ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... This article is about the book by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Children of Húrin is an epic high fantasy novel which forms the completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Frodo redirects here. ... Samwise Gamgee, later known as Samwise Gardner[2] or Samwise the Brave and commonly known as Sam, is a fictional character in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Meriadoc Brandybuck, usually referred to as Merry, is a fictional character from J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, featured throughout his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... Peregrin Took (T.A. 2990–F.A. 70), better known to his friends as Pippin, is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, a Hobbit, and one of Frodo Bagginss youngest but dearest friends. ... Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... Aragorn II is a fictional character from J. R. R Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Legolas is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... Gimli is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the son of Denethor II. For the son of Denethor I, see Boromir (Steward). ... This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... Saruman is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Elrond Half-elven is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Glorfindel is an Elf, a Noldor who appears in the tales of Middle-earth. ... Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Théoden was the seventeenth King of Rohan, and last of the Second Line. ... Éomer is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... Éowyn (T.A. 2995–F.A. ?), a shieldmaiden of Rohan, is a character in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy universe of Middle-earth who appears in his most famous work, The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens novel The Lord of the Rings, Gríma (Wormtongue) is the chief advisor to King Théoden of Rohan. ... This article is about the son of Denethor. ... This article is about the Steward of Gondor in the time of the War of the Ring. ... For the Lord of the Rings character with this name, see Beregond (Captain). ... This article is about the fictional character. ... The Witch-king of Angmar, also known as the Lord of the Nazgûl and the Black Captain among other names, is a fictional character from the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, set in the fantasy world of Middle-earth. ... Treebeard or (Sindarin) Fangorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Tom Bombadil is a supporting character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The Lord of the Rings, an epic high fantasy novel by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, set in his world of Middle-earth (a fictional past version of our Earth), has been adapted for various media multiple times. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson film trilogy. ... While an immense number of computer and video games owe a great deal to J. R. R. Tolkiens works and the many other works making up the high fantasy settings based upon them, relatively few games have been directly adapted from his world of Middle-earth. ... During 1955 and 1956, a condensed radio dramatisation of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in twelve episodes on BBC Radios the Third Programme. ... In 1979 the US National Public Radio broadcast a radio dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... In 1981 BBC Radio 4 broadcast a dramatisation of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings in 26 half-hour stereo instalments. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... DVD cover The Return of the King is an animated adaptation of the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien which was released by Rankin/Bass as a TV special in 1980. ...

 
 

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