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Encyclopedia > Working class

Working class is a term used in academic sociology and in ordinary conversation. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 312 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1000 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 312 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1000 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ... Nickname: Home of Hospitality, The most northern city of the South and the most southern city of the North, Chemicalville, The Capitol City C-Town Location of Charleston in West Virginia. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...


In common with other terms relevant to social class, it is defined and used in many different ways, depending on context and speaker. The term incorporates references to education, to occupation, to culture, and to income. When used non-academically, it typically refers to a section of society dependent on physical labor, especially when remunerated with an hourly wage. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ...


Casual and geographical usage differs widely; in extreme cases, well-paid university-educated professionals in the United Kingdom may self-identify as working class based on family background, while many semi-skilled and skilled laborers in the United States are characterized as middle-class. It is usually contrasted with the upper class and middle class in terms of access to economic resources, education and cultural interests. Its usage as a description can be pejorative, but many people self-identify as working class and experience a sense of pride analogous to a national identity. Working classes are mainly found in industrialized economies and in urban areas of non-industrialized economies. The United States keeps their working class well fed so that they don't uprise and over take the upper class, this also allows the upper class to do what they want without penalty. For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... This article is about people called professionals. ... Upper class is a concept in sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


The variation between different socio-political definitions makes the term controversial in social usage, and its use in academic discourse as a concept, and as a subject of study itself, is very contentious, especially following the decline of manual labor in postindustrial societies. Some academics (sociologists, historians, political theorists, etc.) question the usefulness of the concept of a working class, while others use some version of the concept. A post-industrial society is a proposed name for an economy that has undergone a specific series of changes in structure after a process of industrialization. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


In the United States and the United Kingdom, sociologists Dennis Gilbert, James Henslin, William Thompson, Joseph Hickey and Thomas Ayling have brought forth class models in which the working class constitutes roughly one third of the population, with the majority of the population being either working or lower class.[1][2][3]

Contents

History

In feudal Europe, the working class as such did not exist in large numbers. Instead, society conceived of most people as the labouring class, a group which united different professions, trades and occupations. A lawyer, craftsman and peasant were all considered to be part of the same social unit, a "third estate" of people who were neither aristocrats nor church officials. Similar hierarchies existed outside Europe in other pre-capitalist societies. The social position of these laboring classes was viewed as ordained by natural law and common religious belief. This social position was contested, particularly by peasants, for example during the German Peasants' War. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Pre-industrial society refers to specific social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the rise of Capitalism. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... expanding insurgences The Peasants War (in German, der Deutsche Bauernkrieg) was a popular revolt in Europe, specifically in the Holy Roman Empire between 1524-1526 and consisted, like the preceding Bundschuh movement and the Hussite Wars, of a mass of economic as well as religious revolts by peasants, townsfolk and...


In the late 18th century, under the influence of the Enlightenment, European society was in a state of change, and this change could not be reconciled with the idea of a changeless god-created social order. Wealthy members of these societies created ideologies which blamed many of the problems of working-class people on the morals and ethics of the working class themselves (i.e. excessive consumption of alcohol, perceived laziness and inability to save money — "shiftless and thriftless"). Look up enlightenment, Enlightenment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


These processes were identified in English history by E.P. Thompson in his book The Making of the English Working Class. Thompson argues that the English working class was present at its own creation, and seeks to describe the transformation of pre-modern laboring classes into a modern, politically self-conscious, working class. England is the largest and most populous of the four main divisions of the United Kingdom. ... Edward Palmer Thompson (1924-1993) was a historian probably best known for his work The Making of the English Working Class, which included his reassessment of the Luddite movement. ... The Making of the English Working Class is an influential work of English social history, written by E. P. Thompson a notable a New Left historian; it was published in 1963 (revised 1968) by Victor Gollancz Ltd, and later republished at Pelican, becoming an early Open University Set Book. ...


Definitions

Definitions of social classes reflect a number of sociological perspectives, informed by anthropology, economics, psychology and sociology. The major perspectives historically have been Marxism and Functionalism. Social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... This article is about functionalism in sociology. ...


The parameters which define working class depend on the schema used to define social class. For example, a simple stratum model of class might divide society into a simple hierarchy of lower class, middle class and upper class with working class not specifically designated. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see Definition (disambiguation). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Upper class is a concept in sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ...


Due to the political interest in the working class, debate has been raging over the nature of the working class since the early 19th century. Two broad schools of definitions emerge, those aligned with 20th-century sociological stratum models of class society, and those aligned with the 19th-century historical materialism economic models of the Marxists and Anarchists. Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical...


As the concept of the working class is important in Marxist, Anarchist and Socialist thought, there is a great deal of political interest in the precise definition of who the working class is. Key points of commonality amongst various ideas include the idea that there is one working class, even though it may be internally divided. The idea of one single working class should be contrasted with 18th-century conceptions of many laboring classes. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


Marxist definition

Class War: Workers in battle with the police during the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934.
Class War: Workers in battle with the police during the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934.

Karl Marx defined the "working class" or proletariat as the multitude of individuals who sell their labor power for wages and do not own the means of production, and he defined them as being responsible for creating the wealth of a society. For example, the members of this class physically build bridges, craft furniture, fix cars, grow food, and nurse children, but do not themselves own the land, factories or means of production. Download high resolution version (1386x1106, 333 KB)Open battle between striking teamsters armed with pipes and the police in the streets of Minneapolis, June 1934. ... Download high resolution version (1386x1106, 333 KB)Open battle between striking teamsters armed with pipes and the police in the streets of Minneapolis, June 1934. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... The Minneapolis General Strike of 1934 grew out of a strike by Teamsters against most of the trucking companies operating in Minneapolis, a major distribution center for the Upper Midwest. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), are the combination of the means of labor and the subject of labor used by workers to make products. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), are the combination of the means of labor and the subject of labor used by workers to make products. ...


A sub-section of the proletariat, the lumpenproletariat (rag-proletariat), are the extremely poor and unemployed, such as day laborers and homeless people. The lumpenproletariat (German Lumpenproletariat, rabble-proletariat; raggedy proletariat) is a term originally defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The German Ideology (1845), their famous second joint work, and later expounded upon in future works by Marx. ... Day labor is work done where the worker is hired and paid one day at a time, with no promise that more work will be available in the future. ... A homeless man pushes a cart down the street. ...


Marx himself argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system with socialism, changing the social relationships underpinning the class system and then developing into a future classless and stateless communist society in which "the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all." (From The Communist Manifesto). For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Key issues in Marxist arguments about working class membership include:

  • Those in a temporary or permanent position of unemployment.
  • Domestic labor, particularly the children (see child labor) and also traditionally the wives of male workers who do not themselves work paying jobs outside the home.
  • Whether the term includes ownership of personal property.
  • Whether the term includes ownership of housing.
  • Whether the term includes self-employment.
  • The class position of students in society.

The answers are: CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ... Personal property is a type of property. ... Houses in Fishpool Street, St Albans, England For other meanings of the word house, see House (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

  • Unemployed workers are proletariat.
  • Class for dependents is determined by primary income earner.
  • Personal property is clearly different than private property
  • The proletariat can own houses, this is personal property.
  • The self-employed worker may be a member of the petite bourgeoisie (for example a highly paid professional, athlete, etc.), or a member of the proletariat (for example a contract worker whose income may be relatively high but is precarious).
  • Students' class status depends on that of their family, and also on whether they remain financially dependent on them.

In general, in Marxist terms, wage laborers and those dependent on the welfare state are working class, and those who live on accumulated capital and/or exploit the labor of others are not. This dichotomy defines the class struggle as such, with respect to which different fine strata or individuals may at any given time be on one side or the other. For example, retired factory workers are working class in the obvious sense, but to the extent that they live off fixed incomes, financed by stock in corporations whose earnings are profit extracted from current workers, they are not. Petit-bourgeois (or petty bourgeois through folk etymology) is a French term that originally referred to the members of the lower middle social-classes in the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Wage slavery is a term used to refer to a hierarchical social condition in which a person chooses a job but only within a coerced set of choices (i. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Surplus value, according to Marxism, is unpaid labour that is extracted from the worker by the capitalist, and serves as the basis for capitalist accumulation. ...


Other definitions

Identification of a person as a member of the working class is often based on the nature of the work performed (blue collar/white collar), the income, and the extent of formal education. However, studies of social class generally include other traits, such as the basis for the person's access to the means of production, or amount of control that the person has over his work environment. A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. ... White-collar worker is an idiom referring to a salaried professional or a person whose job is clerical in nature, as opposed to a blue-collar worker whose job is more in line with manual labor. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


Working-class people are generally paid wages, usually on a weekly or monthly basis. In popular American political discourse, medium-income skilled workers and tradespeople are termed "middle class", despite having minimal investment income, as are college-educated white-collar workers. A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... A skilled worker is any worker who has some special knowledge or (usually acquired) ability in his work. ... It has been suggested that Journeyman be merged into this article or section. ...


Explanations for the situation of the working class have varied dramatically over the centuries and are still hotly contested. The main points of contention are what causes an individual to be a member of the working class, and what are the causes for troubles faced by the working class.


American working class

Further information: Social structure of the United States

In the United States, the concept of a working class remains vaguely defined. As many members of the working class, as defined by academic models, are often identified in the vernacular as being middle class, there is considerable ambiguity over the term's meaning. Sociologists such as Dennis Gilbert and Joseph Kahl see the working class as the most populous in the United States,[2] while other sociologists such as William Thompson, Joseph Hickey and James Henslin deem the lower middle class slightly more populous.[1][3] In the class models devised by these sociologists, the working class comprises between 30% and 35% of the population, roughly the same percentages as the lower middle class. According to the class model by Dennis Gilbert, the working class compromises those between the 25th and 55th percentile of society. Those in the working class are commonly employed in clerical, retail sales and low-skill manual labor occupations. It should be noted that low-level white-collar employees are included in this class. Economic and occupational insecurity have become a major problem for working-class employees. While out-sourcing has brought considerable economic insecurity to working-class employees in the "traditional" blue collar fields, there is an ever-increasing demand for service personnel, including clerical and retail occupations.[2] The contemporary United States has no legally-recognized social classes. ...

"... views were quite varied at every class level, but the values we are calling working-class become increasingly common at lower class levels... Kohn's interpretation... is based on the idea that the middle-class parents who stress the values of self-control, curiosity, and consideration are cultivating capacities for self-direction... while working class parents who focus on obedience, neatness, and good manners are instilling behavioral conformity." - Dennis Gilbert, The American Class Structure, 1998.[2]

The socio-economic disposition of this class is largely a result of lacking educational attainment, which has become more and more essential in the American economy. Members of the working class commonly have a high school diploma and few have some or any college education. With the increasing complexity of the nation's economy, more and more employers require their clerical staff to attain at least some post-secondary education, which in turn provides increased opportunity for working-class employees. Due to differences between middle and working class culture and value systems, working-class college students may face "culture shock" upon entering the post-secondary education system.[4] Research conducted by sociologist Melvin Kohn showed that working-class values emphasized external standards, such as obedience and a strong respect for authority as well as little tolerance for deviance. This is opposed to middle-class individuals who emphasized internal standards, self-direction, curiosity and a tolerance for non-conformity.[2] A class-cultural difference between working and middle class culture noted by other social scientists and professors such as Barbara Jensen shows that middle-class culture tends to be highly individualistic, while working-class culture tends to center around the community.[4] Such cultural value differences are closely linked to an individual's occupation. Working-class employees tend to be closely supervised and thus emphasize external values and obedience. One does need to note, however, that there were great variations in cultural values among the members of all classes and that any statement pertaining to the cultural values of such large social groups needs to be seen as a broad generalization.[2]


According to Rubin (1976) there is a differential in social and emotional skills both between working-class men and women and between the blue-color working-class and college-educated workers. Working-class men are characterized by Rubin as taking a rational posture while women are characterized as being more emotional and oriented towards communication of feelings. This constellation of issues has been explored in the popular media, for example, the television shows, Roseanne or All in the Family featuring Archie Bunker and his wife Edith Bunker. These popular television programs also explored generational change and conflict in working-class families. Jackie Harris redirects here. ... All in the Family is an acclaimed American situation comedy that was originally broadcast on the CBS television network from January 12, 1971 to April 8, 1979. ... Archibald Archie Bunker was a fictional character in the long-running and top-rated American television sitcom All in the Family and its spin-off Archie Bunkers Place. ... Information Gender Female Age 50 (in 1977) Date of birth 1927 Date of death Dead 1980) Occupation housewife Family Michael Stivic (son-in-law) Joey Stivic (grandson) Maude (cousin) Stephanie Mills (niece) Floyd Mills (cousin) Amelia (cousin) Liz (cousin) Rose (Aunt) Clara (Aunt) Relationships Archie Bunker Children Gloria Stivic (daughter...


Culture and personal characteristics

As the working class is divided among nations, and internally divided along very broad lines of rural, blue collar and white collar occupations, there is no one unitary culture. Working-class cultures tend to be identified on national and occupational bases; for instance, Australian rural working class culture, or New Zealand white-collar working-class culture. There are, however, many stereotypes of the working class. These and other stereotypes of working class are studied in painstaking detail by sociologist Isaac Ogburn in "Life at the Bottom". For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ...


See also

If youre looking for the TV show, see The Apprentice. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ... Knowledge worker, a term coined by Peter Drucker in 1959, is one who works primarily with information or one who develops and uses knowledge in the workplace. ... Literature pertaining to proletarian issues. ... Living wage refers to the minimum hourly wage necessary for a person to achieve a basic standard of living. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. ... White-collar worker is an idiom referring to a salaried professional or a person whose job is clerical in nature, as opposed to a blue-collar worker whose job is more in line with manual labor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Proletarianization is a concept in Marxism and Marxist sociology. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... The term ruling class refers to the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that societys political policy. ... Reserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marxs critique of political economy. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... The lumpenproletariat (German Lumpenproletariat, rabble-proletariat; raggedy proletariat) is a term originally defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The German Ideology (1845), their famous second joint work, and later expounded upon in future works by Marx. ... Upper class is a concept in sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... Social mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of their life (known as intragenerational mobility), or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system (intergenerational mobility). ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... Wage slavery is a term used to refer to a hierarchical social condition in which a person chooses a job but only within a coerced set of choices (i. ... Working class culture is a range of cultures created by or popular among working class people. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson. 0-205-41365-X. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Gilbert, Dennis (1998). The American Class Structure. New York: Wadsworth Publishing. 0-534-50520-1. 
  3. ^ a b Williams, Brian; Stacey C. Sawyer, Carl M. Wahlstrom (2005). Marriages, Families & Intimate Relationships. Boston, MA: Pearson. 0-205-36674-0. 
  4. ^ a b Zweig, Michael (2004). What's Class Got To Do With It, American Society in the Twenty-First Century. New York, NY: Cornell University Press. 0-8014-8899-0. 

Further reading

  • Engels, Friedrich, Condition of the Working Class in England [in 1844], Stanford University Press (1968), trade paperback, ISBN 0-8047-0634-4 Numerous other editions exist; first published in German in 1845. Better editions include a preface written by Engels in 1892.
  • Ernest Mandel, Workers under Neo-capitalism [1]
  • Moran, W. (2002). Belles of New England: The women of the textile mills and the families whose wealth they wove. New York: St Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-30183-9.
  • Rubin, Lillian Breslow, Worlds of Pain: Life in the Working Class Family, Basic Books (1976), hardcover ISBN 0-465-09245-4; trade paperback, 268 pages, ISBN 0-465-09724-3
  • Shipler, David K., The Working Poor: Invisible in America, Knopf (2004), hardcover, 322 pages, ISBN 0-375-40890-8
  • Skeggs, Beverley. Class, Self, Culture, Routledge, (2004),
  • Thompson, E.P, The Making of the English Working Class - paperback Penguin, ISBN 0-14-013603-7
  • Zweig, Michael, Working Class Majority: America's Best Kept Secret, Cornell University Press (2001), trade paperback, 198 pages, ISBN 0-8014-8727-7

The Making of the English Working Class is an influential work of English social history, written by E. P. Thompson a notable a New Left historian; it was published in 1963 (revised 1968) by Victor Gollancz Ltd, and later republished at Pelican, becoming an early Open University Set Book. ...

External links

Look up Working class in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Social stratification : Social class
v  d  e
Bourgeoisie Upper class Ruling class Nobility White-collar
Petite bourgeoisie Upper middle class Creative class Gentry Blue-collar
Proletariat Middle class Working class Nouveau riche/Parvenu Pink-collar
Lumpenproletariat Lower middle class Lower class Old Money Gold-collar
Peasant/Serf Slave class Underclass Classlessness
Social class in the United States
Upper class Middle class Lower class Income Educational attainment
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Upper class is a concept in sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... The term ruling class refers to the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that societys political policy. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... White-collar worker is an idiom referring to a salaried professional or a person whose job is clerical in nature, as opposed to a blue-collar worker whose job is more in line with manual labor. ... Petit-bourgeois (or petty bourgeois through folk etymology) is a French term that originally referred to the members of the lower middle social-classes in the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Vacations to destinations such as Hawaii, shown above, may be seen as a hallmark of the upper-middle class. ... The creative class is a group of people that social scientist Dr. Richard Florida, Hirst Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University, believes are a key driving force for economic development of post-industrial cities in the USA. The Creative Class concept is controversial, as is Floridas methodology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... For the band Nouveau Riche, see Nouveau Riche (band). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... A pink-collar worker works in a relatively clean, safe environment, in a job that is considered traditionally female (these traditions generally harking back to the first half of the twentieth century). ... The lumpenproletariat (German Lumpenproletariat, rabble-proletariat; raggedy proletariat) is a term originally defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The German Ideology (1845), their famous second joint work, and later expounded upon in future works by Marx. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... Old money refers in the United Kingdom to the pre-decimal currency of pounds, shillings (or bob) and pence. ... Gold-collar worker (GCW) is rarely used compared to its blue-collar and white-collar counterparts. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Serf redirects here. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... The American upper class described the sociological ideology concerning the status of the top layer of society in the United States. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... The socio-economic stratification of American society as outlined by Dennis Gilbert. ... The percentage of households and individuals in each income bracket. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ...

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