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Encyclopedia > Workers' Party of Marxist Unification
A POUM poster urges "Workers: to victory!"
A POUM poster urges "Workers: to victory!"
A POUM poster appeals to peasants: "Peasants: the land is yours"
A POUM poster appeals to peasants: "Peasants: the land is yours"

The Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Spanish: Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista; Catalan: Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic, and mainly active around the time of the Spanish Civil War. It was formed by the fusion of the Trotskyist Communist Left of Spain (Izquierda Comunista de España, ICE) and the Workers' and Peasants Bloc (BOC, affiliated with the Right Opposition) against the will of Leon Trotsky, with whom the former broke. Image File history File links POUM_Obreros. ... Image File history File links POUM_Obreros. ... Image File history File links POUM_Campesinos. ... Image File history File links POUM_Campesinos. ... Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Spanish Republic CNT-FAI UGT POUM Soviet Union International Brigades Spanish State Falangists Carlists Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Casualties Civilians killed/wounded = hundreds of thousands The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from July 17, 1936 to April... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Communist Left of Spain (in Spanish: Izquierda Comunista de España) was a Trotskyist political party during the Second Spanish Republic; it eventually merged with the Right Opposition communist party Bloque Obrero y Campesino, to form the Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM). ... The BOC (Bloc Obrer i Camperol (Catalan), Bloque Obrero y Campesino (Spanish), Workers and Peasants Bloc, a. ... The Right Opposition was the name given to the tendency made up of Nikolai Bukharin, Alexei Rykov and their supporters within the Soviet Union in the late 1920s. ...   (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий) (Latinized: Lev Davidovič Trokij; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7, 1879 [O.S. October 26] – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...

Contents

Position

POUM was formed as a communist opposition to Stalinism in 1935 by Andreu Nin and Joaquín Maurín, being heavily influenced by the thinking of Trotsky, in particular his Permanent Revolution thesis. The party was larger than the official Communist Party of Spain (PCE) (and its wing, the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia, PSUC) in Catalonia and the Land of Valencia, as well as highly critical of the Popular Front strategy advocated by Joseph Stalin and the Comintern. However, they did take part in the Spanish Popular Front initiated by the leader of Acción Republicana, Manuel Azaña. The POUM tried to implement some of its radical policies as part of the Popular Front government, but these were resisted by the more moderate factions. The political disagreement would cause Nin to leave the government. Joseph Stalin. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Andrés Nin Pérez, (Catalan: Andreu Nin; February 4, 1892, El Vendrell, Tarragona—June 20, 1937, near Madrid) was a Spanish Communist revolutionary. ... Joaquín Maurín Juliá (or Joaquim Maurín in Catalan; January 12, 1896, Bonansa, Huesca, Aragon—November 5, 1973, New York City) was a Spanish Communist politician and revolutionary, leader of the Workers and Peasants Bloc (BOC) and of the Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM). ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (&#1051... Permanent Revolution is a Marxist theory most closely associated with Leon Trotsky, devised as an explanation of how socialist revolutions could occur in societies that had not achieved advanced capitalism. ... PCE symbol The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España or PCE) is the third largest political party of Spain. ... PSUC foundation poster PSUC Civil War poster The PSUC (Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya, Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia), was formed through the unification of four left-wing groups, namely the Catalan Federation of PSOE, Partit Comunista de Catalunya (Communist Party of Catalonia, the Catalan branch of Communist Party of... Anthem: Els Segadors Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan, Spanish and Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th  32,114 km²  6. ... Capital Valencia Official languages Valencian (Catalan) and Castilian (Spanish) Area  â€“ total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... Popular Fronts comprise broad coalitions of political and other groups, often made up of oppositioners or left wingers, and often united against particularly stringent circumstances. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... The Frente Popular (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ... The Acción Republicana (English: Republican Action) was the name of a Spanish leftwing republican party. ... Dr. Manuel Azaña Diaz (Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid, January 10, 1880 – November 3, 1940, Montauban, France) was a Spanish politician, the second and last President of the Second Spanish Republic. ...


During the Civil War the party began to grow in popularity and, alongside the anarchist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), commanded the support of most of the proletariat in the zone not controlled by Francisco Franco's forces during the war. The British author George Orwell, a member of the Independent Labour Party fought alongside POUM forces, an experience recounted vividly in his book Homage to Catalonia. Likewise, the film Land and Freedom, directed by Ken Loach, tells of a group of POUM soldiers fighting in the war from the perspective of a British member of the British Communist Party, and deals in particular with his disillusionment with Soviet Union policy in the war. Anarchism has historically gained the most support and influence in Spain, especially in the seventy or so years before Francisco Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labor unions. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Franco redirects here. ... Eric Arthur Blair (June 25, 1903[1][2] – January 21, 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a former political party in the United Kingdom. ... Homage to Catalonia book cover Homage to Catalonia is George Orwells personal account of the Spanish Civil War, written in the first person. ... Movie poster from Ken Loachs Land and Freedom Land and Freedom is a 1995 film directed by Ken Loach and written by Jim Allen. ... Ken Loach Kenneth Loach (born June 17, 1936), known as Ken Loach, is a English television and film director, known for his social realist style and socialist themes. ... The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was the largest communist party in the United Kingdom. ...


Conflict with the Popular Front

The POUM's support of Trotsky and opposition to Stalin caused huge ruptures between them and the PCE, still unswervingly loyal to the Comintern. These divisions, particularly the accusation of Trotskyism (and even Fascism) by the Communists, manifested themselves in actual fighting between their supporters, most notably in the events Barcelona May Days of 1937, when the POUM was attacked by a mostly-communist coalition of government forces, which included the Guardia Civil. While the much larger CNT initially supported the POUM, its more militant members such as Juan García Oliver and the Friends of Durruti were pushed towards conciliation by the moderate leadership. This left the POUM isolated along with the purely Trotskyist Seccion Bolshevik-Leninista, and both organisations were driven underground and in exile. While Nin was detained and executed, his party was consistently deemed provocateur in Stalinist propaganda. Fascism (IPA: ) is a radical political ideology that combines elements of corporatism, authoritarianism, nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-communism. ... From May 3rd to May 8th of 1937, factions on the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War engaged in violent street battles. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Patrol boat, Nervion river, Bilbao. ... Juan García Oliver became a leading anarchist figure in Spain. ... The Durruti Column, also known as The Friends of Durruti, was the most famous column of anarchist fighters during the Spanish Civil War. ... An agent provocateur (plural: agents provocateurs) is a person assigned to provoke unrest, violence, debate, or argument by or within a group while acting as a member of the group but covertly representing the interests of another. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people, rather than impartially providing information. ...


These severe ideological divisions between the forces supporting the Popular Front, together with the loss of morale caused by the clear end to revolutionary attempts. While this dissension played a part in helping the mostly unified supporters of Franco win the civil war, the social models proposed by the anarchists and POUM arguably went against the war economy planned by the Republic as much as the Stalinist will to crush opposition. Morale is a term for the capacity of people to maintain belief in an institution or a goal. ... War economy is the term used to describe the contingencies undertaken by the modern state to mobilize its economy for war production. ...


International Links

The POUM was a member of the "London Bureau" of socialist parties that rejected both the reformism of the Second International and the pro-Moscow orientation of the Third International. Other members included the Independent Labour Party in Britain, the PSOP in France and Poale Zion. The International Revolutionary Marxist Centre was an international association of left-socialist parties. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... The term Third International has two well-established meanings: For the unabridged dictionary, see Websters Third New International Dictionary. ... The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a former political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Workers and Peasants Socialist Party (Parti socialiste ouvrier et paysan, PSOP) was an ephemeral socialist organisation in France, formed in the on June 8, 1938 by Marceau Pivert. ... Poale Zion (also spelled Poalei Tziyon or Poaley Syjon, meaning Workers of Zion) was a Movement of Marxist Zionist Jewish workers circles founded in various Russian cities about the turn of the century after the Bund rejected Zionism in 1901. ...


See also

  • Iberian Communist Youth

Iberian Communist Youth (in Spanish: Juventud Comunista Iberica) was the youth wing of the Iberian Communist Federation, and later POUM. JCI had its main strength in Catalonia and the Levant. ...

External links

  • The Fundación Andreu Nin has a Spanish-language site containing an extensive collection of documents, biographical notes, and links related to the POUM.
  • Hernández, Jesús, How the NKVD Framed the POUM. Memoir of PCE minister in Republican Governments of Largo Caballero and Juan Negrín. Translated. Excerpted from Yo fui un ministro de Stalin. 339 pages. G. del Toro, Mexico, 1974. ISBN 84-312-0187-8. Reprinted online by What Next? Marxist journal. Retrieved May 11, 2005.
  • Nin, Andrés, The May Days in Barcelona. Originally published as El significado y alcance de las jornadas de mayo frente a la contrarrevolución. Central Committee of the Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista (POUM). Retrieved May 11, 2005.
  • Nin, Andrés, The Political Situation and the Tasks of the Proletariat. June 1937. Translation by David Beetham, ed., Marxists in Face of Fascism. Manchester University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-389-20485-4. Retrieved May 11, 2005.

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Workers' Party of Marxist Unification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (731 words)
The Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Spanish: Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista; Catalan: Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic, and mainly active around the time of the Spanish Civil War.
The party was larger than the official Communist Party of Spain (PCE) (and its wing, the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia, PSUC) in Catalonia and the Land of Valencia, as well as highly critical of the Popular Front strategy advocated by Joseph Stalin and the Comintern.
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