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Encyclopedia > Wool
Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona
Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona

Contents

Wool is the fibre derived from the fur of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats, llamas and rabbits may also be called wool. This article deals explicitly with the wool produced from domestic sheep. Wool may be: Wool is a fiber derived from animals. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, AR Image Number: 96cs0310 CD3357-058 USDA Photo by: Ken Hammond Source: USDA Permission to Reprint: All of the informational materials produced by the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, whether printed or maintained... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, AR Image Number: 96cs0310 CD3357-058 USDA Photo by: Ken Hammond Source: USDA Permission to Reprint: All of the informational materials produced by the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, whether printed or maintained... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... Genera Capricornis Nemorhaedus Rupicapra Oreamnos Budorcas Ovibos Hemitragus Ammotragus Pseudois Capra Ovis Pantholops A goat antelope is any of the species of mostly medium-sized herbivores that make up the subfamily Caprinae or the single species in subfamily Panthalopinae. ... “Sheep” redirects here. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas[1] and other natives of the Andes mountains. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... “Sheep” redirects here. ...


Wool has two qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it has scales which overlap like shingles on a roof and it is crimped; in some fleeces the wool fibres have more than 20 bends per inch. [citation needed] Wool Classing is a profession designed for the sole purpose of grading the spinning capacity or designated purpose for the wool produced. ...


Characteristics

Wool's scaling and crimp make it easier to spin and felt the fleece. They help the individual fibers attach to each other so that they stay together. Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have a greater bulk than other textiles and retain air, which causes the product to retain heat. Insulation also works both ways; bedouins and tuaregs use wool clothes to keep the heat out. Wool Classing is a profession designed for the sole purpose of grading the spinning capacity or designated purpose for the wool produced. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ...


The amount of crimp corresponds to the thickness of the wool fibers. A fine wool like merino may have up to a hundred crimps per inch, while the coarser wools like karakul may have as few as one to two crimps per inch. This article is about the breed of sheep. ... The Karakul is a breed of domesticated sheep. ...


Hair, by contrast, has little if any scale and no crimp and little ability to bind into yarn. On sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp. The relative amounts of kemp to wool vary from breed to breed, and make some fleeces more desirable for spinning, felting or carding into batts for quilts or other insulating products. A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... Felting is the process by which wool fiber is matted into a fabric. ... -1...


Wool is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors such as black, brown, silver and random mixes.


Processing

Wool in a shearing shed
Wool in a shearing shed

Wool straight off a sheep contains a high level of grease which contains valuable lanolin, as well as dirt, dead skin, sweat residue, and vegetable matter. This state is known as "grease wool" or "wool in the grease". Before the wool can be used for commercial purposes it must be scoured, or cleaned. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water, or a complicated industrial process using detergent and alkali. [1] In commercial wool, vegetable matter is often removed by the chemical process of chemical carbonization[2]. In less processed wools, vegetable matter may be removed by hand, and some of the lanolin left intact through use of gentler detergents. This semi-grease wool can be worked into yarn and knitted into particularly water-resistant mittens or sweaters, such as those of the Aran Island fishermen. Lanolin removed from wool is widely used in the cosmetics industry, such as hand creams. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 372 KB) Wool shorn from Australian Merino Sheep File links The following pages link to this file: Wool ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 372 KB) Wool shorn from Australian Merino Sheep File links The following pages link to this file: Wool ... Lanolin, also called Adeps Lanae, wool wax, wool fat, or wool grease, a greasy yellow substance from wool-bearing animals, acts as a skin ointment, water-proofing wax, and raw material (such as in shoe polish). ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... Carbonization is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue. ... http://www. ...


After shearing, the wool is separated into five main categories: fleece (which makes up the vast bulk), pieces, bellies, crutchings and locks. The latter four are packaged and sold separately. The quality of fleece is determined by a technique known as wool classing, whereby a qualified woolclasser tries to group wools of similar gradings together to maximise the return for the farmer or sheep owner. Medium fine Merino shearing Lismore, Victoria Sheep shearing, typically just called shearing, is the process by which the woolen fleece of a sheep is removed. ... Wool Classing is a profession designed for the sole purpose of grading the spinning capacity or designated purpose for the wool produced. ...


Quality

The quality of wool is determined by the following factors, fiber fineness, length, scale structure, color, cleanliness, and freedom from damage[3]. For example merino wool is typically 3-5 inches in length and is very fine (between 12-24 microns[4]). Wool taken from sheep produced for meat is typically more coarse, and has fibers are 1.5 to 6 inches in length. Damage or "breaks in the wool" can occur if the sheep is stressed while it is growing its fleece, resulting in a thin spot where the fleece is likely to break.[5] A micron (micrometre) is the measurement used in wool classing to measure the actual diameter of a wool fibre. ...


Wool is also separated into grades based on the measurement of the wool's diameter in microns. These grades may vary depending on the breed or purpose of the wool. For example:

  • < 17.5 - Ultrafine merino
  • 17.6-18.5 - Superfine merino
  • < 19.5 - Fine merino
  • 19.6-20.5 - Fine medium merino
  • 20.6-22.5 - Medium merino
  • 22.6 < - Strong merino [4]

or

  • < 24.5 - Fine
  • 24.5–31.4 - Medium
  • 31.5-35.4 - Fine crossbred
  • 35.5 < - coarse crossbred[6]

In general, anything smaller than 25 microns can be used for garments, while coarser grades are used for outerwear or rugs. The finer the wool, the softer it will be, while coarser grades are more durable and less prone to pilling.


History

Wool wearing, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)
Wool wearing, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century)

As the raw material has been readily available since the widespread domestication of sheep—and of goats, another major provider of wool— the use of felted or woven wool for clothing and other fabrics characterizes some of the earliest civilizations. Prior to invention of shears - probably in the Iron Age - the wool was plucked out by hand or by bronze combs. The oldest European woollen textile, of ca. 1500 BCE, was preserved in a Danish bog [1]. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 552 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 1085 pixel, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 552 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 1085 pixel, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda... The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook on wellness, based on the Taqwin al‑sihha (Tables of Health), an Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan; it exists in several variant Latin versions, the manuscripts of which are profusely illustrated. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Species See text. ... For the animal, see goat. ... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Bog bodies, also known as bog people, are preserveded human bodies found in sphagnum bogs. ...


In Roman times, wool, linen and leather clothed the European population: the cotton of India was a curiosity that only naturalists had heard of, and silk, imported along the Silk Road from China, was an extravagant luxury. Pliny the Elder records in his Natural History that the reputation for producing the finest wool was enjoyed by Tarentum, where selective breeding had produced sheep with a superior fleece, but which required special care. Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ...


In medieval times, as trade connections expanded, the Champagne fairs revolved around the production of woollen cloth in small centers such as Provins; the network that the sequence of annual fairs developed meant that the woollens of Provins might find their way to Naples, Sicily, Cyprus, Majorca, Spain and even Constantinople (Braudel, 316). The wool trade developed into serious business, the generator of capital. In the thirteenth century, the wool trade was the economic engine of the Low Countries and of Central Italy; by the end of the following century Italy predominated, though in the 16th century Italian production turned to silk (Braudel p 312). Both pre-industries were based on English raw wool exports— rivalled only by the sheepwalks of Castile, developed from the fifteenth century— which were a significant source of income to the English crown, which from 1275 imposed an export tax on wool called the "Great Custom". Economies of scale were instituted in the Cistercian houses, which had accumulated great tracts of land during the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, when land prices were low and labour still scarce. Raw wool was baled and shipped from North Sea ports to the textile cities of Flanders, notably Ypres and Ghent, where it was dyed and worked up as cloth. At the time of the Black Death, English textile industries accounted for about 10% of English wool production (Cantor 2001, 64); the English textile trade grew during the fifteenth century, to the point where export of wool was discouraged. Over the centuries, various British laws controlled the wool trade or required the use of wool even in burials. The smuggling of wool out of the country, known as owling, was at one time punishable by the cutting off of a hand. After the Restoration, fine English woollens began to compete with silks in the international market, partly aided by the Navigation Acts; in 1699 English crown forbade its American colonies to trade wool with anyone but England herself. Location of the Champagne province in France Champagne is one of the most traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Provins Canton Provins (chief town) Intercommunality Communauté de communes du Provinois Mayor Christian Jacob (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 86 m–168 m (avg. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Ypres Coordinates , , Area 130. ... This article is about the Belgian city. ... Owling was a common term for the smuggling of sheep or wool from England to another country, particularly France. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Navigation Acts The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain and its colonies). ...


A great deal of the value of woollen textiles was in the dyeing and finishing of the woven product. In each of the centers of the textile trade, the manufacturing process came to be subdivided into a collection of trades, overseen by an entrepreneur in a system called by the English the "putting-out" system, or "cottage industry", and the Verlagssystem by the Germans. In this system of producing woolen cloth, until recently perpetuated in the production of Harris tweeds, the entrepreneur provides the raw materials and an advance, the remainder being paid upon delivery of the product. Written contracts bound the artisans to specified terms. Fernand Braudel traces the appearance of the system in the thirteenth-century economic boom, quoting a document of 1275 (Braudel, 317) The system effectively by-passed the guilds' restrictions. All Harris Tweed items are hand woven on the islands off the Northern coast of Scotland (outer Hebrides). ... Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...


Before the flowering of the Renaissance, the Medici and other great banking houses of Florence had built their wealth and banking system on their textile industry based on wool, overseen by the Arte della Lana, the wool guild: wool textile interests guided Florentine policies. Francesco Datini, the "merchant of Prato", established in 1383 an Arte della Lana for that small Tuscan city. The sheepwalks of Castile shaped the landscape and the fortunes of the meseta that lies in the heart of the Iberian peninsula; in the sixteenth century, a unified Spain allowed export of Merino lambs only with royal permission. The German wool market—based on sheep of Spanish origin—did not overtake British wool until comparatively late. Australia's colonial economy was based on sheep raising and the Australian wool trade eventually overtook that of the Germans by 1845, furnishing wool for Bradford, which developed as the heart of industrialized woollens production. For the board game, see Medici (board game). ... The Arte della Lana was the wool guild of Florence during the Late Middle Ages and in the Renaissance. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The Meseta is the universal currency of the Algol star system in the Phantasy Star series of videogames. ... This article is about the breed of sheep. ... For other uses, see Bradford (disambiguation). ...

  • Fernand Braudel, 1982. The Wheels of Commerce, vol 2 of Civilization and Capitalism (New York:Harper & Row)

Due to decreasing demand with increased use of synthetic fibers, wool production is much less than what it was in the past. The collapse in the price of wool began in late 1966 with a 40% drop; with occasional interruptions, the price has tended down. The result has been sharply reduced production and movement of resources into production of other commodities, in the case of sheep growers, to production of meat. [7] [8] [9] Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...


Production

Fine Merino shearing Lismore, Victoria

Global wool production is approximately 1.3 million tonnes per annum of which 60% goes into apparel. Australia, China and New Zealand are leading commercial producers of wool. Most Australian wool comes from the merino breed. Breeds such as Lincoln and Romney produce coarser fibres and wool of these sheep is usually used for making carpets. Image File history File links Merino_shearing. ... Image File history File links Merino_shearing. ... Location of Lismore (red dot) Lismore is a town in Victoria, Australia, located on the Hamilton Highway 165 kilometres west of Melbourne. ... This article is about the breed of sheep. ... The Lincoln is a breed of sheep from England that has been significantly altered by selective breeding in the later part of the eighteenth century. ... A Romney ewe with its two lambs The Romney, also called the Romney Marsh or the Chip Romney, are an average size breed of British Longwool sheep originating in Romney Marsh, Kent. ...


In the United States, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado also have large commercial sheep flocks and their mainstay is the Rambouillet (or French Merino). There is also a thriving 'home flock' contingent of small scale farmers who raise small hobby flocks of specialty sheep for the handspinning market. These small scale farmers may raise any type of sheep they wish, so the selection of fleeces is quite wide. Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... The Rambouillet is also known as the Rambouillet Merino or the French Merino. ...


Global wool clip 2004/2005[10]

  1. Australia: 25% of global wool clip (475 million kg greasy, 2004/2005)
  2. China: 18%
  3. New Zealand: 11%
  4. Argentina: 3%
  5. Turkey: 2%
  6. Iran: 2%
  7. United Kingdom: 2%
  8. India: 2%
  9. Sudan: 2%
  10. South Africa: 1%
  11. United States: 0.77%

Keeping with the times, organic wool is becoming more and more popular. This blend of wool is very limited in supply and much of it comes from New Zealand and Australia[11].


Uses

In addition to clothing, wool has been used for blankets, horse rugs, saddle cloths, carpeting, felt, wool insulation (also see links) and upholstery. Wool felt covers piano hammers and it is used to absorb odors and noise in heavy machinery and stereo speakers. Ancient Greeks lined their helmets with felt and Roman legionnaires used breastplates made of wool felt. Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... For other uses, see Carpet (disambiguation). ... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ... Wool insulation is made from sheep wool that is mechanically bonded together to form insulating batts and ropes. ... Pith helmet of Harry S. Truman A helmet is a form of protective clothing worn on the head and usually made of metal or some other hard substance, typically for protection from falling objects or high-speed collisions. ...


Wool has also been traditionally used to cover cloth diapers. Wool fiber exteriors are hydrophobic (repel water) and the interior of the wool fiber is hydroscopic (attracts water; this makes a wool garmet able to cover a wet diaper while inhibiting 'wicking' so outer garments remain dry. Wool felted and treated with lanolin is water resistant, air permeable, and slightly antibacterial, so it resists the buildup of odor. Some modern cloth diaperers use felted wool fabric for covers, and there are several modern commercial knitting patterns for wool diaper covers. Baby diapers are often imprinted with child-friendly designs. ... Lanolin, also called Adeps Lanae, wool wax, wool fat, or wool grease, a greasy yellow substance from wool-bearing animals, acts as a skin ointment, water-proofing wax, and raw material (such as in shoe polish). ... For the record label, see Knitting Factory. ...


Yarns

Virgin wool is wool spun for the first time, as contrasted with shoddy.[12]


Shoddy or recycled wool is made by cutting or tearing apart existing wool fabric and respinning the resulting fibers.[13] As this process makes the wool fibers shorter, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. The recycled wool may be mixed with raw wool, wool noil, or another fiber such as cotton to increase the average fibre length. Such yarns are typically used as weft yarns with a cotton warp. This process was invented in the Heavy Woollen District of West Yorkshire and created a micro-economy in this area for many years. This article is about wool, the fiber. ... --212. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... WEFT Champaign 90. ... WaRp. ... A woollen mill in Dewsbury, now converted to flats but retaining as a feature the mill name. ... Coat of Arms of South Yorkshire West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, that has a population of 2. ...


Ragg is a sturdy wool fiber made into yarn and used in many rugged applications like gloves. A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a type of garment which covers the hand. ...


Worsted is a strong, long-staple, combed wool yarn with a hard surface.[14] Worsted is the name of a dick the cloth made from this yarn, as well as a yarn weight category. ... Combing is a method for preparing fiber for spinning by use of combs. ...


Woolen is a soft, short-staple, carded wool yarn typically used for knitting.[15] In traditional weaving, woolen weft yarn (for softness and warmth) is frequently combined with a worsted warp yarn for strength on the loom.[16] Woolen (British spelling woollen) is the name of a yarn and cloth usually made from wool. ... Two wool samples of different staple lengths A staple is a sample of the raw material for a textile. ... -1...


Wool allergies

Many people consider themselves to be allergic to wool because they have an adverse reaction every time it touches their skin. However, a true allergy to wool is actually rare. Most people who have a reaction to wool do so because they have sensitive skin, and they would likely have a similar reaction to any coarse fiber. An allergy would require a person to have had a prior contact with the wool that would cause a cell-mediated hypersensitivity against it. People with sensitive skin who would like to wear wool can put a layer of softer fabric between the wool and their skin.


See also

Production

Processing

Refined products

Organizations

Other wool

In mythology

“Sheep” redirects here. ... Australian Sheep Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep, and a subcategory of animal husbandry. ... Medium fine Merino shearing Lismore, Victoria Sheep shearing, typically just called shearing, is the process by which the woolen fleece of a sheep is removed. ... Modern canvas work done in wool using petit point stitch Canvas work is embroidery on canvas. ... For the record label, see Knitting Factory. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ... -1... Combing is a method for preparing fiber for spinning by use of combs. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Timeline of clothing and textiles technology. ... Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... Tweed is a type of fabric using the twill weave. ... Woolen (British spelling woollen) is the name of a yarn and cloth usually made from wool. ... Worsted is the name of a dick the cloth made from this yarn, as well as a yarn weight category. ... The British Wool Marketing Board is the central marketing system for United Kingdom fleece wool. ... The Worshipful Company of Woolmen is one of the Livery Companies in the City of London. ... Angora wool or Angora fiber refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit. ... Cashmere wool is wool obtained from the Cashmere goat and is also known as Pashmina. ... Chiengora is a yarn or wool spun from dog hair. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Vicugna pacos (Linnaeus, 1758) The Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated breed of South American camel-like ungulates, derived from the wild vicuña. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ...

References

  1. ^ Technology in Australia 1788-1988. Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre (2001). Retrieved on 2006-04-30.
  2. ^ Wool on The Web - Carbonising. Retrieved on 2006-04-30.
  3. ^ Kadolph, Sara J.; Anna L. Langford. (2002). Textiles. Upper Saddle RIver, NJ: PEarson Education, Inc.. 
  4. ^ a b Merino Sheep in Australia. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  5. ^ Van Nostran, Don. Wool Management - Maximizing Wool Returns. Mid-States Woolgrowers Cooperative Association. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  6. ^ Wool and Fiber Industry Profile. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  7. ^ "The end of pastoral dominance"
  8. ^ 1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2000, Australian Bureau of Statistics
  9. ^ "SHEEP, LAMB, MUTTON AND GOAT MEAT
  10. ^ (September 2005). "WoolFacts" (PDF). Australian Wool Innovation.
  11. ^ Speer, Jordan K. (2006-05-01). "Shearing the Edge of Innovation". Apparel Magazine. 
  12. ^ Kadolph, Sara J., ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2007, ISBN 0-13-118769-4, p. 63
  13. ^ Kadolph, Textiles, p. 63
  14. ^ Kadolph, Textiles, p. 183
  15. ^ Kadolph, Textiles, p. 183
  16. ^ Østergård, Else: Woven into the Earth: Textiles from Norse Greenland , Aarhus University Press, 2004, ISBN 8772889357, p. 50

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wool

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wool - from Sheep, Llama, Alpaca, Angora Goat, Kasmir Goat, Camel (1155 words)
Wool is the only fiber with such serration’s which make it possible for the fibers to cling together and produce felt.
Wool will not only return to its original position after being stretched or creased, it will absorb up to 30% of its weight in moisture without feeling damp.
Wool is also dirt resistant, flame resistant, and, in many weaves, resists wear and tearing.
No. 1739: Worsted Wool (828 words)
Irish and American sheep are typically shorthaired, and Irish wool is known for its softness.
Wool made from non-worsted yarn can be felted -- washed in hot water until the fibers cling to one another, regardless of the weave.
The reason wool shrinks so badly in hot water is that its fibers ratchet up along one another.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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