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Encyclopedia > Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson

In office
March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921
Vice President Thomas R. Marshall (1913-1921)
Preceded by William Howard Taft
Succeeded by Warren G. Harding

In office
January 17, 1911 – March 1, 1913
Preceded by John Franklin Fort
Succeeded by James Fairman Fielder

In office
1902 – 1910
Preceded by Francis L. Patton
Succeeded by John Aikman Stewart

Born December 28, 1856(1856-12-28)
Staunton, Virginia
Died February 3, 1924 (aged 67)
Washington, D.C.
Political party Democratic
Spouse Ellen Axson Wilson
Edith Bolling Galt Wilson
Alma mater Princeton University
University of Virginia
Johns Hopkins University
Occupation Academic (political science), Lawyer
Religion Presbyterian
Signature Woodrow Wilson's signature

Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. A devout Presbyterian and leading intellectual of the Progressive Era, he served as President of Princeton University and then became the Governor of New Jersey in 1910. With Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft dividing the Republican Party vote, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912. He proved highly successful in leading a Democratic Congress to pass major legislation that included the Federal Trade Commission, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Underwood Tariff, the Federal Farm Loan Act and most notably the Federal Reserve System. Wilson was a proponent of segregation during his presidency.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2976x3623, 1136 KB) Description President of the United States Thomas Woodrow Wilson, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing left. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923. ... Jon Corzine 54th Governor of New Jersey; Incumbent Christine Christie Todd Whitman, the first female governor of New Jersey The Governor of New Jersey is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... John Franklin Fort (Born March 20, 1852 - Died November 17, 1920) was an American Republican Party politician, who served as the 33rd Governor of New Jersey, from 1908-1911. ... James Fairman Fielder (February 26, 1867 in Jersey City, New Jersey – December 2, 1954 in Newark, New Jersey) was a Democrat who was the Governor of New Jersey from 1913 to 1917, with a break of several months when he stepped down from office. ... Princeton University is led by a President selected by the Board of Trustees. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... West Beverley Street in downtown Staunton Staunton (IPA: or STAN-tehn or STANT-en) is an independent city within the confines of Augusta County in the commonwealth of Virginia. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Ellen Louise Axson Wilson (May 15, 1860 – August 6, 1914),[1] first wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States from 1913 until her death. ... White House portrait Edith Bolling Galt Wilson (October 15, 1872–December 28, 1961), second wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States from 1915 to 1921. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The University of Virginia School of Law was founded in Charlottesville in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson as one of the original subjects taught at his academical village, the University of Virginia. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... An image of Woodrow Wilsons signature. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s. ... Princeton University is led by a President selected by the Board of Trustees. ... Jon Corzine 54th Governor of New Jersey; Incumbent Christine Christie Todd Whitman, the first female governor of New Jersey The Governor of New Jersey is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ... In the United States, the Clayton Anti-trust Act of 1914 (codified as 15 U.S.C. §§ 12-27) was enacted to remedy deficiencies in antitrust law created under the Sherman Anti-trust Act(1890) that allowed corporations to dissolve labor unions. ... Revenue Act of 1913 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 established 12 regional Farm Loan Banks to serve members of Farm Loan Associations. ... The Fed redirects here. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ...


Narrowly re-elected in 1916, his second term centered on World War I. He tried to maintain U.S. neutrality, but when the German Empire began unrestricted submarine warfare he wrote several admonishing notes to Germany, and eventually asked Congress to declare war on the Central Powers. He focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving the waging of the war primarily in the hands of the military establishment. On the home front he began the first effective draft in 1917, raised billions through Liberty loans, imposed an income tax, set up the War Industries Board, promoted labor union growth, supervised agriculture and food production through the Lever Act, took over control of the railroads, and suppressed anti-war movements. He paid surprisingly little attention to military affairs, but provided the funding and food supplies that helped the Americans in the war and hastened Allied victory in 1918. The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I. European military alliances in 1914. ... The United States Armed Forces are the military services of the United States. ... Conscription is a general term for forced labor demanded by some established authority, e. ... Liberty Bond poster by Winsor McCay A Liberty Bond was a special type of war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. It could be redeemed for the original value of the bond plus interest. ... FairTax Flat tax Tax protester arguments Constitutional Statutory Conspiracy Taxation by country Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        The federal government of the United States imposes a progressive tax on the taxable income of individuals, partnerships, companies, corporations, trusts, decedents estates... The War Industries Board (WIB) was a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917 during World War I and reorganized in 1918 under the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The Smith Lever Act of 1914 was a piece of US legislation which established a system of cooperative extension services, connected to the land-grant universities, in order to inform people about current developments in agriculture, home economics, and related subjects. ... railroads redirects here. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ...


In the late stages of the war he took personal control of negotiations with Germany, especially with the Fourteen Points and the armistice. He went to Paris in 1919 to create the League of Nations and shape the Treaty of Versailles, with special attention on creating new nations out of defunct empires. Largely for his efforts to form the League, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. Wilson collapsed with a debilitating stroke in 1919, as the home front saw massive strikes and race riots, and wartime prosperity turn into postwar depression. He refused to compromise with the Republicans who controlled Congress after 1918, effectively destroying any chance for ratification of the Versailles Treaty. The League of Nations was established anyway, but the U.S. never joined. Wilson's idealistic internationalism, calling for the U.S. to enter the world arena to fight for democracy, progressiveness, and liberalism, has been a highly controversial position in American foreign policy, serving as a model for "idealists" to emulate or "realists" to reject for the following century. United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ...

Contents

Early life

Woodrow Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia in 1856 as the third of four children and to Reverend Dr. Joseph Wilson (1822–1903) and Janet Woodrow (1826–1888). His ancestry was Scots-Irish and Scottish. His paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland, while his mother was born in Carlisle to Scottish parents. Wilson's father was originally from Steubenville, Ohio where his grandfather had been an abolitionist newspaper publisher and his uncles were Republicans. But his parents moved South in 1851 and identified with the Confederacy. His father defended slavery, owned slaves and set up a Sunday school for them. They cared for wounded soldiers at their church. The father also briefly served as a chaplain to the Confederate Army. Wilson’s father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States (PCUS) after it split from the northern Presbyterians in 1861. Joseph R. Wilson served as the first permanent clerk of the southern church’s General Assembly, was Stated Clerk from 1865-1898 and was Moderator of the PCUS General Assembly in 1879. Wilson spent the majority of his childhood, up to age 14, in Augusta, Georgia, where his father was minister of the First Presbyterian Church. Wilson did not learn to read until he was about 12 years old. His difficulty reading may have indicated dyslexia or A.D.H.D., but as a teenager he taught himself shorthand to compensate and was able to achieve academically through determination and self-discipline. He studied at home under his father's guidance and took classes in a small school in Augusta.[2] During Reconstruction he lived in Columbia, South Carolina, the state capital, from 1870-1874, where his father was professor at the Columbia Theological Seminary.[3] In 1873 he spent a year at Davidson College in North Carolina, then transferred to Princeton as a freshman, graduating in 1879. Beginning in his second year, he read widely in political philosophy and history. He was active in the undergraduate discussion club, and organized a separate Liberal Debating Society.[4] West Beverley Street in downtown Staunton Staunton (IPA: or STAN-tehn or STANT-en) is an independent city within the confines of Augusta County in the commonwealth of Virginia. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Strabane UK Parliament: West Tyrone European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Strabane Postal District(s): BT82 Population (2006 est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Omagh Area: 3,155 km² Population (est. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see Carlisle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... Nickname: Location within the state of Ohio Coordinates: , Country State County Jefferson Founded 1795 Government  - Mayor Dominic Mucci (D) Area  - Total 10. ... GOP redirects here. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... This article is in need of attention. ... The Presbyterian Church in the United States was the Southern branch of Presbyterianism in America. ... Augusta is a city in the state of Georgia in the United States of America. ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... ADHD predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I or ADHD-PI) is one of the three subtypes of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ... Shorthand is an abbreviated, symbolic writing method that improves speed of writing or brevity as compared to a normal method of writing a language. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Columbia (disambiguation). ... Columbia Theological Seminary is one of the ten official Presbyterian Church (USA) seminaries. ... Davidson College is a private liberal arts college for 1,700 students in Davidson, North Carolina, USA. Both the town and college were named for Brigadier General William Lee Davidson, a Revolutionary War commander. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... The American Whig-Cliosophic Society (short form: Whig-Clio) is the oldest college political, literary, and debating society in continual existence in the world. ...


In 1879, Wilson attended law school at University of Virginia for one year. Although he never graduated, during his tenure at the University he was heavily involved in the Virginia Glee Club, as well as the Jefferson Literary and Debating Society[5]. His frail health dictated withdrawal, and he went home to Wilmington, North Carolina where he continued his studies. Wilson was also a member of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. In 1885, he married Ellen Louise Axson, the daughter of a minister from Rome, Georgia. They had three daughters: Margaret Woodrow Wilson (1886-1944), Jessie Wilson (1887-1933) and Eleanor R. Wilson (1889-1967). The University of Virginia School of Law was founded in Charlottesville in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson as one of the original subjects taught at his academical village, the University of Virginia. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Jefferson Literary and Debating Society is the oldest continually existing collegiate debating society in North America. ... Wilmington is a city in New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Phi Kappa Psi (ΦΚΨ, Phi Psi) is a U.S. national college fraternity. ... Ellen Louise Axson Wilson (May 15, 1860 – August 6, 1914),[1] first wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States from 1913 until her death. ... Margaret Woodrow Wilson (born April 16, 1886 in Gainesville, Georgia -- died February 12, 1944 in Pondicherry, India) was the daughter of President Woodrow Wilson and Ellen Louise Axson, and served as the First Lady of the United States after her mothers death and between Woodrows second marriage. ...


Wilson’s mother was probably a hypochondriac and Wilson seemed to think that he was often in poorer health than he really was. However, he did suffer from hyper-tension at a relatively early age and may have suffered his first stroke at age 39. He cycled regularly, including several cycling vacations in the Lake District in Britain. Unable to cycle around Washington, D.C. as President, Wilson took to playing golf, although he played with more enthusiasm than skill. During the winter the Secret Service would paint some golf balls black so Wilson could hit them around in the snow on the White House lawn.[6] The panorama across Eskdale from Ill Crag. ...


In January 1882, Wilson decided to start his first law practice in Atlanta. One of Wilson’s University of Virginia classmates, Edward Ireland Renick, invited Wilson to join his new law practice as partner. Wilson joined him there in May 1882. He passed the Georgia Bar. On October 19, 1882 he appeared in court before Judge George Hillyer to take his examination for the bar, which he passed with flying colors and he began work on his thesis Congressional Government in the United States. Competition was fierce in the city with 143 other lawyers, so with few cases to keep him occupied, Wilson quickly grew disillusioned. Moreover, Wilson had studied law in order to eventually enter politics, but he discovered that he could not continue his study of government and simultaneously continue the reading of law necessary to stay proficient. In April 1883, Wilson applied to the new Johns Hopkins University to study for a Ph.D. in history and political science, which he completed in 1886.[7] He remains the only U.S. president to have earned a doctoral degree. In July 1883, Wilson left his law practice to begin his academic studies.[8] This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... George Hillyer (March 17, 1835 – October 2, 1927) was an American politician born in Athens, Georgia. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ...


Political writings

Wilson came of age in the decades after the American Civil War, when Congress was supreme— "the gist of all policy is decided by the legislature" —and corruption was rampant. Instead of focusing on individuals in explaining where American politics went wrong, Wilson focused on the American constitutional structure.[9] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Under the influence of Walter Bagehot's The English Constitution, Wilson saw the United States Constitution as pre-modern, cumbersome, and open to corruption. An admirer of Parliament (though he first visited London in 1919), Wilson favored a parliamentary system for the United States. Writing in the early 1880s: Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877), IPA (see [[1]]), was a nineteenth century British economist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...

"I ask you to put this question to yourselves, should we not draw the Executive and Legislature closer together? Should we not, on the one hand, give the individual leaders of opinion in Congress a better chance to have an intimate party in determining who should be president, and the president, on the other hand, a better chance to approve himself a statesman, and his advisers capable men of affairs, in the guidance of Congress?"[10]

Wilson started Congressional Government, his best known political work, as an argument for a parliamentary system, but Wilson was impressed by Grover Cleveland, and Congressional Government emerged as a critical description of America's system, with frequent negative comparisons to Westminster. Wilson himself claimed, "I am pointing out facts—diagnosing, not prescribing remedies.".[11] Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ...


Wilson believed that America's intricate system of checks and balances was the cause of the problems in American governance. He said that the divided power made it impossible for voters to see who was accountable for ill-doing. If government behaved badly, Wilson asked, The doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability between political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. ...

"...how is the schoolmaster, the nation, to know which boy needs the whipping? ... Power and strict accountability for its use are the essential constituents of good government.... It is, therefore, manifestly a radical defect in our federal system that it parcels out power and confuses responsibility as it does. The main purpose of the Convention of 1787 seems to have been to accomplish this grievous mistake. The 'literary theory' of checks and balances is simply a consistent account of what our Constitution makers tried to do; and those checks and balances have proved mischievous just to the extent which they have succeeded in establishing themselves... [the Framers] would be the first to admit that the only fruit of dividing power had been to make it irresponsible."[12]

The longest section of Congressional Government is on the United States House of Representatives, where Wilson pours out scorn for the committee system. Power, Wilson wrote, "is divided up, as it were, into forty-seven signatories, in each of which a Standing Committee is the court baron and its chairman lord proprietor. These petty barons, some of them not a little powerful, but none of them within reach [of] the full powers of rule, may at will exercise an almost despotic sway within their own shires, and may sometimes threaten to convulse even the realm itself.".[13] Wilson said that the committee system was fundamentally undemocratic, because committee chairs, who ruled by seniority, were responsible to no one except their constituents, even though they determined national policy. This article discusses the history of the United States Constitution. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...


In addition to their undemocratic nature, Wilson also believed that the Committee System facilitated corruption.

"the voter, moreover, feels that his want of confidence in Congress is justified by what he hears of the power of corrupt lobbyists to turn legislation to their own uses. He hears of enormous subsidies begged and obtained... of appropriations made in the interest of dishonest contractors; he is not altogether unwarranted in the conclusion that these are evils inherent in the very nature of Congress; there can be no doubt that the power of the lobbyist consists in great part, if not altogether, in the facility afforded him by the Committee system.[14]

By the time Wilson finished Congressional Government, Grover Cleveland was President, and Wilson had his faith in the United States government restored. When William Jennings Bryan captured the Democratic nomination from Cleveland's supporters in 1896, however, Wilson refused to stand by the ticket. Instead, he cast his ballot for John M. Palmer, the presidential candidate of the National Democratic Party, or Gold Democrats, a short-lived party that supported a gold standard, low tariffs, and limited government.[15] Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... John McAuley Palmer (September 13, 1817 – September 25, 1900) was a Union Major General during the American Civil War. ... The National Democratic Party or Gold Democrats was a short-lived political party of Bourbon Democrats, who opposed William Jennings Bryan in 1896. ...


After experiencing the vigorous presidencies from William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, Wilson no longer entertained thoughts of parliamentary government at home. In his last scholarly work in 1908, Constitutional Government of the United States, Wilson said that the presidency "will be as big as and as influential as the man who occupies it". By the time of his presidency, Wilson merely hoped that Presidents could be party leaders in the same way prime ministers were. Wilson also hoped that the parties could be reorganized along ideological, not geographic, lines. "Eight words," Wilson wrote, "contain the sum of the present degradation of our political parties: No leaders, no principles; no principles, no parties."[16] This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Academic career

Wilson served on the faculties of Bryn Mawr College and Wesleyan University. At Wesleyan, he also coached the football team and founded the debate team - to this date, it is named the T. Woodrow Wilson debate team. He then joined the Princeton faculty as professor of jurisprudence and political economy in 1890. While there, he was one of the faculty members of the short-lived coordinate college, Evelyn College for Women. Additionally, Wilson became the first lecturer of Constitutional Law at New York Law School where he taught with Charles Evans Hughes. Bryn Mawr College (pronounced ) is a highly selective womens liberal arts college located in Bryn Mawr, a community in Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania, ten miles northwest of Philadelphia. ... Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college founded in 1831 and located in Middletown, Connecticut. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Evelyn College for Women, often shortened to Evelyn College, was the coordinate womens college of Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey between 1887 and 1897. ... New York Law School is a private law school in Lower Manhattan in New York City. ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ...


Wilson delivered an oration at Princeton's sesquicentennial celebration (1896) entitled "Princeton in the Nation's Service." (This has become a frequently alluded-to motto of the University, later expanded to "Princeton in the Nation's Service and in the Service of All Nations."[17]) In this famous speech, he outlined his vision of the university in a democratic nation, calling on institutions of higher learning "to illuminate duty by every lesson that can be drawn out of the past".

Prospect House, located in the center of Princeton's campus, was Wilson's residence during his term as president of the university.
Prospect House, located in the center of Princeton's campus, was Wilson's residence during his term as president of the university.

The trustees promoted Professor Wilson to president of Princeton in 1902. Although the school's endowment was barely $4 million, he sought $2 million for a preceptorial system of teaching, $1 million for a school of science, and nearly $3 million for new buildings and salary raises. As a long-term objective, Wilson sought $3 million for a graduate school and $2.5 million for schools of jurisprudence and electrical engineering, as well as a museum of natural history. He achieved little of that because he was not a strong fund raiser, but he did increase the faculty from 112 to 174 men, most of them personally selected as outstanding teachers. The curriculum guidelines he developed proved important progressive innovations in the field of higher education. To enhance the role of expertise, Wilson instituted academic departments and a system of core requirements where students met in groups of six with preceptors, followed by two years of concentration in a selected major. He tried to raise admission standards and to replace the "gentleman C" with serious study. Wilson aspired, as he told alumni, "to transform thoughtless boys performing tasks into thinking men." prospect house, princeton university. ... prospect house, princeton university. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ...


In 1906-10, he attempted to curtail the influencee of the elitist "social clubs" by moving the students into colleges. This was met with resistance from many alumni. Wilson felt that to compromise "would be to temporize with evil."[18] Even more damaging was his confrontation with Andrew Fleming West, Dean of the graduate school, and West's ally, former President Grover Cleveland, a trustee. Wilson wanted to integrate the proposed graduate building into the same area with the undergraduate colleges; West wanted them separated. The trustees rejected Wilson's plan for colleges in 1908, and then endorsed West's plans in 1909. The national press covered the confrontation as a battle of the elites (West) versus democracy (Wilson). During this time in his personal life, Wilson engaged in an extramarital affair with socialite Mary Peck.[19] Wilson, after considering resignation, decided to take up invitations to move into New Jersey state politics.[20] The majority of upperclassmen at Princeton University take their meals in one of eleven eating clubs, which are an amalgamation of dining halls and Greek-letter fraternities. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Governor of New Jersey

During the New Jersey election of 1910, the Democrats took control of the state house and Wilson was elected governor. The state senate, however, remained in Republican control by a slim margin. After taking office, Wilson set in place his reformist agenda, ignoring what party bosses told him he was to do. While governor, in a period spanning six months, Wilson established state primaries. This all but took the party bosses out of the presidential election process in the state. He also revamped the public utility commission, and introduced worker's compensation.[21]


Presidency 1913-1921

First term

Wilson experienced early success by implementing his "New Freedom" pledges of antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters. The New Freedom policy of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters. ...


Wilson's first wife Ellen died on August 6, 1914 of Bright's disease. In 1915, he met Edith Galt. They married later that year on December 18. Wilson arrived at the White House with severe digestive problems. He treated himself with a stomach pump.[22] Ellen Louise Axson Wilson (May 15, 1860 - August 6, 1914), first wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States from 1913 until her death. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Brights disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases that would be described in modern medicine as acute or chronic nephritis. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... White House portrait Edith Bolling Galt Wilson (October 15, 1872–December 28, 1961), second wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States from 1915 to 1921. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Federal Reserve 1913

The Federal Reserve Act is one of the more significant pieces of legislation in the history of the United States.[23] Wilson outmaneuvered bankers and enemies of banks, North and South, Democrats and Republicans to secure passage of the Federal Reserve system in late 1913.[24] He took a plan that had been designed by conservative Republicans—led by Nelson W. Aldrich and banker Paul M. Warburg—and passed it. However, Wilson had to find a middle ground between those who supported the Aldrich Plan and those who opposed it, including the powerful agrarian wing of the party, led by William Jennings Bryan, which strenuously denounced banks and Wall Street. They wanted a government-owned central bank which could print paper money whenever Congress wanted. Wilson’s plan still allowed the large banks to have important influence, but Wilson went beyond the Aldrich plan and created a central board made up of persons appointed by the President and approved by Congress who would outnumber the board members who were bankers. Moreover, Wilson convinced Bryan’s supporters that because Federal Reserve notes were obligations of the government, the plan fit their demands. Wilson’s plan also decentralized the Federal Reserve system into 12 districts. This was designed to weaken the influence of the powerful New York banks, a key demand of Bryan’s allies in the South and West. This decentralization was a key factor in winning the support of Congressman Carter Glass (D-VA) although he objected to making paper currency a federal obligation. Glass was one of the leaders of the currency reformers in the U.S. House and without his support, any plan was doomed to fail. The final plan passed, in December 1913, despite opposition by bankers, who felt it gave too much control to Washington, and by some reformers, who felt it allowed bankers to maintain too much power. The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich (November 6, 1841 - April 16, 1915) was an American politician. ... Paul Moritz Warburg (August 10, 1868 - January 24, 1932) was a German-American banker and early advocate of the U.S Federal Reserve system. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... Carter Glass Carter Glass (January 4, 1858–May 28, 1946) was an American politician from Virginia, who served many years in Congress, as well as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury under Woodrow Wilson. ...


Wilson named Warburg and other prominent bankers to direct the new system. Despite the reformers' hopes, the New York branch dominated the Fed and thus power remained in Wall Street. The new system began operations in 1915 and played a major role in financing the Allied and American war efforts. Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ...


Wilsonian economic views

Wilson's early views on international affairs and trade were stated in his Columbia University lectures of April 1907 where he said: "Since trade ignores national boundaries and the manufacturer insists on having the world as a market, the flag of his nation must follow him, and the doors of the nations which are closed must be battered down…Concessions obtained by financiers must be safeguarded by ministers of state, even if the sovereignty of unwilling nations be outraged in the process. Colonies must be obtained or planted, in order that no useful corner of the world may be overlooked or left unused". — From Lecture at Columbia University (April 1907)
(cited in William Appleman William's book, "The Tragedy of American Diplomacy", p. 72).


Other economic policies

In 1913, the Underwood tariff lowered the tariff. The revenue thereby lost was replaced by a new federal income tax (authorized by the 16th Amendment, which had been sponsored by the Republicans). The "Seaman's Act" of 1915 improved working conditions for merchant sailors. As response to the RMS Titanic disaster, it also required all ships to be retrofitted with lifeboats. The Underwood Tariff, or the Tariff Act of 1913 reduced the basic United States tariff rates from 41% to 27%, well below the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... Amendment XVI in the National Archives Amendment XVI (the Sixteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution was ratified on February 3, 1913. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ...


A series of programs were targeted at farmers. The "Smith Lever" act of 1914 created the modern system of agricultural extension agents sponsored by the state agricultural colleges. The agents taught new techniques to farmers. The 1916 "Federal Farm Loan Board" issued low-cost long-term mortgages to farmers.


Child labor was curtailed by the Keating-Owen act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. Additional child labor bills would not be enacted until the 1930s. A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...


The railroad brotherhoods threatened in summer 1916 to shut down the national transportation system. Wilson tried to bring labor and management together, but when management refused he had Congress pass the "Adamson Act" in September 1916, which avoided the strike by imposing an 8-hour work day in the industry (at the same pay as before). It helped Wilson gain union support for his reelection; the act was approved by the Supreme Court. The Adamson Act was a United States federal law passed in 1916 that established an eight-hour workday, with additional pay for overtime work, for railroad workers. ...

Wilson uses tariff, currency and anti-trust laws to prime the pump and get the economy working in a 1913 political cartoon
Wilson uses tariff, currency and anti-trust laws to prime the pump and get the economy working in a 1913 political cartoon

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1031x1279, 288 KB) Summary 1913 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1031x1279, 288 KB) Summary 1913 US cartoon Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ...

Antitrust

Wilson broke with the "big-lawsuit" tradition of his predecessors Taft and Roosevelt as "Trustbusters", finding a new approach to encouraging competition through the Federal Trade Commission, which stopped "unfair" trade practices. In addition, he pushed through Congress the Clayton Antitrust Act making certain business practices illegal (such as price discrimination, agreements forbidding retailers from handling other companies’ products, and directorates and agreements to control other companies). The power of this legislation was greater than previous anti-trust laws, because individual officers of corporations could be held responsible if their companies violated the laws. More importantly, the new laws set out clear guidelines that corporations could follow, a dramatic improvement over the previous uncertainties. This law was considered the "Magna Carta" of labor by Samuel Gompers because it ended union liability antitrust laws. In 1916, under threat of a national railroad strike, he approved legislation that increased wages and cut working hours of railroad employees; there was no strike. Trust-busting refers to government activities designed to break up trusts or monopolies. ... | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ... In the United States, the Clayton Anti-trust Act of 1914 (codified as 15 U.S.C. §§ 12-27) was enacted to remedy deficiencies in antitrust law created under the Sherman Anti-trust Act(1890) that allowed corporations to dissolve labor unions. ... This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... Samuel Gompers (January 27, 1850[1] - December 13, 1924) was an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. ...


War policy—World War I

Main article: World War I

Wilson spent 1914 through the beginning of 1917 trying to keep America out of the war in Europe. He offered to be a mediator, but neither the Allies nor the Central Powers took his requests seriously. Republicans, led by Theodore Roosevelt, strongly criticized Wilson’s refusal to build up the U.S. Army in anticipation of the threat of war. Wilson won the support of the U.S. peace element by arguing that an army buildup would provoke war. However for all his words, Wilson was anything but neutral. His pro-British views caused his Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to resign in protest in 1915. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For statistical mediation, see Mediation (Statistics). ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I. European military alliances in 1914. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ...


While German submarines were sinking belligerent merchant ships (not violating any neutral rights whatsoever),[citation needed] Britain had declared a blockade of Germany, preventing neutral shipping carrying “contraband” goods to Germany. Wilson protested this violation of neutral rights by London, but his protests were mild, and the British knew America wouldn't take action. Wilson blatantly ignored Britain's violation of their neutral rights, yet criticized Germany for sinking Britain merchant ships, which in no way violated America's neutral rights.


Election of 1916

Renominated in 1916, Wilson's major campaign slogan was "He kept us out of the war" referring to his administration's avoiding open conflict with Germany or Mexico while maintaining a firm national policy. Wilson, however, never promised to keep out of war regardless of provocation. In his acceptance speech on September 2, 1916, Wilson pointedly warned Germany that submarine warfare that took American lives would not be tolerated: The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large...

"The nation that violates these essential rights must expect to be checked and called to account by direct challenge and resistance. It at once makes the quarrel in part our own."

Wilson narrowly won the election, defeating Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes. As governor of New York from 1907-1910, Hughes had a progressive record strikingly similar to Wilson's as governor of New Jersey. Theodore Roosevelt would comment that the only thing different between Hughes and Wilson was a shave. However, Hughes had to try to hold together a coalition of conservative Taft supporters and progressive Roosevelt partisans and so his campaign never seemed to take a definite form. Wilson ran on his record and ignored Hughes, reserving his attacks for Roosevelt. When asked why he did not attack Hughes directly, Wilson told a friend to “Never murder a man who is committing suicide.” Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ...


The final result was exceptionally close and the result was in doubt for several days. Because of Wilson's fear of becoming a lame duck president during the uncertainties of the war in Europe, he created a hypothetical plan where if Hughes were elected he would name Hughes secretary of state and then resign along with the vice-president to enable Hughes to become the president. The vote came down to several close states. Wilson won California by 3,773 votes out of almost a million votes cast and New Hampshire by 54 votes. Hughes won Minnesota by 393 votes out of over 358,000. In the final count, Wilson had 277 electoral votes vs. Hughes 254. Wilson was able to win reelection in 1916 by picking up many votes that had gone to Teddy Roosevelt or Eugene V. Debs in 1912. A lame duck is an elected official who loses political power or is no longer responsive to the electorate as a result of a term limit which keeps him from running for that particular office again, losing an election, or the elimination of the officials office, but who continues... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ...


Second term

Wilson's second term focused almost exclusively on World War I, which for the US formally began on April 6, 1917, only a little over a month after the term began. After Wilson, the next U.S. President to win both of his terms with under 50% of the popular vote was fellow Democrat, Bill Clinton, in the 1992 and 1996 elections. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George Bush; Democrat Bill Clinton, the governor of Arkansas; and independent candidate Ross Perot, a Texas businessman. ... Presidential electoral votes. ...


Decision for War, 1917

When Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 and made a clumsy attempt to enlist Mexico as an ally (see Zimmermann Telegram), Wilson took America into World War I as a war to make "the world safe for democracy." He did not sign a formal alliance with the United Kingdom or France but operated as an "Associated" power. He raised a massive army through conscription and gave command to General John J. Pershing, allowing Pershing a free hand as to tactics, strategy and even diplomacy. Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ... The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note; German: Zimmermann-Depesche; Spanish: Telegrama Zimmermann) was a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917, to the German ambassador in the United States of America, Johann von Bernstorff, at the height of World War... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ...

President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany. February 3, 1917.

Woodrow Wilson had decided by then that the war had become a real threat to humanity. Unless the U.S. threw its weight into the war, as he stated in his declaration of war speech, Western civilization itself could be destroyed. His statement announcing a "war to end all wars" meant that he wanted to build a basis for peace that would prevent future catastrophic wars and needless death and destruction. This provided the basis of Wilson's Fourteen Points, which were intended to resolve territorial disputes, ensure free trade and commerce, and establish a peacemaking organization, which later emerged as the League of Nations. Download high resolution version (1185x867, 269 KB)President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in the official relations with Germany. ... Download high resolution version (1185x867, 269 KB)President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in the official relations with Germany. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...


To stop defeatism at home, Wilson pushed the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 through Congress to suppress anti-British, pro-German, or anti-war opinions. He welcomed socialists who supported the war, such as Walter Lippmann, but would not tolerate those who tried to impede the war or, worse, assassinate government officials, and pushed for deportation of foreign-born radicals.[25] Over 170,000 US citizens were arrested during this period, in some cases for things they said about the president in their own homes.[citation needed] Citing the Espionage Act, the U.S. Post Office refused to carry any written materials that could be deemed critical of the U. S. war effort. Some sixty newspapers were deprived of their second-class mailing rights. The Espionage Act of 1917 was a United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I, on June 15, 1917, which made it a crime for a person to convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States... The Sedition Act of 1918 was an amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917 passed at the urging of President Woodrow Wilson, who was concerned that dissent, in time of war, was a significant threat to morale. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 - December 14, 1974) was an influential American writer, journalist, and political commentator. ...


His wartime policies were strongly pro-labor, though again, he had no love for radical unions like the Industrial Workers of the World. The American Federation of Labor and other 'moderate' unions saw enormous growth in membership and wages during Wilson's administration. There was no rationing, so consumer prices soared. As income taxes increased, white-collar workers suffered. Appeals to buy war bonds were highly successful, however. Bonds had the result of shifting the cost of the war to the affluent 1920s. The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. ... White-collar worker is an idiom referring to a salaried professional or a person whose job is clerical in nature, as opposed to a blue-collar worker whose job is more in line with manual labor. ... An American War Bonds poster from 1942 War bonds are a type of savings bond used by combatant nations to help fund a war effort. ...


Wilson set up the first western propaganda office, the United States Committee on Public Information, headed by George Creel (thus its popular name, Creel Commission), which filled the country with patriotic anti-German appeals and conducted various forms of censorship. The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI and the Creel Committee, was intended to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American intervention in World War I. It was established under President SAMI JO Woodrow Wilson as an independent agency by Executive order 2594, April 13, 1917. ... George Creel (December 1, 1876–2 October 1953) was an investigative journalist, a politician, and, most famously, the head of the United States Committee on Public Information, a propaganda organization created by President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Creel began his career as a reporter for the Kansas City...


American Protective League

The American Protective League was a quasi-private organization with 250,000 members in 600 cities was sanctioned by the Wilson administration. These men carried Government Issue badges and freely conducted warrantless searches and interrogations.[26] This organization was empowered by the U.S. Justice Department to spy on Americans for anti-government/anti war behavior. As national police, the APL checked up on people who failed to buy Liberty Bonds and spoke out against the government’s policies.[27] The American Protective League was a World War I-era private organization that worked in conjunction with the Bureau of Investigation to propagandize a pro-war message and to harass and intimidate anti-war citizens and organizations. ...


The Fourteen Points

Main article: Fourteen Points

President Woodrow Wilson articulated what became known as the Fourteen Points before Congress on January 8, 1918. The Points were the only war aims clearly expressed by any belligerent nation and thus became the basis for the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. The speech was highly idealistic, translating Wilson's progressive domestic policy of democracy, self-determination, open agreements, and free trade into the international realm. It also made several suggestions for specific disputes in Europe on the recommendation of Wilson's foreign policy advisor, Colonel Edward M. House, and his team of 150 advisors known as “The Inquiry.” The points were: United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... Edward Mandell House (July 26, 1858 – March 28, 1938) was an American diplomat, politician and presidential advisor from the time of World War I until well into the 1930s. ...

  1. Abolition of secret treaties
  2. Freedom of the seas
  3. Free Trade
  4. Disarmament
  5. Adjustment of colonial claims (decolonization and national self-determination)
  6. Russia to be assured independent development and international withdrawal from occupied Russian territory
  7. Restoration of Belgium to antebellum national status
  8. Alsace-Lorraine returned to France from Germany
  9. Italian borders redrawn on lines of nationality
  10. Autonomous development of Austria-Hungary as a nation, as the Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved
  11. Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and other Balkan states to be granted integrity, have their territories deoccupied, and Serbia to be given access to the Adriatic Sea
  12. Sovereignty for the Turkish people of the Ottoman Empire as the Empire dissolved, autonomous development for other nationalities within the former Empire
  13. Establishment of an independent Poland with access to the sea
  14. General association of the nations – a multilateral international association of nations to enforce the peace (League of Nations)

The speech was controversial in America, and even more so with their Allies. France wanted high reparations from Germany as French agriculture, industry, and lives had been so demolished by the war, and Britain, as the great naval power, did not want freedom of the seas. Wilson compromised with Clemenceau, Lloyd George, and many other European leaders during the Paris Peace talks to ensure that the fourteenth point, the League of Nations, would be established. In the end, Wilson's own Congress did not accept the League and only four of the original Fourteen Points were implemented fully in Europe.


Other foreign affairs

Main article: Polar Bear Expedition

Between 1914 and 1918, the United States intervened in Latin America, particularly in Mexico, Haiti, Cuba, and Panama. The U.S. maintained troops in Nicaragua throughout his administration and used them to select the president of Nicaragua and then to force Nicaragua to pass the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty. American troops in Haiti forced the Haitian legislature to choose the candidate Wilson selected as Haitian president. American troops occupied Haiti between 1915 and 1934. The American Expeditionary Force Siberia (AEF Siberia) was the involvement of U.S. troops, during the tail end of World War I and the Russian Revolution, in Vladivostok, Russia, from 1918 and 1920. ... The Polar Bear Expedition (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition, the American North Russia Expeditionary Force - ANREF or the American Expeditionary Force North Russia - AEFNR) was a contingent of about 5,000 U.S. troops who landed in Arkhangelsk, Russia and fought the Bolshevik forces in the surrounding region... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Bryan-Chamorro Treaty was signed on August 5, 1914 and ratified in 1916 during the United States occupation of Nicaragua. ...


After Russia left the war in 1917 following the Bolshevik Revolution the Allies sent troops, presumably, to prevent a German or Bolshevik takeover of allied-provided weapons, munitions and other supplies which had been previously shipped as aid to the Czarist government. Wilson sent armed forces to assist the withdrawal of Czech and Slovak prisoners along the Trans-Siberian Railway, hold key port cities at Arkangel and Vladivostok, and safeguard supplies sent to the Tsarist forces. Though not sent to engage the Bolsheviks, the U.S. forces had several armed conflicts against Russian forces. Wilson withdrew the soldiers on April 1, 1920, though some remained as late as 1922. As Davis and Trani conclude, "Wilson, Lansing, and Colby helped lay the foundations for the later Cold War and policy of containment. There was no military confrontation, armed standoff, or arms race. Yet, certain basics were there: suspicion, mutual misunderstandings, dislike, fear, ideological hostility, and diplomatic isolation....Each side was driven by ideology, by capitalism versus communism. Each country sought to reconstruct the world. When the world resisted, pressure could be used."[28] The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ...


Versailles 1919

Wilson returning from the Versailles Peace Conference, 1919.
Wilson returning from the Versailles Peace Conference, 1919.

After World War I, Wilson participated in negotiations with the stated aim of assuring statehood for formerly oppressed nations and an equitable peace. On January 8, 1918, Wilson made his famous Fourteen Points address, introducing the idea of a League of Nations, an organization with a stated goal of helping to preserve territorial integrity and political independence among large and small nations alike. Image File history File links WoodrowWilsonVersailles. ... Image File history File links WoodrowWilsonVersailles. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ...


Wilson intended the Fourteen Points as a means toward ending the war and achieving an equitable peace for all the nations. He spent six months at Paris for the 1919 Paris Peace Conference (making him the first U.S. president to travel to Europe while in office). He worked tirelessly to promote his plan. The charter of the proposed League of Nations was incorporated into the conference's Treaty of Versailles. Paris 1919 redirects here. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


For his peacemaking efforts, Wilson was awarded the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize. However, Wilson failed to win Senate support for ratification and the United States never joined the League. Republicans under Henry Cabot Lodge controlled the Senate after the 1918 elections, but Wilson refused to give them a voice at Paris and refused to agree to Lodge's proposed changes. The key point of disagreement was whether the League would diminish the power of Congress to declare war. Historians generally have come to regard Wilson's failure to win U.S. entry into the League as perhaps the biggest mistake of his administration, and even as one of the largest failures of any American presidency.[29] Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and noted historian. ...


Post war: 1919-20

Wilson had ignored the problems of demobilization after the war, and the process was chaotic and violent. Four million soldiers were sent home with little planning, little money, and few benefits. A wartime bubble in prices of farmland burst, leaving many farmers bankrupt or deeply in debt after they purchased new land. In 1919, major strikes in steel and meatpacking broke out.[30] Serious race riots hit Chicago and other cities.


After a series of bombings by radical anarchist groups in New York and elsewhere, Wilson directed Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to put a stop to the violence. Palmer then ordered the Palmer Raids, with the aim of collecting evidence on violent radical groups, to deport foreign-born agitators, and jail domestic ones.[31] Alexander Mitchell Palmer (May 4, 1872 - May 11, 1936) was an American lawyer and politician. ... Alexander Mitchell Palmer The Palmer Raids were a series of controversial raids by the U.S. Justice and Immigration Departments from 1919 to 1921 on suspected radical leftists in the United States. ...


Wilson broke with many of his closest political friends and allies in 1918-20, including Colonel House. Historians speculate that a series of strokes may have affected his personality. He desired a third term, but his Democratic party was in turmoil, with German voters outraged at their wartime harassment, and Irish voters angry at his failure to support Irish independence.


Support of Zionism

Wilson was sympathetic to the plight of Jews, especially in Poland and in France. As President, Wilson repeatedly stated in 1919 that U.S. policy was to "acquiesce" in the Balfour Declaration but not officially support Zionism.[32] After he left office Wilson wrote a letter of strong support to the idea of a Jewish state in Palestine and objected to territorial concessions regarding its borders.[33] Arthur James Balfour. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


Women's suffrage

Until Wilson announced his support for suffrage, a group of women calling themselves Silent Sentinels protested in front of the White House, holding banners such as "Mr. President—What will you do for woman suffrage?" "Absolutely nothing." In January 1918, after years of lobbying and public demonstrations, Wilson finally announced his support of the 19th Amendment guaranteeing women the right to vote. The Amendment passed the House but failed in the Senate. Finally, on June 4, 1919, the Senate passed the amendment. The Silent Sentinels were a group of women in favor of womens suffrage organized by Alice Paul to protest in front of the White House during Woodrow Wilsons presidency. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Amendment XIX in the National Archives The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution provides that neither any individual state or the federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of that citizens sex. ...


Incapacity

The cause of his incapacitation was the physical strain of the demanding public speaking tour he undertook to obtain support of the American people for ratification of the Covenant of the League. After one of his final speeches to attempt to promote the League of Nations in Pueblo, Colorado, on September 25, 1919 [4], he collapsed. On October 2, 1919, Wilson suffered a serious stroke that almost totally incapacitated him, leaving him paralyzed on his left side and blind in his left eye. For at least a few months, he was confined to a wheelchair. Afterwards he could walk only with the assistance of a cane. The full extent of his disability was kept from the public until after his death on February 3, 1924. The City of Pueblo (IPA: //) is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat of Pueblo County, Colorado, USA. Pueblo is situated at the confluence of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


Wilson was purposely, with few exceptions, kept out of the presence of Vice President Thomas R. Marshall, his cabinet or Congressional visitors to the White House for the remainder of his presidential term. His first wife, Ellen, had died in 1914, so his second wife, Edith, served as his steward, selecting issues for his attention and delegating other issues to his cabinet heads. This was, as of 2008, the most serious case of presidential disability in American history and was later cited as a key example why ratification of the 25th Amendment was seen as important. The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Ellen Louise Axson Wilson (May 15, 1860 - August 6, 1914), first wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States from 1913 until her death. ... White House portrait Edith Bolling Galt Wilson (October 15, 1872–December 28, 1961), second wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States from 1915 to 1921. ... Page 1 of Amendment XXV in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the...


Administration and Cabinet

Wilson's chief of staff ("Secretary") was Joseph Patrick Tumulty 1913-1921, but he was largely upstaged after 1916 when Wilson's second wife, Edith Bolling Wilson, assumed full control of Wilson's schedule. An important foreign policy advisor and confidant was "Colonel" Edward M. House. Joseph Patrick Tumulty (May 5, 1879-April 19, 1954) American attorney and politician from New Jersey. ... White House portrait Edith Bolling Galt Wilson (October 15, 1872–December 28, 1961), second wife of Woodrow Wilson, was First Lady of the United States from 1915 to 1921. ... Edward Mandell House (July 26, 1858 – March 28, 1938) was an American diplomat, politician and presidential advisor from the time of World War I until well into the 1930s. ...

Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet in the Cabinet Room
Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet in the Cabinet Room
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Woodrow Wilson 1913–1921
Vice President Thomas R. Marshall 1913–1921
Secretary of State William J. Bryan 1913–1915
  Robert Lansing 1915–1920
  Bainbridge Colby 1920–1921
Secretary of the Treasury William G. McAdoo 1913–1918
  Carter Glass 1918–1920
  David F. Houston 1920–1921
Secretary of War Lindley M. Garrison 1913–1916
  Newton D. Baker 1916–1921
Attorney General James C. McReynolds 1913–1914
  Thomas W. Gregory 1914–1919
  A. Mitchell Palmer 1919–1921
Postmaster General Albert S. Burleson 1913–1921
Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 1913–1921
Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane 1913–1920
  John B. Payne 1920–1921
Secretary of Agriculture David F. Houston 1913–1920
  Edwin T. Meredith 1920–1921
Secretary of Commerce William C. Redfield 1913–1919
  Joshua W. Alexander 1919–1921
Secretary of Labor William B. Wilson 1913–1921



Image File history File links Wilson_Cabinet_2. ... Image File history File links Wilson_Cabinet_2. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... William Jennings Bryan, (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) born in Salem, Illinois, was a gifted orator and three-time United States presidential candidate. ... This article is about the former Secretary of State. ... Categories: Stub | 1869 births | 1950 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of State ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... William Gibbs McAdoo (October 31, 1863–February 1, 1941) was a U.S. Senator and United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... Carter Glass Carter Glass (January 4, 1858–May 28, 1946) was an American politician from Virginia, who served many years in Congress, as well as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury under Woodrow Wilson. ... David Franklin Houston (February 17, 1866–September 2, 1940) was an American academic, businessman and politician. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Lindley Miller Garrison (1864-1932) was a New Jersey lawyer who served as Secretary of War under U.S. President Woodrow Wilson between 1913 and 1916. ... Newton Diehl Baker (December 3, 1871 - December 25, 1937) was an American politician in the Democratic Party, and a notable figure in the Progressive movement. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Justice McReynolds, c. ... Thomas Watt Gregory (November 6, 1861–February 26, 1933) was an American attorney and Cabinet Secretary. ... Alexander Mitchell Palmer (May 4, 1872 - May 11, 1936) was an American lawyer and politician. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Albert Sidney Burleson (June 7, 1863 - November 24, 1937) was a United States Postmaster General and Congressman. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Josephus Daniels Josephus Daniels (18 May 1862–15 January 1948) was an American politician and newspaper publisher from North Carolina, who served as Secretary of the Navy during World War I. A native of Washington, North Carolina, Daniels owned and managed several newspapers before purchasing the Raleigh News and Observer... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Franklin Knight Lane (1864–1921) was a Canadian-American Democratic politician who served as United States Secretary of the Interior under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1920. ... John Barton Payne - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... David Franklin Houston (February 17, 1866–September 2, 1940) was an American academic, businessman and politician. ... Edwin Thomas Meredith (December 23, 1876–June 17, 1928) was a United States Secretary of Agriculture under Woodrow Wilson. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: William C. Redfield Categories: Stub | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce ... Joshua Willis Alexander Joshua Willis Alexander (January 22, 1852 February 27, 1936) was United States Secretary of Commerce from December 16, 1919 - March 4, 1921 in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson. ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... William Bauchop Wilson (1862 - 1934) was a U.S. (Scottish-born) labor leader and political figure. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Wilson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...

Justice McReynolds, c. ... Louis D. Brandeis Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 - October 3, 1941) was an important American litigator, Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | U.S. District Court judges | American lawyers | 1857 births | 1945 deaths ...

Wilsonian Idealism

The official White House portrait of President Woodrow Wilson
The official White House portrait of President Woodrow Wilson

Wilson was a remarkably effective writer and thinker. He composed speeches and other writings with two fingers on a little Hammond typewriter. [34] Wilson's diplomatic policies had a profound influence on shaping the world. Diplomatic historian Walter Russell Mead has explained: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “Walter Mead” redirects here. ...

"Wilson's principles survived the eclipse of the Versailles system and that they still guide European politics today: self-determination, democratic government, collective security, international law, and a league of nations. Wilson may not have gotten everything he wanted at Versailles, and his treaty was never ratified by the Senate, but his vision and his diplomacy, for better or worse, set the tone for the twentieth century. France, Germany, Italy, and Britain may have sneered at Wilson, but every one of these powers today conducts its European policy along Wilsonian lines. What was once dismissed as visionary is now accepted as fundamental. This was no mean achievement, and no European statesman of the twentieth century has had as lasting, as benign, or as widespread an influence."[35]

American foreign relations since 1914 have rested on Wilsonian idealism, argues historian David Kennedy, even if adjusted somewhat by the "realism" represented by Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Henry Kissinger. Kennedy argues that every president since Wilson has, "embraced the core precepts of Wilsonianism. Nixon himself hung Wilson's portrait in the White House Cabinet Room. Wilson's ideas continue to dominate American foreign policy in the twenty-first century. In the aftermath of 9/11 they have, if anything, taken on even greater vitality."[36] Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


Wilson and race

Quotation from Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People as reproduced in the film The Birth of a Nation.
Quotation from Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People as reproduced in the film The Birth of a Nation.

While president of Princeton University, Wilson discouraged blacks from even applying for admission.[37] Princeton would not admit its first black student until the 1940s. Image File history File links Wilson-quote-in-birth-of-a-nation. ... Image File history File links Wilson-quote-in-birth-of-a-nation. ... For the 1982 film of the same name, see Birth of a Nation (1982 film). ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


Wilson allowed many of his cabinet officials to establish official segregation in most federal government offices, in some departments for the first time since 1863. "His administration imposed full racial segregation in Washington and hounded from office considerable numbers of black federal employees."[38] Wilson and his cabinet members fired many black Republican office holders, but also appointed a few black Democrats. W. E. B. Du Bois, a leader of the NAACP, campaigned for Wilson and in 1918 was offered an Army commission in charge of dealing with race relations. (DuBois accepted but failed his Army physical and did not serve.)[39] When a delegation of blacks protested his discriminatory actions, Wilson told them that "segregation is not a humiliation but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen." In 1914, he told the New York Times that "If the colored people made a mistake in voting for me, they ought to correct it." Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced [1]) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Wilson was attacked by African-Americans for his actions, but he was also attacked by southern hard line racists, such as Georgian Thomas E. Watson, for not going far enough in restricting black employment in the federal government. The segregation introduced into the federal workforce by the Wilson administration was kept in place by the succeeding presidents and was not finally rescinded until the Truman Administration. Thomas Edward Watson (5 September 1856–26 September 1922), generally known as Tom Watson, was a United States politician from Georgia. ...


Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People explained the Ku Klux Klan of the late 1860s as the natural outgrowth of Reconstruction, a lawless reaction to a lawless period. Wilson noted that the Klan “began to attempt by intimidation what they were not allowed to attempt by the ballot or by any ordered course of public action.”[40] Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


Wilson's words were repeatedly quoted in the film The Birth of a Nation, which has come under fire for racism. Thomas Dixon, author of the novel The Clansman upon which the film is based, was one of Wilson's graduate school classmates at Johns Hopkins in 1883-1884. Dixon arranged a special White House preview (this was the first time a film was shown in the White House) without telling Wilson what the film was about. There is debate about whether Wilson made the statement, "It is like writing history with lightning; my only regret is that it is all so terribly true.", or whether it was invented by a film publicist.[41] Others argue Wilson felt he had been tricked by Dixon and in public statements claimed he did not like the film; Wilson blocked its showing during the war.[42] In a 1923 letter to Senator Morris Sheppard of Texas, Wilson noted of the reborn Klan, “...no more obnoxious or harmful organization has ever shown itself in our affairs.” Although Wilson had a volatile relationship with American blacks, he was a friend of the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie, a black African monarch[citation needed]. A sword, a gift from Selassie, can still be seen in Wilson's Washington DC home.[43] For the 1982 film of the same name, see Birth of a Nation (1982 film). ... Illustration from The Clansman. ... Illustration from The Clansman. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... John Morris Sheppard (May 28, 1875 - April 9, 1941) was a United States Congressman and a Senaor from Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ...


White ethnics

Wilson had some harsh words to say about immigrants in his history books. However, after he entered politics in 1910, Wilson worked to integrate new immigrants into the Democratic party, into the army, and into American life. He demanded in return during the war that they repudiate any loyalty to the enemy.


Irish Americans were powerful in the Democratic party and opposed going to war alongside their enemy Britain, especially after the violent suppression of the Easter Rebellion of 1916. Wilson won them over in 1917 by promising to ask Britain to give Ireland its independence. At Versailles, however, he reneged and the Irish-American community vehemently denounced him. Wilson, in turn, blamed the Irish Americans and German Americans for the lack of popular support for the League of Nations, saying, Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... The Easter Rising (Irish: Éirí Amach na Casca) was a militarily unsuccessful rebellion staged in Ireland against British rule on Easter Monday in April 1916. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...


"There is an organized propaganda against the League of Nations and against the treaty proceeding from exactly the same sources that the organized propaganda proceeded from which threatened this country here and there with disloyalty, and I want to say—I cannot say too often—any man who carries a hyphen about with him carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic whenever he gets ready."[44]


Death

In 1921, Wilson and his wife retired from the White House to a home in the Embassy Row section of Washington, D.C. Wilson continued going for daily drives and attended Keith's vaudeville theater on Saturday nights. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A look down R Street, just off Massachusetts Avenue in the Embassy Row area. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ...


Wilson died in his S Street home on February 3, 1924. Because his plan for the League of Nations ultimately failed, he died feeling that he had lied to the American people and that his motives for joining the war had been in vain. He was buried in Washington National Cathedral. is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Washington National Cathedral has been the site of three presidential state funerals: for Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald W. Reagan, Gerald R. Ford and a presidential burial for Woodrow Wilson and a memorial service for Harry Truman. ...


Mrs. Wilson stayed in the home another 37 years, dying on December 28, 1961.She passed away with her favorite dog, Rooter, at her bed side and it is told that Rooter and Mrs. Wilson haunt the Woodrow Wilson House every night from midnight until dawn. Mrs. Wilson left the home to the National Trust for Historic Preservation to be made into a museum honoring her husband. Woodrow Wilson House opened as a museum in 1964. is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Trust for Historic Preservation is an American member-supported organization which was founded in 1949 to support preservation of historic buildings and neighborhoods through a range of programs and activities. ... The Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 S Street NW, Washington, D.C., is Wilsons post-presidential home. ...


Miscellany

The final resting place of Woodrow Wilson at the Washington National Cathedral
The final resting place of Woodrow Wilson at the Washington National Cathedral
  • Wilson was an early automobile enthusiast, and he took daily rides while he was President. His favorite car was a 1919 Pierce-Arrow, in which he preferred to ride with the top down. His enjoyment of motoring made him an advocate of funding for public highways.[45]
  • Wilson was an avid baseball fan. In 1916 he became the first sitting president to attend a World Series game. Wilson had been a center fielder during his Davidson College days. When he transferred to Princeton he was unable to make the varsity and so became the assistant manager of the team. He was the first President officially to throw out a first ball at a World Series.[46]
  • His earliest memory, from age 3, was of hearing that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming.
  • Wilson would forever recall standing for a moment at Robert E. Lee's side and looking up into his face.
  • Wilson (born in Virginia and raised in Georgia) was the first Southerner to be elected since 1848 (Zachary Taylor) and the first Southerner to take office since Andrew Johnson in 1865.
  • Wilson was also the first Democrat elected to the presidency since Grover Cleveland in 1892. The next Democrat elected was Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932.
  • Wilson was a member of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity.
  • Wilson appeared on the $100,000 bill. The bill, which is now out of print but is still technically legal tender, was used only to transfer money between Federal Reserve banks.[47][48]
Wilson's Pierce Arrow, which resides in his hometown of Staunton, Virginia.
Wilson's Pierce Arrow, which resides in his hometown of Staunton, Virginia.
Wilson on the $100,000 gold certificate
  • The Italian steam locomotive group FS 735, designed and built by ALCO and Montreal Locomotive Works for Ferrovie dello Stato while Italy was fighting World War I, was nicknamed Wilson after T.W. Wilson, then president of United States
  • The book Stardust and Shadows, 2000, Toronto: Dundern Press by Charles Foster details an alleged relationship between silent-era motion picture actress Florence La Badie and Wilson.
  • When President Wilson came to Europe to settle the peace terms, Wilson visited Pope Benedict XV in Rome, which made Wilson the first American President to visit the Pope while in office.
  • Wilson was the only presidential candidate to defeat two former presidents in a single election (Roosevelt and Taft).
  • Wilson is the only political scientist to be President of the United States
  • In 1914, Wilson declared the first national Mother's Day.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1403 KB) Summary The tomb of Woodrow Wilson at the National Cathedral in Washington, DC. I took this photo in March of 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1403 KB) Summary The tomb of Woodrow Wilson at the National Cathedral in Washington, DC. I took this photo in March of 2006. ... Washington National Cathedral has been the site of three presidential state funerals: for Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald W. Reagan, Gerald R. Ford and a presidential burial for Woodrow Wilson and a memorial service for Harry Truman. ... 1919 Pierce-Arrow advertisement The Pierce-Arrow was a Buffalo, New York (United States) based manufacturing company from 1901 to 1938. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... Phi Kappa Psi (ΦΚΨ, Phi Psi) is a U.S. national college fraternity. ... Today, the currency of the United States, the U.S. dollar, is printed in bills in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The American Historical Association (AHA) is a society of historians and teachers of history founded in 1884 and incorporated by the United States Congress in 1889. ... The American Political Science Association, founded in 1903, serves more than 15,000 members in more than 80 countries, bringing a variety of services to political scientists both inside and outside academic institutions. ... Wilson is a 1944 biographical film about President Woodrow Wilson. ... Henry King may refer to: Henry King (poet), (1592-1669), English poet, Bishop of Chichester Henry Churchill King, (1858–1934) theologian and educator; served on King-Crane Commission Henry King, (1855-1923) Australian studio and landscape photographer Henry T. King was a prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials Herny King (congressman... Alexander Knox (January 16, 1907 _ April 25, 1995) was a Canadian actor. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Great War is an alternate history trilogy by Harry Turtledove, which follows How Few Remain. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Image File history File links 100000f. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Great Western Railway No. ... The American Locomotive Company, shortened to ALCO (or Alco) was a builder of railroad locomotives in the United States. ... Montreal Locomotive Works builders plate, 1913 Montreal Locomotive Works (MLW) was a Canadian railway locomotive manufacturer which existed under several names from 1883-1985, producing both steam and diesel locomotives. ... The FS rail station of Trieste The Ferrovie dello Stato (italian: State Railways) or FS is the operator of the Italian railway network. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Florence M.L. La Badie (born possibly April 27, 1888 - October 13, 1917) was the daughter of Joseph E. La Badie and his wife Amanda from Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Pope Benedict XV Benedict XV, né Giacomo della Chiesa (November 21, 1854-January 22, 1922), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1914 to 1922; he succeeded Pope Saint Pius X. He was born in Genoa, Italy, of a noble family. ... This article is about several worldwide days celebrating motherhood. ...

Media

  • Wilson at a parade (1918)

    Wilson tips his hat as he exits the White House on his way to a parade along Pennsylvania Avenue (1918).


    Woodrow Wilson at a parade, 1918. ... Woodrow Wilson at a parade, 1918. ... Pennsylvania Avenue street sign, 2004. ...

    Woodrow Wilson video montage

    Collection of video clips of the president. (7.5 MB, ogg/Theora format).


    Woodrow Wilson video montage. ... Woodrow Wilson video montage. ... This article is about a unit of data. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.
Speech sample

"Address to the American Indians"

("The great white father now calls you his brothers"), an address given in 1913
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

See also

Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large... // Era Overview At the end of the Civil War, the United States was still bitterly divided. ... The history of the United States from 1918 through 1945 covers the post-World War I era, the Great Depression, and World War II. After World War I, the United States signed separate peace treaties with Germany and her allies. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library is located at the birthplace of Woodrow Wilson, at 18–24 North Coalter Street in Staunton, Virginia. ... The Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 S Street NW, Washington, D.C., is Wilsons post-presidential home. ... The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center) (located in Washington, D.C.) is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by act of Congress in 1968. ... Robertson Hall, which houses the Woodrow Wilson School. ... USS Woodrow Wilson (SSBN-624), a Lafayette-class ballistic missile submarine, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the 28th President of the United States. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Expert Report Of Eric Foner
  2. ^ Link Road to the White House pp. 3-4.
  3. ^ Walworth ch 1
  4. ^ Link, Wilson I:5-6; Wilson Papers I: 130, 245, 314
  5. ^ (1912) The World's Work: A History of our Time, Volume IV: November 1911-April 1912. Doubleday, 74-75. 
  6. ^ for details on Wilson's health see Edwin A. Weinstein, Woodrow Wilson: A Medical and Psychological Biography (Princeton 1981)
  7. ^ Thomas Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921). Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia (2005-01-14). Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  8. ^ Mulder, John H. Woodrow Wilson: The Years of Preparation. (Princeton, 1978) 71-72.
  9. ^ Congressional Government, 180
  10. ^ The Politics of Woodrow Wilson, 41–48
  11. ^ Congressional Government, 205
  12. ^ Congressional Government, 186–7
  13. ^ Congressional Government, 76
  14. ^ Congressional Government, 132
  15. ^ David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, "Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism, 1896-1900,"Independent Review 4 (Spring 2000), 555-75.
  16. ^ Frozen Republic, 145
  17. ^ "Beyond FitzRandolph Gates," Princeton Weekly Bulletin June 22, 1998.
  18. ^ Walworth 1:109
  19. ^ PBS - American Experience: Woodrow Wilson | Wilson- A Portrait
  20. ^ Walworth v 1 ch 6, 7, 8
  21. ^ Shenkman, Richard. p. 275. Presidential Ambition. New York, New York. Harper Collins Publishing, 1999. First Edition. 0-06-018373-X
  22. ^ William Bullitt (1998). Woodrow Wilson - A Psychological Study. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, p. 150. 
    Bullitt knew Wilson personally, and was with him at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919.
  23. ^ Arthur S. Link, "Woodrow Wilson" in Henry F. Graff ed., The Presidents: A Reference History (2002) p 370
  24. ^ [Link 1954 pp 43-53; Link 1956 pp 199-240]
  25. ^ Avrich, Paul, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background, Princeton University Press, 1991
  26. ^ You want a more 'progressive' America? Careful what you wish for. | csmonitor.com
  27. ^ http://www.rit.edu/~cma8660/mirror/www.johntaylorgatto.com/chapters/11g.htm
  28. ^ Donald E. Davis and Eugene P. Trani, The First Cold War: The Legacy of Woodrow Wilson in U.S.-Soviet Relations. (2002) p. 202.
  29. ^ CTV.ca | U.S. historians pick top 10 presidential errors
  30. ^ Leonard Williams Levy and Louis Fisher, Encyclopedia of the American Presidency, Simon and Shuster: 1994, p. 494. ISBN 0132759837
  31. ^ The successful Communist takeover of Russia in 1917 was also a background factor: many anarchists believed that the worker's revolution that had taken place there would quickly spread across Europe and the United States. Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background, Princeton University Press, 1991
  32. ^ Walworth (1986) 473-83, esp. p. 481; Melvin I. Urofsky, American Zionism from Herzl to the Holocaust, (1995) ch. 6; Frank W. Brecher, Reluctant Ally: United States Foreign Policy toward the Jews from Wilson to Roosevelt. (1991) ch 1-4.
  33. ^ In 1923 he wrote "The Zionist cause depends on rational northern and eastern boundaries for a self-maintaining, economic development of the country. This means, on the north, Palestine must include the Litani River and the watersheds of the Hermon, and on the east it must include the plains of the Jaulon and the Hauran. Narrower than this is a mutilation...I need not remind you that neither in this country nor in Paris has there been any opposition to the Zionist program, and to its realization the boundaries I have named are indispensable". Quoted in Palestine: The Original Sin , Meir Abelson [1]
  34. ^ Phyllis Lee Levin. Edith and Woodrow: The Wilson White House. Simon and Schuster. New York. 2001, p139
  35. ^ Walter Russell Mead, Special Providence, (2001) at [2]
  36. ^ David M. Kennedy, "What 'W' Owes to 'WW': President Bush May Not Even Know It, but He Can Trace His View of the World to Woodrow Wilson, Who Defined a Diplomatic Destiny for America That We Can't Escape." The Atlantic Monthly Vol: 295. Issue: 2. (March 2005) pp 36+.
  37. ^ Arthur Link, Wilson:The Road to the White House (Princeton University Press, 1947) 502
  38. ^ Expert Report Of Eric Foner
  39. ^ Ellis, Mark. "'Closing Ranks' and 'Seeking Honors': W. E. B. du Bois in World War I" Journal of American History 1992 79(1): 96-124. ISSN 0021-8723 Fulltext in Jstor
  40. ^ Woodrow Wilson, A History of the American People (1931) V:59.
  41. ^ "Family Life", Essays on Woodrow Wilson and His Administration, American President: An Online Reference Resource, Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia [3]
  42. ^ Link vol 2 pp 252-54.
  43. ^ Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson 68:298
  44. ^ American Rhetoric, "Final Address in Support of the League of Nations", Woodrow Wilson, delivered 25 Sept 1919 in Pueblo, CO. John B. Duff, "German-Americans and the Peace, 1918-1920" American Jewish Historical Quarterly 1970 59(4): 424-459. and Duff, "The Versailles Treaty and the Irish-Americans" Journal of American History 1968 55(3): 582-598. ISSN 0021-8723
  45. ^ Richard F. Weingroff, President Woodrow Wilson — Motorist Extraordinaire, Federal Highway Administration
  46. ^ CNNSI.com - Statitudes - Statitudes: World Series, By the Numbers - Thursday October 17, 2002 03:33 AM
  47. ^ Ask Yahoo! November 10, 2005
  48. ^ The $100,000 bill Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

Doubleday is one of the largest book publishing companies in the world. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • 'Wilson and the Federal Reserve'
  • Ambrosius, Lloyd E., “Woodrow Wilson and George W. Bush: Historical Comparisons of Ends and Means in Their Foreign Policies,” Diplomatic History, 30 (June 2006), 509–43.
  • Bailey; Thomas A. Wilson and the Peacemakers: Combining Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace and Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal (1947)
  • Bennett, David J., He Almost Changed the World: The Life and Times of Thomas Riley Marshall (2007)
  • Brands, H. W. Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921'’ (2003)
  • Clements, Kendrick, A. Woodrow Wilson : World Statesman (1999)
  • Clements, Kendrick A. The Presidency of Woodrow Wilson (1992)
  • Clements, Kendrick A. "Woodrow Wilson and World War I," Presidential Studies Quarterly 34:1 (2004). pp 62+.
  • Davis, Donald E. and Eugene P. Trani; The First Cold War: The Legacy of Woodrow Wilson in U.S.-Soviet Relations (2002)online
  • Greene, Theodore P. Ed. Wilson at Versailles (1957)
  • Hofstadter, Richard. "Woodrow Wilson: The Conservative as Liberal" in The American Political Tradition (1948), ch. 10.
  • Knock, Thomas J. To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order (1995)
  • N. Gordon Levin, Jr., Woodrow Wilson and World Politics: America's Response to War and Revolution (1968)
  • Link, Arthur S. "Woodrow Wilson" in Henry F. Graff ed., The Presidents: A Reference History (2002) pp 365-388
  • Link, Arthur Stanley. Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910-1917 (1972) standard political history of the era
  • Link, Arthur Stanley. Wilson: The Road to the White House (1947), first volume of standard biography (to 1917); Wilson: The New Freedom (1956); Wilson: The Struggle for Neutrality: 1914-1915 (1960); Wilson: Confusions and Crises: 1915-1916 (1964); Wilson: Campaigns for Progressivism and Peace: 1916-1917 (1965), the last volume of standard biography
  • Link, Arthur S.; Wilson the Diplomatist: A Look at His Major Foreign Policies (1957)
  • Link, Arthur S.; Woodrow Wilson and a Revolutionary World, 1913-1921 (1982)
  • Livermore, Seward W. Woodrow Wilson and the War Congress, 1916-1918 (1966)
  • Malin, James C. The United States after the World War 1930. online
  • May, Ernest R. The World War and American Isolation, 1914-1917 (1959)
  • Saunders, Robert M. In Search of Woodrow Wilson: Beliefs and Behavior (1998)
  • Trani, Eugene P. “Woodrow Wilson and the Decision to Intervene in Russia: A Reconsideration.” Journal of Modern History (1976). 48:440—61. in JSTOR
  • Walworth, Arthur. Woodrow Wilson 2 Vol. (1958), Pulitzer prize winning biography.
  • Arthur Walworth; Wilson and His Peacemakers: American Diplomacy at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 W. W. Norton, 1986

Primary sources

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Woodrow Wilson
Academic offices
Preceded by
Francis L. Patton
President of Princeton University
1902 – 1910
Succeeded by
John Grier Hibben
Political offices
Preceded by
John Franklin Fort
Governor of New Jersey
January 17, 1911 – March 1, 1913
Succeeded by
James Fairman Fielder
(Acting)
Preceded by
William Howard Taft
President of the United States
March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921
Succeeded by
Warren G. Harding
Party political offices
Preceded by
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic Party presidential candidate
1912, 1916
Succeeded by
James M. Cox
Honorary titles
Preceded by
William Howard Taft
Oldest U.S. President still living
March 4, 1913 – February 3, 1924
Succeeded by
William Howard Taft
Persondata
NAME Wilson, Woodrow
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Wilson, Thomas Woodrow
SHORT DESCRIPTION 28th President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH December 28, 1856
PLACE OF BIRTH Staunton, Virginia, United States
DATE OF DEATH February 3, 1924
PLACE OF DEATH Washington, D.C., United States
Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... West Beverley Street in downtown Staunton Staunton (IPA: or STAN-tehn or STANT-en) is an independent city within the confines of Augusta County in the commonwealth of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Woodrow Wilson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6669 words)
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia in 1856 as the third of four children to Reverend Dr. Joseph Ruggles Wilson (February 28, 1822 Steubenville, Ohio–January 21, 1903 Princeton, New Jersey) and Janet Mary Woodrow (1830, London, England–April 15, 1888 Clarksville, Tennessee).
Wilson came of age in the decades after the American Civil War, when Congress was supreme—"the gist of all policy is decided by the legislature"—and corruption was rampant.
Wilson (born in Virginia and raised in Georgia) was the first president from any state that had joined the Confederate States of America to be elected since 1848 (Zachary Taylor, born in Virginia), and the first from there to take office since 1865 (Andrew Johnson born in North Carolina).
Woodrow Wilson - MSN Encarta (627 words)
Wilson's belief in international cooperation through an association of nations led to the creation of the League of Nations and ultimately to the United Nations.
Wilson was an ardent Confederate sympathizer, and young Wilson witnessed the ruthless behavior of federal troops who, under General William T. Sherman, invaded Georgia and South Carolina.
Wilson was educated partly at home and partly at private schools in Augusta and, after 1870, in war-ravaged Columbia, South Carolina, to which the Wilsons moved.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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