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Encyclopedia > Wood router
A "D-handle" fixed-base router
A "D-handle" fixed-base router

A router is a woodworking tool used to rout out (hollow out) an area in the face of a piece of wood. It was a tool particularly used by pattern makers and staircase makers and consisted of a broad-based wooden hand plane with a narrow blade projecting well beyond its base plate gaining it the nickname Old Woman's Tooth. Since about 1960, it has been replaced by the modern spindle router, which was designed for the same work, although the first electric hand routers appeared in the years just after World War I. Further refinement produced the plunge router, invented by Elu (now part of deWalt) in Germany in the late 1940s. This is even better adapted for many types of work. Today, traditional hand-powered routers are often called router planes. Modern routers are often used in place of traditional moulding planes or spindle moulder machines for edge decoration (moulding) of timber Download high resolution version (723x642, 51 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (723x642, 51 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Artists can use woodworking to create delicate sculptures. ... Image:Tool3. ... A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood derives from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... This article or section should be merged with Plane (tool). ... A blade is the flat part of a bladed tool or weapon that (usually) has a cutting edge and/or pointed end typically made of a metal, such as steel used to cut, stab, slice, throw, thrust, or strike. ... The word spindle might (or might not) have several meanings: A spindle (shrub), a poisonous shrub or small tree of the genus Euonymus. ...

Contents


Moulding

The spindle router has lent itself to the finer end of the scale of work done by a moulding spindle. That is to say it is able to cut grooves, edge moulding, and chamfer or radius the edge of a piece of wood. It is also possible to use it for cutting some joints. The shape of cut that is created is determined by the size and shape of the bit (cutter) held in the collet and the depth by the depth adjustment of the sole plate. Molding (US) or moulding (UK) can be: moulding or molding, a decorative feature used in interior design and architecture molding or moulding, a process used in manufacturing This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Example of a chamfer A Chamfer is a beveled edge connecting two surfaces. ... Joinery is the part of woodworking that involves the joining together of parts of wood. ... A collet is a holding device that forms a collar around the object to be held and exerts a strong clamping force on the object when it is tightened. ...


Features of the modern spindle router

The tool usually consists of a base housing a vertically mounted universal electric motor with a collet on the end of its shaft. The bit is height-adjustable to allow protrusion through an opening in a flat sole plate, usually via adjusting the motor-mounting height (the mechanism of adjustment is widely varied among manufacturers). Control of the router is derived from a handle or knob on each side of the device, or by the more recently developed "D-handle". Rotating magnetic field as a sum of magnetic vectors from 3 phase coils. ... A collet is a holding device that forms a collar around the object to be held and exerts a strong clamping force on the object when it is tightened. ...


There are two standard types of router — plunge and fixed. When using a plunge-base router, the sole of the base is placed on the face of the work with the cutting bit raised above the work, then the motor is turned on and the cutter is lowered into the work. With a fixed-base router, the cut depth is set before the tool is turned on. The sole plate is then either rested flat on the workpiece overhanging the edge so that the cutting bit is not contacting the work (and then entering the work from the side once the motor is turned on), or the sole plate is placed at an angle with the bit above the work and the bit is "rocked" over into the work once the motor is turned on. In each case, the bit cuts its way in, but the plunge router does it in a more refined way.


The baseplate (sole plate) is generally circular (though this, too, varies by individual models) and may be used in conjunction with a fence attached to the base, which then braces the router against the edge of the work, or via a straightedge clamped across the work to obtain a straight cut. Other means of guiding the machine include the template guide bush secured in the base around the router cutter and router cutters with in-built guide bearings, both of these run against a straight edge or shaped template. Without this, the varying reaction of the wood against the torque of the tool makes it impossible to control with the precision normally required. In physics, torque can be thought of informally as rotational force. Torque is commonly measured in units of newton metres; although, centiNewton Meters (cNm), Foot Pounds (Lb-Ft), Inch Pounds (Lb-In) and Inch Ounces (Oz-In) are also frequently used expressions of torque. ...


As an alternative, the tool can also be mounted in an inverted orientation below router tables and used as a miniature spindle shaper. The machine is mounted below the table in the manner akin to a circular saw mounted like a table saw. With such a set-up, it is often advisable that the work be passed over it along a fence. With some router table arrangements it is possible to adjust the bench to give the effect of tilting a saw bench so as to cut with the axis of the tool at an angle other than 90° to the face of the work. Standard shaper Sliding Table Shaper Longbed Shaper with Tenoning Table A wood shaper usually just shaper in North America or spindle moulder in the U.K. is a stationary woodworking machine in which a spindle spins at moderately high speeds. ...

Profiles made in wood by several common router bits.
Profiles made in wood by several common router bits.

Some common router bit profiles in wood - English text File links The following pages link to this file: Wood router Categories: GFDL images ...

Available cutters

Two typical router bits: (top) a ¼-inch shaft Roman Ogee with bearing, (bottom) 1/4-inch shaft dovetail bit.
Two typical router bits: (top) a ¼-inch shaft Roman Ogee with bearing, (bottom) 1/4-inch shaft dovetail bit.

Router bits come in hundreds of varieties to create either decorative effects or joinery aids. Generally, they are classified as either high-speed steel (HSS) or carbide-tipped, however some recent innovations such as solid carbide bits provide even more variety for specialized tasks. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (880x880, 509 KB) Summary <Routerbits. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (880x880, 509 KB) Summary <Routerbits. ... Joinery is the part of woodworking that involves the joining together of parts of wood. ... High speed steel (HSS) is a material usually used in the manufacture of machine tools. ... Tungsten carbide, WC or W2C, is a chemical compound containing tungsten and carbon, similar to titanium carbide. ...


Aside from the materials they are made of, bits can be classified as edge bits or non-edge bits, and whether the bit is designed to be anti-kickback. Edge bits have a small wheel bearing to act as a fence against the work in making edge mouldings. Non-edge bits require the use of a fence, either on a router table or attached to the work or router. Anti-kickback bits employ added non-cutting bit material around the circumference of the bit's shoulders which serves to limit feed-rate and thereby reduce the chance that the workpiece is pushed too deeply into the bit, causing the cutting edge to be unable to compensate, which results in significant kickback.


Bits also differ by the diameter of their shank, with ½ inch, 12 mm, 10 mm, 3/8 inch, 8 mm and ¼ inch and 6 mm shanks (ordered from thickest to thinnest) being the most common. Half-inch bits cost more but are less prone to vibration (giving smoother cuts) and are less likely to break than the smaller sizes. The bit shank and router collet sizes must match. Many routers come with removable collets for the popular shank sizes (in the USA 1/2in and 1/4in, in Great Britain 1/2in, 8 mm and 1/4in and metric sizes in Europe - although in the United States the 3/8-inch and 8 mm sizes are often only available for extra cost).


Many modern routers allow the speed of the bit's rotation to be varied. A slower rotation allows bits of larger cutting diameter to be used safely. Typical speeds range from 8,000 to 30,0000 rpm.


Variations on the theme

A tool similar to a router, but designed to hold smaller cutting bits - thereby making it easier to handle for small jobs - is a laminate trimmer. A small version of a wood router, used to trim laminate. ...


A related tool, called a spindle moulder (UK) or shaper (North America), is used to hold larger cutter heads and can be used for deeper or larger-diameter cuts. Another related machine is the pin router, a larger static version of the hand electric router but normally with a much more powerful motor and other features such as automatic template copying. Standard shaper Sliding Table Shaper Longbed Shaper with Tenoning Table A wood shaper usually just shaper in North America or spindle moulder in the U.K. is a stationary woodworking machine in which a spindle spins at moderately high speeds. ...


Some profile cutters use a cutting head reminiscent of a spindle router. These should not be confused with profile cutters used for steel plate which use a flame as the cutting method.


Publicity blurb

The router was described as "the most versatile tool in the world" by Jeremy Broun in his book, "The Incredible Router". Hylton and Matlack also describe the router as a versatile tool (see Books below): "You can use it in just about every aspect of a job but assembly ... used creatively, it will do almost any kind of cutting or shaping of wood." However, custom baseplates, templates, or jigs — tools that help guide the router or the workpiece through a controlled motion — are typically needed for more complex cuts. Jeremy Broun is amongst a handful of pioneers of the Seventies British Craft Furniture Revival and a leading innovative designer maker of wood furniture. ...


See also

A wood CNC Router is similar to a metal CNC mill with the following differences: The wood router typically spins faster — 18,000 RPM It typically uses smaller tools — max shank size 20 or at most 25mm. ...

Books

  • Broun, Jeremy (1989). The incredible router. Guild of Master Craftsman Publications, Lewes, East Sussex. ISBN 0946819173.
  • Hylton, Bill; Matlack, Fred (1993). Woodworking with the Router. Reader's Digest Association: Pleasantville, NY. ISBN 0-7621-0227-6.
  • Spielman, Patrick (1993). The New Router Handbook. Sterling Publishing Co. Inc., New York. ISBN ISBN 0806905182.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CNC wood router: Information from Answers.com (564 words)
A wood router is controlled in the same way as a metal mill, but there is a lot of CAM software specifically for wood routers.
Wood with different grain must be approached with unique strategies, and wood CAM software is less likely to need to have hog-out strategies than the metal ones.
Wood routers are frequently used to machine other soft materials such as plastics at high speed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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