FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Wood pulp
International Paper Company
International Paper Company

Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. The timber resources used to make wood pulp are referred to as pulpwood. Wood pulp generally comes from softwood trees such as spruce, pine, fir, larch and hemlock, but also some hardwoods such as eucalyptus and birch. International Paper Company, on the Sampit River, Georgetown, SC Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... International Paper Company, on the Sampit River, Georgetown, SC Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Piece of A4 paper Paper is a thin material produced by the amalgamation of plant fibres, which are subsequently held together without extra binder, largely by hydrogen bonds and to a large degree by fiber entanglement. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Pulpwood refers to timber stocks that are cut in order to make wood pulp for paper production. ... Despite being fairly hard, cedar is a softwood Softwood is the wood from conifers. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Species About 115 species Pines are coniferous trees of the genus Pinus, in the family Pinaceae. ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... Species About 12; see text Siberian larch Male (above) and female (below right) cones of Japanese Larch emerging in spring Larches are conifers in the genus Larix, in the family Pinaceae. ... Species Eastern Hemlock Carolina Hemlock Taiwan Hemlock Northern Japanese Hemlock Himalayan Hemlock Forrests Hemlock Western Hemlock Mountain Hemlock Southern Japanese Hemlock Tsuga is a genus of conifers in the family Pinaceae. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood The term hardwood designates wood from angiosperm trees. ... Species About 700; see the List of Eucalyptus species Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of trees (and a few shrubs), the members of which dominate the tree flora of Australia. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ...

Contents

Manufacture of wood pulp

See also: Pulp Mill

Wood pulp is made in several stages: A Pulp Mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips into a thick fibre board which can be shipped to a Paper Mill for further processing. ...

  1. First the bark is removed from the wood. This can be done with or without water (wet stripping). The bark is generally recovered to use as fuel in the pulp and paper making process.
  2. The cellulose fibres that keep the wood together are then separated. This can be done in a number of ways:
    • The wood can be crushed with grinders (huge grindstones) and then soaked in water to produce groundwood (GW). Mechanical pulps are used for products that require less strength, such as newsprint and paperboards.
    • The wood can be crushed with refiners using steam at high pressures and temperatures to produce thermomechanical pulp (TMP). TMP differs in quality from groundwood.
    • In addition to the refiners, chemicals can be used to break up the cellulose fibres. Pulp produced this way is known as chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP). GW, TMP and CTMP are all considered as mechanical pulps. The mechanical pulps tend to turn yellow in time, because of the binding material, lignin, in the pulp.
    • Chemical pulp is produced by combining wood chips and chemicals in huge vats known as digesters. The effect of the heat and the chemicals dissolves the lignin, that binds the cellulose fibers together, without breaking the wood fibres. The fluid that contains lignin and other dissolved material is then dried and used as fuel. Chemical pulp is used for materials that need to be stronger or combined with mechanical pulps to give a product different characteristics. Chemical pulps include kraft pulp (or sulphate pulp).
    • Pulp can also be made out of waste paper and paperboard. Recycled pulp is most often used to make paperboard, newsprint or sanitary paper.
    • Research is under way to develop biological pulping, similar to chemical pulping but using certain species of fungi that are able to break down the unwanted lignin, but not the cellulose fibres. This could have major environmental benefits in reducing the pollution associated with chemical pulping.
  3. The pulp produced up to this point in the process can be bleached to produce a white paper product. The chemicals used to bleach pulp have been a source of environmental concern, and recently the pulp industry has been using alternatives to chlorine, such as chlorine dioxide, oxygen, ozone and hydrogen peroxide.
  4. The pulp mixture is now sent to the paper machine, where it is shaped and dried.

For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose [1][2]. It forms the primary structural component of green plants. ... Newsprint is low-cost, low-quality, non-archival paper. ... Paperboard, within the commercial papermaking industry, is simply the term used to describe a thick sheet of paper. ... Lignin is a chemical compound that is an integral part of the cell walls of some cells, e. ... The Kraft process is used in production of paper pulp and involves the use of caustic sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide to extract the lignin from the wood fiber in large vats called digesters. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota The fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... Chlorine dioxide is a reddish-yellow gas which is one of several known oxides of chlorine. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... Ozone (O3) is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ...

History

Using wood to make paper is a fairly recent innovation. In the 1800s, fiber crops such as linen fibres were the primary material source, but a shortage led to contemporaries as dime novels or penny dreadfuls. Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are used to make paper, cloth, or rope. ... Linum usitatissimum L. - Flax Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... In the United States in the late 19th century and very early 20th century, a dime novel was a low-priced novel, typically priced at 10 cents (a dime). ... Penny Dreadful can refer to: The 19th century British penny dreadful publications. ...


Environmental impact

The major environmental impacts of wood pulping come from its impact on forest resources and from its waste by-products.


The number of trees consumed depends on the type of paper, whether made by using the groundwood process or the kraft process. It has been estimated that based on a mixture of softwoods and hardwoods 40 feet tall and 6-8 inches in diameter, it would take a rough average of 24 trees to produce a ton of printing and writing paper, using the kraft chemical (freesheet) pulping process. On the assumption that the groundwood process is about twice as efficient in using trees, it takes about 12 trees to make a ton of groundwood and newsprint. [1] However, kraft pulp mill is self-sufficient in bioenergy.


When the paper is bleached with elemental chlorine, byproducts such as chlorinated compounds even such as dioxins and furans are formed, and in high pulping areas such as British Columbia, high concentrations of these contaminates led to the closures of some fisheries in 1992. However, improvements in technology have either eliminated the use of elemental chlorine through Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) or Totally-Chlorine Free (TCF) technology, combined with oxygen delignification. These technologies reduced the amount of chlorinated compounds released into the environment. Elemental Chlorine Free technology utilizes chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in place of chlorine (Cl2). Total chlorine free bleaching utilizes no chlorine in the bleaching process. General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... 3D model of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Structure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) Dioxin is the popular name for the family of halogenated organic compounds, the most common consisting of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area... Chlorine dioxide is a reddish-yellow gas which is one of several known oxides of chlorine. ...


The wastewater effluent can also be a major source of pollution, containing lignins from the trees, high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), along with alcohols, chlorates, heavy metals, and chelating agents. Reducing the environmental impact of this effluent is accomplished by closing the loop and recycling the effluent where possible, as well as employing less damaging agents in the pulping process. The most important way to mitigate the impacts is the biological effluent treatment. BOD - biochemical (biological) oxygen demand is a test used to measure the concentration of biodegradable organic matter present in a sample of water. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Definition The chlorate ion ClO3-. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ... Chelation (from Greek χηλή, chelè, meaning claw) is the process of reversible binding (complexation) of a ligand; the chelant, chelator, chelating agent, sequestering agent, or complexing agent; to a metal ion, forming a metal complex, the chelate. ...


In the Kraft process, the largest volume byproduct from the pulping process is weak black liquor. This liquor contains the pulping chemicals and the lignin from the trees. The lignin is high in heat content, so this weak black liquor (about 15% solids) is concentrated into heavy black liquor (usually 68% to 75% solids) by use of multiple effect evaporation. Multiple effect evaporation is a process in which one pound of steam is used to boil 4.5 to 5.5 pounds of water. The heavy black liquor is burned in a recovery boiler and the chemicals fall to the bottom of the boiler in a semi-liquid state called smelt. The smelt then flows out of the boiler and is dissolved in water or weak wash to form green liquor. The green liquor is then clarified. Quick lime (CaO) is added to the clairified green liquor to convert a majority of the sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The green liquor with the quick lime is then clarified and the resulting liquid is white liquor. The white liquor is used as pulping chemicals and the process begins again. The spent lime (CaCO3) is then calcined at approximately 1800 degrees Fahrenheit (1000 degrees Celsius) to yield quick lime to be used again in the clarified green liquor. The Kraft process is used in production of paper pulp and involves the use of caustic sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide to extract the lignin from the wood fiber in large vats called digesters. ... Pulping refers to the system of destroying unsold books (usually but not always mass market paperbacks). ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... LAURA WAS HERE YESSS hey tash! Sodium Bicarbonate also known as baking soda has many uses: brush your teeth, dryclean your dog, stop odors in the fridge, scrub your tub, bake a cake Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda, is a caustic metallic base. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with chemical formula CaCO3. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale. ...


Paper made from wood pulp can typically be recycled four to seven times before the fibres become too short. To solve this problem recycled paper is usually mixed with virgin wood pulp to ensure a high quality paper.


Alternatives

Today, some people and groups are advocating using field crop fiber or agricultural residues instead of wood fiber as being more sustainable. However, wood is also a renewable resource. Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are used to make paper, cloth, or rope. ... Sustainability is an attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wood pulp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1133 words)
Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper.
Wood pulp generally comes from softwood trees such as spruce, pine, fir, larch and hemlock, but also some hardwoods such as eucalyptus and birch.
The use of wood pulp (and the introduction of steam power to the printing and paper making processes) led to cheaper paper and to the arrival of a new literary genre which we would later coin pulp fiction but were known to their contemporaries as dime novels or penny dreadfuls.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m