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Encyclopedia > Wood carving
Carved wooden cranes
Carved wooden cranes

Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract in nature) or in the ornamentation of a wooden object. The phrase may also refer to the finished product, from individual sculptures, to hand-worked mouldings composing part of a tracery. Photo by Quadell. ... Photo by Quadell. ... Look up Decoration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... Tracery is implementation of net-like decorations in a building used especially in Gothic architecture. ...


==History==

Wood carvings at Mombasa Beach in Kenya.
Wood carvings at Mombasa Beach in Kenya.
Wood carvings in Mombasa, Kenya.
Wood carvings in Mombasa, Kenya.

Some of the finest extant examples of early wood carving are from the Middle Ages in Italy and France, where the typical themes of that era were Christian iconography. In England many complete examples remain from the 16th and 17th century, where oak was the preferred medium. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 277 KB)Wood Carvings at Mombasa Beach in Kenya. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 277 KB)Wood Carvings at Mombasa Beach in Kenya. ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 310 KB)Wood Carvings in Mombasa, Kenya. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 310 KB)Wood Carvings in Mombasa, Kenya. ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. ... This article is about the history of wood carving. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ...


From the remotest ages the decoration of wood has been a foremost art. The tendency of human nature has always been to ornament every article in use. Just as a child of today instinctively cuts patterns on the bark of his switch freshly taken from the hedgerow, humanity has from the earliest times cut designs on every wooden article fit for carving. The North American native carves his wooden fish-hook or his pipe stem just as the Polynesian works patterns on his paddle. The native of Guyana decorates his cavassa grater with a well-conceived scheme of incised scrolls, while a Loango Bay native might re-envision his spoon with figures standing up in full relief carrying a hammock. For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... Polynesian is an adjectival form which refers variously to: Polynesian pie Polynesian sauce, a food condiment available at Chick-fil-A the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia, and their: Polynesian culture Polynesian mythology Polynesian languages Category: ...

Wood carving of a hobo by Carl Johan Trygg
Wood carving of a hobo by Carl Johan Trygg

Figural carving seems to have been widespread. The carving to represent one's god in a tangible form finds expression in numberless ways. The early carver, and, for that matter, the native of the present day, has found a difficulty in giving expression to the eye, and at times has evaded it by inlaying this feature with colored material. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 202 KB) Summary Wood carving of a hobo by Carl Johan Trygg circa 1940s Photographer: L. B. Ehrler Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 202 KB) Summary Wood carving of a hobo by Carl Johan Trygg circa 1940s Photographer: L. B. Ehrler Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Johan Trygg, formally Carl Johan Thrygg, also knowns as C. J. Trygg, woodcarver, (1887 – 1954) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century woodcarving, most famous for Scandinavian flat-plane style of woodcarving. ...

Contents

Methods and styles of wood carving

Chip carving is a form of wood carving. ... // Methodology The process for relief carving is usually as follows. ... Methodology Flat Plane wood carving is a style of figure carving. ... Woodcarving of a caricature head by L. B. Ehrler A caricature carving is a humorous wood carving that exaggerates or distorts the basic essence of a person or thing to create an easily identifiable visual likeness. ... According to Welsh folklore, a love spoon is an ornately carved spoon traditionally made from a single piece of wood by young men as a love token for their sweethearts, to show their affection and intentions for their loved one. ... Treen is a generic name for small handmade functional household objects made of wood. ... Look up Whittle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Techniques of carving

Tools

Basic tool set

  • the carving knife: a specialized knife used to pare, cut, and smooth wood.
  • the gouge: a tool with a curved cutting edge used in a variety of forms and sizes for carving hollows, rounds and sweeping curves.
  • the chisel, large and small, whose straight cutting edge is used for lines and cleaning up flat surfaces.
  • the V-tool used for parting, and in certain classes of flat work for emphasizing lines.
  • the veiner: a specialized deep gouge with a U shaped cutting edge.

A special screw for fixing work to the workbench, and a mallet, complete the carvers kit, though other tools, both specialized and adapted, are often used, such as a router for bringing grounds to a uniform level, bent gouges and bent chisels for cutting hollows too deep for the ordinary tool. Gouge refers to one of several types of cutting tools, in addition to its meaning as a verb (the action of cutting or scooping with or as with a gouge) and its slang meaning (to cheat, defraud, swindle or extort) and, rarely, as a noun meaning a swindler (gouger). ... Steel woodworking chisel. ... Gouge refers to one of several types of cutting tools, in addition to its meaning as a verb (the action of cutting or scooping with or as with a gouge) and its slang meaning (to cheat, defraud, swindle or extort) and, rarely, as a noun meaning a swindler (gouger). ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga and AmigaOne personal computers. ... Look up Mallet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A D-handle fixed-base router A router is a woodworking tool used to rout out (hollow out) an area in the face of a piece of wood. ... Gouge refers to one of several types of cutting tools, in addition to its meaning as a verb (the action of cutting or scooping with or as with a gouge) and its slang meaning (to cheat, defraud, swindle or extort) and, rarely, as a noun meaning a swindler (gouger). ... Steel woodworking chisel. ...


Tool terminology

  • Gouge — Carving tool with a curved cutting edge. The most used category of carving tools.
  • Sweep — The curvature of the cutting edge of a carving gouge. A lower number (like #3) indicates a shallow, flat sweep while a high number (like #9) is used for a deeply curved gouge.
  • Veiner — A deep gouge with a U shaped cutting edge. Usually #11 sweep.
  • Chisel — A carving tool with a straight cutting edge (usually termed #1 sweep) at right angles (or square to) the sides of the blade.
  • Skew Chisel — A chisel with the edge at a "skew" or angle relative the sides of the blade. Often termed #2 sweep.
Carving of a duck by a Florida artist
Carving of a duck by a Florida artist
  • V-Tool or Parting Tool — A carving tool with a V shaped cutting edge. Used for outlining and decorative cuts.
  • Long Bent — A gouge, chisel or V tool where the blade is curved along its entire length. Handy for deep work.
  • Short Bent or Spoon — A gouge, chisel or V tool where the blade is straight with a curve at the end, like a spoon. Use for work in deep or inaccessible areas.
  • Fishtail — A gouge or chisel with a straight, narrow shank that flares out at the end to form a "fishtail" shaped tool. The narrow shaft of the tool allows for clearance in tight areas.
  • Back Bent — A spoon gouge with a reverse bent end. Used for undercuts and reeding work.
  • Palm Tools — Short (5"), stubby tools used with one hand while the work is held in the other. Great for detail and small carving.
  • Full-size Tools — 10" to 11" tools used with two hands.
  • Tang — The tapered part of the blade that is driven into the handle.
  • Bolster — A flared section of the blade near the tang that keeps the blade from being driven further into the handle.
  • Ferrule — A metal collar on the handle that keeps the wood from splitting when the tool is used with a mallet. Some tools have an external, visible ferrule while others have an internal ferrule.
  • Rockwell Hardness — A scale that indicates the hardness of steel. A Rockwell range of 58 to 61 is considered optimum for fine woodworking edge tools.

Gouge refers to one of several types of cutting tools, in addition to its meaning as a verb (the action of cutting or scooping with or as with a gouge) and its slang meaning (to cheat, defraud, swindle or extort) and, rarely, as a noun meaning a swindler (gouger). ... Gouge refers to one of several types of cutting tools, in addition to its meaning as a verb (the action of cutting or scooping with or as with a gouge) and its slang meaning (to cheat, defraud, swindle or extort) and, rarely, as a noun meaning a swindler (gouger). ... Steel woodworking chisel. ... In telecommunication, the term skew has the following meanings: 1. ... Steel woodworking chisel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 626 KB) Photo created by Mary-Irene Lang I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 626 KB) Photo created by Mary-Irene Lang I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Look up Bend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A spoon. ... The tang of a sword or fixed-blade knife is that part of the blade extending into and usually through the grip that is fastened to it. ... This article is about the pillow called a bolster. ... A ferrule (possibly the Latin diminutive of ferrum iron) is a name for types of metal objects. ... The Rockwell scale characterizes the indentation hardness of materials through the depth of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material sample and compared to the penetration in some reference material. ...

Selecting a wood

The nature of the wood being carved limits the scope of the carver in that wood is not equally strong in all directions: it is an anisotropic material. The direction is which wood is strongest is called "grain" (grain may be straight, interlocked, wavy or fiddleback, &c.). It is wise to arrange the more delicate parts of a design along the grain instead of across it, and the more slender stalks or leaf-points should not be too much separated from their adjacent surroundings. The failure to appreciate these primary rules may constantly be seen in damaged work, when it will be noticed that, whereas tendrils, tips of birds beaks, &c., arranged across the grain have been broken away, similar details designed more in harmony with the growth of the wood and not too deeply undercut remain intact. Probably the two most common woods used for carving are Basswood(aka Tilia or Lime) and Tupelo, both are hardwoods that are relatively easy to work with. Oak is a lovely wood for carving, on account of its durability and toughness without being too hard. Chestnut (very like oak), American walnut, mahogany and teak are also very good woods; while for fine work Italian walnut, sycamore maple, apple, pear or plum, are generally chosen. Decoration that is to be painted and of not too delicate a nature is as a rule carved in pine. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Basswood is the common name of timbers of Tilia species. ... For the city, see Tupelo, Mississippi. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut (Castanea), including... “Walnut Tree” redirects here. ... An example of Mahogany The name mahogany is used when referring to numerous varieties of dark-colored wood, originally the wood of the species Swietenia mahagoni, known as West Indian or Cuban Mahogany. ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Borkh. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species See text. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ...


Carving

The actual carving should be done with the grain, not against the grain!


See also

Wood carvings can take on many forms, whether it be an animal for decoration or a chair to sit on. The primary function of wood carvings are to add extra flair to a room or recreational area, and also for more practical purposes like tables, chair, dressers, etc.


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • This article contains text from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration website which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Image File history File links Nara_seal. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Grinling Gibbons, celebrated wood carver for St. Paul's Cathedral, London.
  • Will Kats, MT artist specializing in wood carvings that accent the history and wildlife of the Rocky Mountain west.
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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Wood-Carving (3594 words)
Objects carved from wood were frequently used for religious purposes in antiquity, especially by the Egyptians; the early statues of the gods were of wood.
Such carving in low-relief, as shown on the only well-preserved chest of this era in the cathedral at Terracina in Italy, was common throughout the entire early medieval period.
Excellent carvings of this period in the Netherlands are the choir-stalls of the Great Church at Dordrecht which picture the entry of Charles V into the city.
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COMMENTARY     

ايهاب الهواري
18th May 2010
انا نحات من مصر وابحث عن فرصه لكي اشترك في المعارض الخارجيه وانا بنحت الاخشاب بالونها الطبيعيه ومتميز جدا في عملي
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