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Encyclopedia > Wood
Sections of tree trunk
Sections of tree trunk
A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands

Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. Wood from the latter is only produced in small sizes, reducing the diversity of uses. Wood may refer to: Wood, a natural material is produced by the growth of plants, mainly trees and shrubs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Drva. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Drva. ... Download high resolution version (904x606, 103 KB)tree trunk as seen on the Veluwe, The Netherlands Author: me, Paul Vlaar Date: 2001-04-01 Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (904x606, 103 KB)tree trunk as seen on the Veluwe, The Netherlands Author: me, Paul Vlaar Date: 2001-04-01 Source: http://www. ... A forest on the Veluwe The Veluwe is a forest-rich ridge of hills in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... A woody plant is a vascular plant that has a stem (or more than one stem) that is lignified to a high degree. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ...


In its most common meaning, "wood" is the secondary xylem of a woody plant, but this is an approximation only: in the wider sense, wood may refer to other materials and tissues with comparable properties. In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in plants, phloem being the other one. ...


Wood is a heterogeneous, hygroscopic, cellular and anisotropic material. Wood is composed of fibers of cellulose (40%–50%) and hemicellulose (15%–25%) held together by lignin (15%–30%).[1] Look up Heterogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A hygroscopic substance is a substance that absorbs water readily from its surroundings. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... A hemicellulose can be any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides) present in almost all cell walls along with cellulose. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ...

Artists can use wood to create delicate sculptures.
Artists can use wood to create delicate sculptures.
Wood can be cut into straight planks and made into a hardwood floor (parquetry).
Wood can be cut into straight planks and made into a hardwood floor (parquetry).

Wood has been used for millennia for many purposes. One of its primary uses is as fuel. It is also used as for making artworks, furniture, tools, and weapons, and as a construction material. Photo by Quadell. ... Photo by Quadell. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... A hardwood floor (parquetry) is a popular feature in many houses. ... Parquet redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Wood has been an important construction material since humans began building shelters, houses, boats. Nearly all boats were made out of wood till the late 1800s. It remains in common use today for some boats and houses. In buildings made of other materials, wood will still be found as a supporting material, especially in roof construction and exterior decoration. Wood to be used for construction work is commonly known as lumber in North America. Elsewhere, lumber will usually refer to felled trees, and the word for sawn planks ready for use will be timber. hardwood and softwood are two types of trees This article does not cite any references or sources. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


Wood unsuitable for construction in its native form may be broken down mechanically (into fibres or chips) or chemically (into cellulose) and used as a raw material for other building materials such as chipboard, engineered wood, hardboard, medium-density fibreboard (MDF), oriented strand board (OSB). Such wood derivatives are widely used: wood fibres are an important component of most paper, and cellulose is used as a component of some synthetic materials. Wood derivatives can also be used for kinds of flooring, for example laminate flooring. Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Particle board is a material manufactured from wood particles (e. ... Engineered wood, also called composite wood, includes a range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding together the strands, particles, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials. ... A type of manufactured sheet material akin to particle board, but much harder and denser because it is made out of exploded wood fibers. ... Medium-density fiberboard output in 2005 Medium-density fiberboard (MDF or MDFB) is an engineered wood product formed by breaking down softwood into wood fibers, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and resin, and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. ... OSB-production before the press Oriented strand board, or OSB, is an engineered wood product formed by layering strands (flakes) of wood in specific orientations. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... Pergo flooring project Laminate flooring is a laminate flooring material made to look like natural products such as wood flooring or natural stone, yet are made up of either synthetic materials (usually melamine resin) or of synthetic materials combined with natural and recycled ingredients and covered with an attached decorative...


Wood is also used for cutlery, such as chopsticks, toothpicks, and other utensils, like the wooden spoon. For other uses, see Chopsticks (disambiguation). ... A toothpick is a piece of wood or other substance such as plastic used to remove food from the teeth after a meal. ... A wooden spoon is a spoon, usually used in food preparation, that is made of wood. ...

Contents

Formation

A tree increases in diameter by the formation, between the old wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, and roots. Where there are clear seasons, this can happen in a discrete pattern, leading to what is known as growth rings, as can be seen on the end of a log. If these seasons are annual these growth rings are annual rings. Where there is no seasonal difference growth rings are likely to be indistinct or absent. DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... The growth rings of an unknown tree species, at Bristol Zoo, England Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. ...


Within a growth ring it may be possible to see two parts. The part nearest the center of the tree is more open textured and almost invariably lighter in color than that near the outer portion of the ring. The inner portion is formed early in the season, when growth is comparatively rapid; it is known as early wood or spring wood. The outer portion is the late wood or summer wood, being produced in the summer.[2] In white pines there is not much contrast in the different parts of the ring, and as a result the wood is very uniform in texture and is easy to work. In hard pines, on the other hand, the late wood is very dense and is deep-colored, presenting a very decided contrast to the soft, straw-colored early wood. In ring-porous woods each season's growth is always well defined, because the large pores of the spring abut on the denser tissue of the fall before. In the diffuse-porous woods, the demarcation between rings is not always so clear and in some cases is almost (if not entirely) invisible to the unaided eye. Look up texture in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... There are three main subgenera of Pinus, the subgenus Strobus (White pines or soft pines), the subgenus Ducampopinus (Pinyon, Bristlecone and Lacebark pines), and the subgenus Pinus (Typical pines, or yellow or hard pines). ... Look up texture in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are three main subgenera of Pinus, the subgenus Strobus (White pines or soft pines), the subgenus Ducampopinus (Pinyon, Bristlecone and Lacebark pines), and the subgenus Pinus (Typical pines, or yellow or hard pines). ...


Knots

A knot on a tree at the Garden of the Gods public park in Colorado Springs, Colorado (October 2006).
A knot on a tree at the Garden of the Gods public park in Colorado Springs, Colorado (October 2006).

A knot is a particular type of imperfection in a piece of timber, which reduces its strength, but which may be exploited for artistic effect. In a longitudinally-sawn plank, a knot will appear as a roughly circular "solid" (usually darker) piece of wood around which the roughly parallel fibres (grain) of the rest of the "flows" (parts and rejoins). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 784 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1528 × 1168 pixel, file size: 550 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken of a tree knot at the Garden of the Gods public park in Colorado Springs, Colorado (October 2006). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 784 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1528 × 1168 pixel, file size: 550 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken of a tree knot at the Garden of the Gods public park in Colorado Springs, Colorado (October 2006). ... A view of Garden of the Gods showing some of its unusual hogback formations. ... Colorado Springs is a middle-sized city, located just east of the geographic center of the state of Colorado in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Wood grain describes the alignment, texture and appearance of the wood fibres. ...


A knot is actually a portion of a side branch (or a dormant bud) included in the wood of the stem or larger branch. The included portion is irregularly conical in shape (hence the roughly circular cross-section) with the tip at the point in stem diameter at which the plant's cambium was located when the branch formed as a bud. Within a knot, the fibre direction (grain) is up to 90 degrees different from the fibres of the stem, thus producing local cross grain. Vascular cambium is a tissue found in the stems of perennial dicots. ... Wood grain describes the alignment, texture and appearance of the wood fibres. ...


During the development of a tree, the lower limbs often die, but may persist for a time, sometimes years. Subsequent layers of growth of the attaching stem are no longer intimately joined with the dead limb, but are grown around it. Hence, dead branches produce knots which are not attached, and likely to drop out after the tree has been sawn into boards.


In grading lumber and structural timber, knots are classified according to their form, size, soundness, and the firmness with which they are held in place. This firmness is affected by, among other factors, the length of time for which the branch was dead while the attaching stem continued to grow. Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


Knots materially affect cracking (known in the industry as checking) and warping, ease in working, and cleavability of timber. They are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for structural purposes where strength is an important consideration. The weakening effect is much more serious when timber is subjected to forces perpendicular to the grain and/or tension than where under load along the grain and/or compression. The extent to which knots affect the strength of a beam depends upon their position, size, number, direction of fibre, and condition. A knot on the upper side is compressed, while one on the lower side is subjected to tension. If there is a season check in the knot, as is often the case, it will offer little resistance to this tensile stress. Small knots, however, may be located along the neutral plane of a beam and increase the strength by preventing longitudinal shearing. Knots in a board or plank are least injurious when they extend through it at right angles to its broadest surface. Knots which occur near the ends of a beam do not weaken it. Sound knots which occur in the central portion one-fourth the height of the beam from either edge are not serious defects. Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ... A statically determinate beam, bending under an evenly distributed load. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... Shear stress is a stress state where the stress is parallel or tangential to a face of the material, as opposed to normal stress when the stress is perpendicular to the face. ...


Knots do not necessarily influence the stiffness of structural timber. Only defects of the most serious character affect the elastic limit of beams. Stiffness and elastic strength are more dependent upon the quality of the wood fibre than upon defects in the beam. The effect of knots is to reduce the difference between the fibre stress at elastic limit and the modulus of rupture of beams. The breaking strength is very susceptible to defects. Sound knots do not weaken wood when subject to compression parallel to the grain. In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Wood grain describes the alignment, texture and appearance of the wood fibres. ...


For purposes for which appearance is more important than strength, such as wall panelling, knots are considered a benefit, as they add visual texture to the wood, giving it a more interesting appearance.


The traditional style of playing the Basque xylophon txalaparta involves hitting the right knots to obtain different tones. The txalaparta is a specialized Basque device of wood or stone. ...


Heartwood and sapwood

A section of a Yew branch showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood, and pith (centre dark spot). The dark radial lines are small knots.
A section of a Yew branch showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood, and pith (centre dark spot). The dark radial lines are small knots.

Heartwood is wood that has died and become resistant to decay as a result of genetically programmed processes. It appears in a cross-section as a discolored circle, following annual rings in shape. Heartwood is usually much darker than still living wood, and forms with age. Many woody plants do not form heartwood, but other processes, such as decay, can discolor wood in similar ways, leading to confusion. Some uncertainty still exists as to whether heartwood is truly dead, as it can still chemically react to decay organisms, but only once (Shigo 1986, 54). Yew wood showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood, and pith (centre dark spot). ... Yew wood showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood, and pith (centre dark spot). ... Species Taxus baccata - European Yew Taxus brevifolia - Pacific (or Western) Yew Taxus canadensis - Canadian Yew Taxus chinensis - Chinese Yew Taxus cuspidata - Japanese Yew Taxus floridana - Florida Yew Taxus globosa - Mexican Yew Taxus sumatrana - Sumatran Yew Taxus wallichiana - Himalayan Yew Taxus is a genus of yews, small coniferous trees or shrubs... The centre dark spot (about 1 mm diameter) in this yew wood is the pith Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). ...


Sapwood is living wood in the growing tree. All wood in a tree is first formed as sapwood. Its principal functions are to conduct water from the roots to the leaves and to store up and give back according to the season the food prepared in the leaves. The more leaves a tree bears and the more vigorous its growth, the larger the volume of sapwood required. Hence trees making rapid growth in the open have thicker sapwood for their size than trees of the same species growing in dense forests. Sometimes trees grown in the open may become of considerable size, 30 cm or more in diameter, before any heartwood begins to form, for example, in second-growth hickory, or open-grown pines. For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ...


As a tree increases in age and diameter an inner portion of the sapwood becomes inactive and finally ceases to function, as the cells die. This inert or dead portion is called heartwood. Its name derives solely from its position and not from any vital importance to the tree. This is shown by the fact that a tree can thrive with its heart completely decayed. Some species begin to form heartwood very early in life, so having only a thin layer of live sapwood, while in others the change comes slowly. Thin sapwood is characteristic of such trees as chestnut, black locust, mulberry, osage-orange, and sassafras, while in maple, ash, hickory, hackberry, beech, and pine, thick sapwood is the rule. Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut is a... Binomial name Robinia pseudoacacia L. Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. ... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Maclura pomifera (Raf. ... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... Species About 60-70 species including: Celtis australis - European Hackberry Celtis bungeana Bunges Hackberry Celtis caucasica - Caucasian Hackberry Celtis labilis - Hubei Hackberry Celtis koraiensis - Korean Hackberry Celtis jessoensis - Japanese Hackberry Celtis laevigata - Southern Hackberry Celtis occidentalis - Common hackberry Celtis reticulata - Netleaf hackberry Celtis sinensis - Chinese Hackberry Celtis tenuifolia - Georgia... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ...


There is no definite relation between the annual rings of growth and the amount of sapwood. Within the same species the cross-sectional area of the sapwood is very roughly proportional to the size of the crown of the tree. If the rings are narrow, more of them are required than where they are wide. As the tree gets larger, the sapwood must necessarily become thinner or increase materially in volume. Sapwood is thicker in the upper portion of the trunk of a tree than near the base, because the age and the diameter of the upper sections are less.


When a tree is very young it is covered with limbs almost, if not entirely, to the ground, but as it grows older some or all of them will eventually die and are either broken off or fall off. Subsequent growth of wood may completely conceal the stubs which will however remain as knots. No matter how smooth and clear a log is on the outside, it is more or less knotty near the middle. Consequently the sapwood of an old tree, and particularly of a forest-grown tree, will be freer from knots than the heartwood. Since in most uses of wood, knots are defects that weaken the timber and interfere with its ease of working and other properties, it follows that sapwood, because of its position in the tree, may have certain advantages over heartwood.


It is remarkable that the inner heartwood of old trees remains as sound as it usually does, since in many cases it is hundreds of years, and in a few instances thousands of years, old. Every broken limb or root, or deep wound from fire, insects, or falling timber, may afford an entrance for decay, which, once started, may penetrate to all parts of the trunk. The larvae of many insects bore into the trees and their tunnels remain indefinitely as sources of weakness. Whatever advantages, however, that sapwood may have in this connection are due solely to its relative age and position.


If a tree grows all its life in the open and the conditions of soil and site remain unchanged, it will make its most rapid growth in youth, and gradually decline. The annual rings of growth are for many years quite wide, but later they become narrower and narrower. Since each succeeding ring is laid down on the outside of the wood previously formed, it follows that unless a tree materially increases its production of wood from year to year, the rings must necessarily become thinner as the trunk gets wider. As a tree reaches maturity its crown becomes more open and the annual wood production is lessened, thereby reducing still more the width of the growth rings. In the case of forest-grown trees so much depends upon the competition of the trees in their struggle for light and nourishment that periods of rapid and slow growth may alternate. Some trees, such as southern oaks, maintain the same width of ring for hundreds of years. Upon the whole, however, as a tree gets larger in diameter the width of the growth rings decreases. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ...


There may be decided differences in the grain of heartwood and sapwood cut from a large tree, particularly one that is mature. In some trees, the wood laid on late in the life of a tree is softer, lighter, weaker, and more even-textured than that produced earlier, but in other species, the reverse applies. In a large log the sapwood, because of the time in the life of the tree when it was grown, may be inferior in hardness, strength, and toughness to equally sound heartwood from the same log. Wood grain describes the alignment, texture and appearance of the wood fibres. ... Look up hardness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Strength of materials is materials science applied to the study of engineering materials and their mechanical behavior in general (such as stress, deformation, strain and stress-strain relations). ...


Different woods

There is a strong relationship between the properties of wood and the properties of the particular tree that yielded it. For every tree species there is a range of density for the wood it yields. There is a rough correlation between density of a wood and its strength (mechanical properties). For example, while mahogany is a medium-dense hardwood which is excellent for fine furniture crafting, balsa is light, making it useful for model building. The densest wood may be black ironwood. This article is about the timber. ... Binomial name Ochroma lagopus Sw. ... Part of the one-tenth scale model of Bourton-on-the-Water at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England A scale model of the Singapore City Centre. ... Binomial name Olea laurifolia Lam. ...


Wood is commonly classified as either softwood or hardwood. The wood from conifers (e.g. pine) is called softwood, and the wood from broad-leaved trees (e.g. oak) is called hardwood. These names are a bit misleading, as hardwoods are not necessarily hard, and softwoods are not necessarily soft. The well-known balsa (a hardwood) is actually softer than any commercial softwood. Conversely, some softwoods (e.g. yew) are harder than most hardwoods. Despite being fairly hard, cedar is a softwood Softwood is the wood from conifers. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Binomial name Ochroma lagopus Sw. ... Binomial name L. Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. ...


Wood products such as plywood are typically classified as engineered wood and not considered raw wood. Toy constructed from plywood. ... Engineered wood, also called composite wood, includes a range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding together the strands, particles, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials. ...


Colour

In species which show a distinct difference between heartwood and sapwood the natural color of heartwood is usually darker than that of the sapwood, and very frequently the contrast is conspicuous. This is produced by deposits in the heartwood of various materials resulting from the process of growth, increased possibly by oxidation and other chemical changes, which usually have little or no appreciable effect on the mechanical properties of the wood. Some experiments on very resinous Longleaf Pine specimens, however, indicate an increase in strength. This is due to the resin which increases the strength when dry. Such resin-saturated heartwood is called "fat lighter". Structures built of fat lighter are almost impervious to rot and termites; however they are very flammable. Stumps of old longleaf pines are often dug, split into small pieces and sold as kindling for fires. Stumps thus dug may actually remain a century or more since being cut. Spruce impregnated with crude resin and dried is also greatly increased in strength thereby. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species About 35; see text. ...

The wood of Coast Redwood is distinctively red in colour
The wood of Coast Redwood is distinctively red in colour

Since the late wood of a growth ring is usually darker in color than the early wood, this fact may be used in judging the density, and therefore the hardness and strength of the material. This is particularly the case with coniferous woods. In ring-porous woods the vessels of the early wood not infrequently appear on a finished surface as darker than the denser late wood, though on cross sections of heartwood the reverse is commonly true. Except in the manner just stated the color of wood is no indication of strength. Coast Redwood wood - photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coast Redwood wood - photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. ...


Abnormal discoloration of wood often denotes a diseased condition, indicating unsoundness. The black check in western hemlock is the result of insect attacks. The reddish-brown streaks so common in hickory and certain other woods are mostly the result of injury by birds. The discoloration is merely an indication of an injury, and in all probability does not of itself affect the properties of the wood. Certain rot-producing fungi impart to wood characteristic colors which thus become symptomatic of weakness; however an attractive effect known as spalting produced by this process is often considered a desirable characteristic. Ordinary sap-staining is due to fungous growth, but does not necessarily produce a weakening effect. Species Eastern Hemlock Carolina Hemlock Taiwan Hemlock Northern Japanese Hemlock Himalayan Hemlock Forrests Hemlock Western Hemlock Mountain Hemlock Southern Japanese Hemlock Tsuga is a genus of conifers in the family Pinaceae. ... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... A wood-decay fungus is a variety of fungus which has the ability to digest wood, causing it to rot. ...


Structure

In coniferous or softwood species the wood cells are mostly of one kind, tracheids, and as a result the material is much more uniform in structure than that of most hardwoods. There are no vessels ("pores") in coniferous wood such as one sees so prominently in oak and ash, for example. Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Despite being fairly hard, cedar is a softwood Softwood is the wood from conifers. ... Tracheids are elongated cells in the xylem of vascular plants, serving in the transport of water. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but...

Magnified cross-section of a diffuse-porous hardwood wood (Black Walnut), showing the vessels, rays (white lines) and annual rings
Magnified cross-section of a diffuse-porous hardwood wood (Black Walnut), showing the vessels, rays (white lines) and annual rings

The structure of the hardwoods is more complex.[3] They are more or less filled with vessels: in some cases (oak, chestnut, ash) quite large and distinct, in others (buckeye, poplar, willow) too small to be seen plainly without a small hand lens. In discussing such woods it is customary to divide them into two large classes, ring-porous and diffuse-porous. In ring-porous species, such as ash, black locust, catalpa, chestnut, elm, hickory, mulberry, and oak, the larger vessels or pores (as cross sections of vessels are called) are localized in the part of the growth ring formed in spring, thus forming a region of more or less open and porous tissue. The rest of the ring, produced in summer, is made up of smaller vessels and a much greater proportion of wood fibres. These fibres are the elements which give strength and toughness to wood, while the vessels are a source of weakness. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 70 KB) Summary This is a cross section from a black walnut coffin board over 140 years old. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 70 KB) Summary This is a cross section from a black walnut coffin board over 140 years old. ... Binomial name L. The Black Walnut or American Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a native of eastern North America, where it grows, mostly alongside rivers, from southern Ontario, Canada west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida and southwest to central Texas. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut is a... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... Buckeye may refer to: The name used for several species of trees of the genus Aesculus, or the related Mexican Buckeye (genus Ungnadia). ... This article is about woody plants of the genus Populus. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... Binomial name Robinia pseudoacacia L. Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. ... Species 11 species, including: Catalpa bignonioides Catalpa bungei Catalpa fargesii Catalpa longissima Catalpa ovata Catalpa punctata Catalpa speciosa Catalpa tibetica Catalpa (Catalpa), also spelled Catawba, is a genus of mostly deciduous trees in the flowering plant family Bignoniaceae, native to warm temperate regions of North America, the West Indies, and... Species Castanea alnifolia - Bush Chinkapin* Castanea crenata - Japanese Chestnut Castanea dentata - American Chestnut Castanea henryi - Henrys Chestnut Castanea mollissima - Chinese Chestnut Castanea ozarkensis - Ozark Chinkapin Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinkapin Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut Castanea seguinii - Seguins Chestnut * treated as a synonym of by many authors Chestnut is a... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ...


In diffuse-porous woods the pores are scattered throughout the growth ring instead of being collected in a band or row. Examples of this kind of wood are basswood, birch, buckeye, maple, poplar, and willow. Some species, such as walnut and cherry, are on the border between the two classes, forming an intermediate group. Basswood is the common name of timbers of Tilia species. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Buckeye may refer to: The name used for several species of trees of the genus Aesculus, or the related Mexican Buckeye (genus Ungnadia). ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... This article is about woody plants of the genus Populus. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ...

Black locust end grain, showing the ring-porous structure.
Black locust end grain, showing the ring-porous structure.

If a heavy piece of pine is compared with a light specimen it will be seen at once that the heavier one contains a larger proportion of late wood than the other, and is therefore considerably darker. The late wood of all species is denser than that formed early in the season, hence the greater the proportion of late wood the greater the density and strength. When examined under a microscope the cells of the late wood are seen to be very thick-walled and with very small cavities, while those formed first in the season have thin walls and large cavities. The strength is in the walls, not the cavities. In choosing a piece of pine where strength or stiffness is the important consideration, the principal thing to observe is the comparative amounts of early and late wood. The width of ring is not nearly so important as the proportion of the late wood in the ring. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 597 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 764 pixel, file size: 268 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cropped from Image:Black_locust_end_grain_2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 597 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 764 pixel, file size: 268 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cropped from Image:Black_locust_end_grain_2. ... Binomial name Robinia pseudoacacia L. Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. ...


It is not only the proportion of late wood, but also its quality, that counts. In specimens that show a very large proportion of late wood it may be noticeably more porous and weigh considerably less than the late wood in pieces that contain but little. One can judge comparative density, and therefore to some extent weight and strength, by visual inspection.

The twisty branch of a Lilac tree
The twisty branch of a Lilac tree

No satisfactory explanation can as yet be given for the real causes underlying the formation of early and late wood. Several factors may be involved. In conifers, at least, rate of growth alone does not determine the proportion of the two portions of the ring, for in some cases the wood of slow growth is very hard and heavy, while in others the opposite is true. The quality of the site where the tree grows undoubtedly affects the character of the wood formed, though it is not possible to formulate a rule governing it. In general, however, it may be said that where strength or ease of working is essential, woods of moderate to slow growth should be chosen. But in choosing a particular specimen it is not the width of ring, but the proportion and character of the late wood which should govern. File links The following pages link to this file: Wood Branch Image:LightningVolt Twisting Branch Lilac tree. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Wood Branch Image:LightningVolt Twisting Branch Lilac tree. ... Look up lilac in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the case of the ring-porous hardwoods there seems to exist a pretty definite relation between the rate of growth of timber and its properties. This may be briefly summed up in the general statement that the more rapid the growth or the wider the rings of growth, the heavier, harder, stronger, and stiffer the wood. This, it must be remembered, applies only to ring-porous woods such as oak, ash, hickory, and others of the same group, and is, of course, subject to some exceptions and limitations.


In ring-porous woods of good growth it is usually the middle portion of the ring in which the thick-walled, strength-giving fibres are most abundant. As the breadth of ring diminishes, this middle portion is reduced so that very slow growth produces comparatively light, porous wood composed of thin-walled vessels and wood parenchyma. In good oak these large vessels of the early wood occupy from 6 to 10 per cent of the volume of the log, while in inferior material they may make up 25 per cent or more. The late wood of good oak, except for radial grayish patches of small pores, is dark colored and firm, and consists of thick-walled fibres which form one-half or more of the wood. In inferior oak, such fibre areas are much reduced both in quantity and quality. Such variation is very largely the result of rate of growth. Look up radial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Wide-ringed wood is often called "second-growth", because the growth of the young timber in open stands after the old trees have been removed is more rapid than in trees in the forest, and in the manufacture of articles where strength is an important consideration such "second-growth" hardwood material is preferred. This is particularly the case in the choice of hickory for handles and spokes. Here not only strength, but toughness and resilience are important. The results of a series of tests on hickory by the U.S. Forest Service show that: This article is about a community of trees. ... A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ...

"The work or shock-resisting ability is greatest in wide-ringed wood that has from 5 to 14 rings per inch (rings 1.8-5 mm thick), is fairly constant from 14 to 38 rings per inch (rings 0.7-1.8 mm thick), and decreases rapidly from 38 to 47 rings per inch (rings 0.5-0.7 mm thick). The strength at maximum load is not so great with the most rapid-growing wood; it is maximum with from 14 to 20 rings per inch (rings 1.3-1.8 mm thick), and again becomes less as the wood becomes more closely ringed. The natural deduction is that wood of first-class mechanical value shows from 5 to 20 rings per inch (rings 1.3-5 mm thick) and that slower growth yields poorer stock. Thus the inspector or buyer of hickory should discriminate against timber that has more than 20 rings per inch (rings less than 1.3 mm thick). Exceptions exist, however, in the case of normal growth upon dry situations, in which the slow-growing material may be strong and tough."[4]

The effect of rate of growth on the qualities of chestnut wood is summarized by the same authority as follows: An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...

"When the rings are wide, the transition from spring wood to summer wood is gradual, while in the narrow rings the spring wood passes into summer wood abruptly. The width of the spring wood changes but little with the width of the annual ring, so that the narrowing or broadening of the annual ring is always at the expense of the summer wood. The narrow vessels of the summer wood make it richer in wood substance than the spring wood composed of wide vessels. Therefore, rapid-growing specimens with wide rings have more wood substance than slow-growing trees with narrow rings. Since the more the wood substance the greater the weight, and the greater the weight the stronger the wood, chestnuts with wide rings must have stronger wood than chestnuts with narrow rings. This agrees with the accepted view that sprouts (which always have wide rings) yield better and stronger wood than seedling chestnuts, which grow more slowly in diameter."[4]

In diffuse-porous woods, as has been stated, the vessels or pores are scattered throughout the ring instead of collected in the early wood. The effect of rate of growth is, therefore, not the same as in the ring-porous woods, approaching more nearly the conditions in the conifers. In general it may be stated that such woods of medium growth afford stronger material than when very rapidly or very slowly grown. In many uses of wood, strength is not the main consideration. If ease of working is prized, wood should be chosen with regard to its uniformity of texture and straightness of grain, which will in most cases occur when there is little contrast between the late wood of one season's growth and the early wood of the next. Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Wood grain describes the alignment, texture and appearance of the wood fibres. ...


Monocot wood

Structural tissue resembling ordinary 'dicot' wood is produced by a number of monocot plants, and these are also usually called wood. Of these, the wood of the grass bamboo has considerable economic importance, larger culms being used in the manufacture of engineered flooring, panels and veneer. Other plant groups that produce woody tissue are palms, and members of the Liliales, such as Dracaena and Cordyline. With all these woods, the structure and composition of the structural tissue is quite different from ordinary wood. Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... A veneer is a thin covering over something. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid. ... Families Alstroemeriaceae Campynemataceae Colchicaceae Corsiaceae Liliaceae Luzuriagaceae Melanthiaceae Philesiaceae Ripogonaceae Smilacaceae Liliales is an order of monocotyledonous flowering plants. ... Dracaena has two different meanings: Dracaena, a genus of plants Dracaena, a genus of lizard This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Cordyline is a genus of woody plants in the family Agavaceae. ...


Water content

Water occurs in living wood in three conditions, namely: (1) in the cell walls, (2) in the protoplasmic contents of the cells, and (3) as free water in the cell cavities and spaces. In heartwood it occurs only in the first and last forms. Wood that is thoroughly air-dried retains from 8-16% of water in the cell walls, and none, or practically none, in the other forms. Even oven-dried wood retains a small percentage of moisture, but for all except chemical purposes, may be considered absolutely dry. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... In biology, protoplasm is the living substance inside the cell. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


The general effect of the water content upon the wood substance is to render it softer and more pliable. A similar effect of common observation is in the softening action of water on paper or cloth. Within certain limits the greater the water content the greater its softening effect. For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ...


Drying produces a decided increase in the strength of wood, particularly in small specimens. An extreme example is the case of a completely dry spruce block 5 cm in section, which will sustain a permanent load four times as great as that which a green block of the same size will support. Species About 35; see text. ...


The greatest increase due to drying is in the ultimate crushing strength, and strength at elastic limit in endwise compression; these are followed by the modulus of rupture, and stress at elastic limit in cross-bending, while the modulus of elasticity is least affected. The elastic limit is the maximum stress a material can undergo at which all strains are recoverable. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (also known as the modulus of elasticity or elastic modulus) is a measure of the Stiffness of a given material. ...


See also

The churches of Kizhi, Russia are among a handful of World Heritage Sites built entirely of wood, without metal joints.
The churches of Kizhi, Russia are among a handful of World Heritage Sites built entirely of wood, without metal joints.
Look up Wood in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.



Image File history File links Wooden_Miracle_Kizhi. ... Image File history File links Wooden_Miracle_Kizhi. ... Wooden miracle in Kizhi. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... This is a list of woods, in particular those commonly used in the timber and lumber trade. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... A woodworm is not a specific species. ... Wood-plastic composite is a composite material lumber or timber made of recycled plastic and wood wastes. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Engineered wood, also called composite wood, includes a range of derivative wood products which are manufactured by binding together the strands, particles, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials. ... As a contemporary artistic medium, wood is used in traditional and modern styles, and is an excellent medium for new art. ... Toy constructed from plywood. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... Wood warping costs the wood industry in the US millions of dollars per year. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... A xilotheque is a wood collection (xylos= wood). ... A piece of waterlogged driftwood Driftwood is wood that has been washed onto a shore or beach by the action of the waves. ... an example of Wood-Block Graffiti, the bottom portion of the image displaying the bolts at the back having been bent to prevent tampering Woodblock graffiti is a type of graffiti that originated in Chicago as a direct reaction to the resources of the Chicago graffiti blasters. ...


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wood
  1. ^ Lesson 1: Tree Growth and Wood Material at University of Minnesota Extension
  2. ^ Wood growth and structure www.farmforestline.com.au
  3. ^ Hardwood Structure www.uwsp.edu
  4. ^ a b U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Products Laboratory. The Wood Handbook: Wood as an engineering material. General Technical Report 113. Madison, WI.
  • Hoadley, R. Bruce. (2000) Understanding Wood: A Craftsman’s Guide to Wood Technology. Taunton Press. ISBN 1-56158-358-8
  • Shigo, Alex. (1986) A New Tree Biology Dictionary. Shigo and Trees, Associates. ISBN 0-943563-12-7

  Results from FactBites:
 
Custom Furniture and Handcrafted Wood Art – Wood Artists Gallery (512 words)
Wood Artists Gallery is your single source for custom wood furniture and other handcrafted wood art for your home, office, or business.
From understated modern wood furniture to fanciful handcrafted wood art worthy of the best galleries in the country, Wood Artists Gallery offers fine furniture and gallery furniture for your home or office that responds to your needs today and tomorrow.
Wood Artists Gallery is your single source for custom wood furniture and other handcrafted wood art for your home and office.
Wood - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4182 words)
Since the late wood of a growth ring is usually darker in color than the early wood, this fact may be used in judging the density, and therefore the hardness and strength of the material.
In ring-porous woods the vessels of the early wood not infrequently appear on a finished surface as darker than the denser late wood, though on cross sections of heartwood the reverse is commonly true.
Wide-ringed wood is often called "second-growth", because the growth of the young timber in open stands after the old trees have been removed is more rapid than in trees in the forest, and in the manufacture of articles where strength is an important consideration such "second-growth" hardwood material is preferred.
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