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Encyclopedia > Women and Islam

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Islam
For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

History · Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts · Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic: ‎ - taá¹£awwuf, Kurdish Sufayeti, Persian: صوفی‌گری, sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf), is generally understood by scholars to be the inner or mystical dimension of Islam. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture · Society
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children · Demographics
Festivals · Mosques · Philosophy
Politics · Science · Women Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Islam - percentage by country Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ...

Islam and other religions
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Christianity · Hinduism · Jainism
Judaism · Sikhism

See also
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal
 v  d  e 

The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world.[1] Sharia (Islamic law) provides for differences between women's and men's roles, rights, and obligations. Muslim-majority countries give women varying degrees of rights with regards to marriage, divorce, civil rights, legal status, dress code, and education. Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article is about gender roles, in families and relationships between men and women, in Islam. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


Even where these differences are acknowledged, scholars and other commentators vary as to whether they are just and whether they are a correct interpretation of religious imperatives. Conservatives argue that differences between men and women are due to different status and responsibilities,[2] while liberal Muslims, Muslim feminists, and others argue in favor of more progressive interpretations. Progressive Muslims have produced a considerable body of liberal thoughts within Islam12 (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam, and الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam; but some consider progressive Islam and liberal Islam as two distinct movements 3). ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ...

Contents

Sources of influence

Islamic law is the product of Quranic guidelines, as understood by Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh), as well as of the interpretations derived from the traditions of Muhammad (hadith), which were also selected by a number of historical Islamic scholars.[1] These interpretations and their application were shaped by the historical context of the Muslim world.[1] Furthermore, whether or not Muslims tended to follow these rules was dependent on the prevailing culture, which differed between social classes, local conditions, and regions.[citation needed] Quranic reforms, which in many regions improved the position of women relative to their situation prior to Islam, have often been undermined by the reassertion of tribal customs, or the use of such customs under the name of Islamic law. The spirit of the Quranic reforms may also have been modified by historical or cultural interpretations, reaffirming male dominance and perpetuating gender inequality.[citation needed] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... // Gender Inequality refers to the obvious or hidden disparities among individuals based on performance of gender (gender can be separate from biological sex, see Sex/gender distinction). ...


Early historical background

Costumes of Arab women, fourth to sixth century.
See also: Women in Arab societies#Arab women before Islam

To evaluate the effect of Islam on the status of women, many writers have discussed the status of women in pre-Islamic Arabia, and their findings have been mixed.[3] Some writers have argued that women before Islam were more liberated drawing most often on the first marriage of Muhammad and that of Muhammad's parents, but also on other points such as worship of female idols at Mecca.[3] Other writers, on the contrary, have argued that women's status in pre-Islamic Arabia was poor, citing practices of female infanticide, unlimited polygyny, patrilineal marriage and others.[3] Valentine M. Moghadam analyzes the situation of women from a marxist theoretical framework and argues that the position of women are mostly influenced by the extent of urbanization, industrialization, poletarization and political ploys of the state managers rather than culture or intrinsic properties of Islam; Islam, Moghadam argues, is neither more nor less patriarchal than other world religions especially Hinduism, Christianity and Judaism. [4][5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Syrian Bedouin woman, 1893. ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ...


Islam changed the structure of Arab society and to a large degree unified the people, reforming and standardizing gender roles throughout the region. According to Islamic scholar William Montgomery Watt, Islam improved the status of women by "instituting rights of property ownership, inheritance, education and divorce."[6] Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ...


Some have argued that in terms of women's rights, women generally had fewer legal restrictions under Islamic law than they did under certain Western legal systems until the 20th century. For example, restrictions on the legal capacity of married women under French law were not removed until 1965.[7] However this argument is opposed by those[who?] who state that the consensus of Islamic Jurists has consistently held that in many cases a woman's evidence has half the value of that of a man, and that in some cases it is not admissible.[citation needed] The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... In academic terms, French law can be divided into two areas: private law (droit privé) and public law (droit public). Private law includes, in particular, civil law (droit civil) and criminal law (droit pénal). Public law includes, in particular, administrative law (droit administratif) and constitutional law (droit constitutionnel). However...


Early reforms under Islam

During the early reforms under Islam in the 7th century, reforms in women's rights affected marriage, divorce and inheritance.[8] Women were not accorded with such legal status in other cultures, including the West, until centuries later.[9] The Oxford Dictionary of Islam states that the general improvement of the status of Arab women included prohibition of female infanticide and recognizing women's full personhood.[10] "The dowry, previously regarded as a bride-price paid to the father, became a nuptial gift retained by the wife as part of her personal property."[11][8] Under Islamic law, marriage was no longer viewed as a "status" but rather as a "contract", in which the woman's consent was imperative.[11][8][10] "Women were given inheritance rights in a patriarchal society that had previously restricted inheritance to male relatives."[8] Annemarie Schimmel states that "compared to the pre-Islamic position of women, Islamic legislation meant an enormous progress; the woman has the right, at least according to the letter of the law, to administer the wealth she has brought into the family or has earned by her own work."[12] William Montgomery Watt states that Muhammad, in the historical context of his time, can be seen as a figure who testified on behalf of women’s rights and improved things considerably. Watt explains: "At the time Islam began, the conditions of women were terrible - they had no right to own property, were supposed to be the property of the man, and if the man died everything went to his sons." Muhammad, however, by "instituting rights of property ownership, inheritance, education and divorce, gave women certain basic safeguards."[13] Haddad and Esposito state that "Muhammad granted women rights and privileges in the sphere of family life, marriage, education, and economic endeavors, rights that help improve women's status in society."[14] Many Reforms took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammads mission and the rule of his four immediate successors. ... Many Reforms took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammads mission and the rule of his four immediate successors. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Female infanticide, the prevalent form of sex-selective infanticide, is the systematic killing of girls at or soon after birth. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Annemarie Schimmel (April 7, 1922 - January 26, 2003) was a well known and very influential German Iranologist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Feminism is a diverse, competing, and often opposing collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ...


Gender roles

Main article: Gender roles in Islam

In Islam, relations between the sexes are governed by the principle of complementarity.[15][16] This article is about gender roles, in families and relationships between men and women, in Islam. ...


In the family unit, Islam honours mothers very highly.

Narrated Abu Huraira: A man came to Allah's Messenger and said, "O Allah's Messenger! Who is more entitled to be treated with the best companionship by me?" The Prophet said, "Your mother." The man said. "Who is next?" The Prophet said, "Your mother." The man further said, "Who is next?" The Prophet said, "Your mother." The man asked for the fourth time, "Who is next?"The Prophet said, "Your father." [Sahih Bukhari 8.73.2] [3]

As men are blessed with more strength, they're commanded to support and take care of women; where as women safeguards.

"Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband's) absence what Allah would have them guard..." [Qur'an 4:34] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Still even though men are given more strength, kindness to women are commanded. It is forbidden to take women against their will.

"O you who believe! It is not lawful for you that you should take women as heritage against (their) will, and do not straiten them in order that you may take part of what you have given them, unless they are guilty of manifest indecency; And treat them kindly; then if you hate them, it may be that you dislike a thing while Allah has placed abundant good in it."[Qur'an 4:19] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

"...O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste..." [Prophet's Last Sermon] [4]

In many Islamic societies, there is a division of roles creating a woman’s space in the private sphere of the home and a man’s in the public sphere.[17] The private sphere is the complement or opposite of the public sphere. ... The public sphere is a concept in continental philosophy and critical theory that contrasts with the private sphere, and is the part of life in which one is interacting with others and with society at large. ...


Sex segregation

See also: Purdah

Islam discourages social interaction between unmarried or unrelated men and women when they are alone, but not all interaction between men and women. This is shown in the example of Khadijah, a rich, twice widowed businesswoman who employed Muhammad and met with him to conduct trade before they were married, and in the example set by his other wives, who taught and counseled the men and women of Medina. This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... Ladies of Caubul (1848 lithograph, by James Rattray) showing the lifting of purdah in zenana areas. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Khadija (Arabic: خديجه ) was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad and the first female convert to Islam, the new religion he had begun to preach. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Muhammad (A.D. 570-632) is regarded by Muslims as the last prophet of God. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


In strict Islamic countries, such as Saudi Arabia, sex segregation has been or is strictly enforced. The Taliban treatment of women in Afghanistan is an extreme example of this. Even in countries where the sexes mingle socially, they generally remain segregated within the mosque (see Women in religious life below). Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... Public execution of a woman, known as Zarmina, by the Taliban at the Ghazi Sports Stadium, Kabul, November 16, 1999. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...


Financial matters

Islam gives women the right to own, which entitles them to have personal possessions. While women have fewer financial obligations than men, some of their financial rights are limited. Women's share of inheritance, as outlined in the Qur'an, is typically less than that of men. Women's right to work is also disputed.


According to Bernard Lewis, while Islam sanctions a social inequality between man and woman, Muslim women have historically had property rights unparalleled in the modern West until comparatively recently.[18] For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ...


In general, as Valentine M. Moghadam argues, "much of the economic modernization [of women] was based on income from oil, and some came from foreign investment and capital inflows. Economic development alters the status of women in different ways across nations and classes"[19]. This is a proof that since always the status of women was influenced by the economy of the region and its development.


Financial obligations

A woman, when compared with her husband, is far less burdened with any claims on her possessions. Her possessions before marriage do not transfer to her husband and she is encouraged to keep her maiden name. She has no obligation to spend on her family out of such properties or out of her income after marriage. A woman also receives a mahr (dowry), which is given to her by her husband at the time of marriage.[20] Women, unlike men, also have the right to be supported financially.[21][22] A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ...


Inheritance

In Islam, women are entitled the right of inheritance,[Qur'an 4:7] but often a woman's share of inheritance is less than that of a man's. In general circumstances, Islam allows females half the inheritance share available to males who have the same degree of relation to the deceased.[23] This difference derives from men's obligation to financially aid his parents, wife, children, and sisters, while the women's share would be entirely at her own disposal. [1] This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


In most Muslim nations, the law of the state concerning inheritance is in accordance with this law.[citation needed]


The Qur'an guarantees women the right to inherit a proportion of their father's estate. A widowed woman inherits a portion of her husband's estate.


Employment

Women are allowed to work in Islam, subject to certain conditions, and even recommended to do so should they be in financial need.[24] This is supported by the Quranic example of two female shepherds ([Qur'an 28:23]).[24] Islam recognizes that the society needs women to work for the sake of development. In general, women's right to work is subject to certain conditions:[24] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

  • The work should not require the woman to violate Islamic law (e.g., serving alcohol), and be mindful of the woman's safety.
  • If the work requires the woman to leave her home, she must maintain her modesty.
  • Her work should not affect more important commitments, such as those towards her family.

Furthermore, it is the responsibility of the Muslim community to organize work for women, so that she can do so in a Muslim atmosphere, where her rights are respected.[24]


However, the employment of women varies over fields in Islamic law. Whereas women may seek medical treatment from men, it is preferred that they do so from female physicians. It is also preferred that female schools, colleges, sports centers and ministries be staffed by women rather than men. On the contrary, there are disagreements between Islamic schools of thought about whether women should be able to hold the position of judge in a court. Shafi`ites claim that women may hold no judicial office, while Hanafites allow women to act as judges in civil cases only, not criminal ones. These interpretations are based on the above quoted Medinan sura (verse) [Qur'an 4:34].[25] Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... The Shāfi‘ī madhab () is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... Map showing some Core areas of maliki, Shafi, Hanbalis and Hanafi Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Even when women have the right to work and are educated, women's job opportunities may in practice be unequal to those of men. In Egypt for example, women have limited opportunities to work in the private sector because women are still expected to put their role in the family first, which causes men to be seen as more reliable in the long term.[26] Patterns of women's employment vary throughout the Muslim world: as of 2005, 16% of Pakistani women were "economically active" (either employed, or unemployed but available to furnish labor), whereas 52% of Indonesian women were.[27] The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ...


Legal and criminal matters

The status of women's testimony in Islam is disputed. Some jurists have held that certain types of testimony by women will not be accepted.[28]. In other cases, the testimony of two women can equal that of one man.[28][Qur'an 2:282][29] The reason for this disparity has been explained in various manners, including women's lack of intelligence,[30] women's temperament and sphere of interest,[31] and sparing women from the burden of testifying.[32] In other areas, women's testimony may be accepted on an equal basis with men's.[28][33] The status of womens testimony in Islam is disputed. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Commentators on the status of women in Islam have often focused on disparities in diyyat, the fines paid by killers to victims' next of kin after either intentional or unintentional homicide,[34] between men and women. Diyya has existed in Arabia since pre-Islamic times.[35][36] While the practice of diyya was affirmed by Muhammed,[36] Islam does not prescribe any specific amount for diyyat nor does it require discrimination between men and women;[34] the Qur'an has left open its quantity, nature, and other related affairs to be defined by social custom and tradition.[34] Traditionally, however, diyya for a woman is half that of a man;[37][38] this is currently codified in the laws of some Muslim-majority countries such as Iran.[39] Diyya (plural: Diyyat; Arabic: دية) is compensation paid to the heirs of a victim. ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ...


Rape

Islamic criminal jurisprudence does not discriminate between genders in punishments for crimes.[citation needed] In case of sexual crimes such as zina (fornication), however, women may be found guilty more easily than men, because of the visible evidence of pregnancy; without a pregnancy, four witnesses are required to file a zina case.[40] The difficulty of prosecuting rapists and the possibility of prosecution for women who allege rape has been of special interest to activists for Muslim women's rights.[41] In the past decades there have been several high profile cases of pregnant women prosecuted for zina who claim to have been raped.[42][43][44] [45] Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... Sex crimes are forms of human sexual behavior that are crimes. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...


The overwhelming majority of Muslim scholars believe that there is no punishment for a woman coerced into having sex.[46] According to a Sunni hadith, the punishment for committing rape is death, there is no sin on the victim, nor is there any worldly punishment ascribed to her.[47] However, the stringent requirements for proof of rape under some interpretations of Islamic law, combined with cultural attitudes regarding rape in some parts of the Muslim world, result in few rape cases being reported; even the cases brought forward typically result in minimal punishment for offenders or severe punishment for victims.[48] It can be difficult to seek punishment against rapists, because a zina case cannot be brought without four witnesses, Most scholars, however, treat rape instead as hiraba (disorder in the land),[49], which does not require four witnesses. The form of punishment and interpretation of Islamic law in this case is highly dependent on the legislation of the nation in question, and/or of the judge. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Hirabah (Arabic: ) is an Arabic word for “piracy”, or “unlawful warfare”. Hirabah comes from the root hariba, which means “to become angry and enraged”. The noun harb (حرب, pl. ...


Honor killings

According to law professor Noah Feldman in the New York Times, Islam "condemns the vigilante-style honor killings that still occur in some Middle Eastern countries."[50] So-called honor killings (murders, nearly exclusively of women, of persons who are perceived as having brought dishonor to their families) are often identified with Islam, though they predate the introduction of Islam into Arabia and are non-Quranic.[51] However, honor killings are sanctioned in Iran's and Afghanistan's penal codes in which honor killing is legal or lightly punished.[51] Honor killings are more common in Muslim-majority countries, though they occur in other countries as well.[52] Many Muslim scholars and commentators say that honor killings are a cultural practice which is neither exclusive to, nor universal within, the Islamic world.[53][54] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Honour killings are often perpetrated in Muslim-majority areas, especially in countries of the Middle East. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


== Marriage and

A riverside Muslim wedding in India.

Image File history File linksMetadata Muslim_wedding_in_India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Muslim_wedding_in_India. ...

Who may be married?

See also: Islamic marital jurisprudence and Polygamy in Islam

According to Islamic law (sharia), marriage cannot be forced.[20][55] This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... This is a sub-article to Polygyny and Islamic marital jurisprudence In Islam, polygamy is allowed and practised under certain restricted conditions. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Forced marriage is a term used in the Occident to describe traditional arranged marriages in which one or more of the parties (usually the woman) is married without his/her consent or against his/her will. ...


No age limits have been fixed by Islam for marriage. Though it is said that women should not be married under the age of nine. Children of the youngest age may be married or promised for marriage, although a girl is not handed across to her husband until she is fit for marital sexual relations.[56] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Islamic jurists have traditionally held that Muslim women may only enter into marriage with Muslim men,[57] although some contemporary jurists question the basis of this restriction.[57][58][59] This is pursuant to the principle that Muslims may not place themselves in a position inferior to that of the followers of other religions.[60]On the other hand, the Qur'an explicitly allows Muslim men to marry chaste women of the People of the Book, a term which includes Jews and Christians.[61][57] However, fiqh law has held that it is makruh (reprehensible, though not outright forbidden) for a Muslim man to marry a non-Muslim woman in a non-Muslim country.[57] This article is about the theological concept in Islam. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


Polygamy is permitted under restricted conditions,[62] but it is not widespread.[21] Women are not allowed to engage in polyandry, whereas men are allowed to engage in polygyny (a man can take up to four wives as mentioned in Quran).[62] Widow inheritance is 1/4 of the property of her deceased husband, however, if he had children the inheritance reduces to 1/8. The widow woman is allowed to marry any non-mahram person, if she wishes.[Qur'an 4:19] The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ... Widow inheritance, also known as bride inheritance, is a type of marriage in which a widow marries a kinsman of her late husband, often his brother. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Marriage contract

1874 Islamic marriage contract

The contract specifies the dowry (mahr) the groom gives to the bride upon their marriage. It may also specify where the couple will live, whether or not the first wife will allow the husband to take a second wife without her consent, whether or not the wife has the right to initiate divorce, and other such matters. The marriage contract somewhat resembles the marriage settlements once negotiated for upper-class Western brides, but can extend to non-financial matters usually ignored by marriage settlements or pre-nuptial agreements. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... A prenuptial agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup, is a contract entered into by two people prior to marriage or civil union. ...


In practice, most Islamic marriages are entered into without a written contract, or with a "fill in the blanks" form supplied by the officiant. In such cases, Islamic law, influenced by custom and/or rulings by local courts based on local law, governs the treatment of a divorcee or widow, and is often, in the opinion of Islamic feminists, unfair or unkind. Islamic feminists have been active in informing Muslim women of their rights under Islamic law (sharia) and encouraging them to negotiate favorable contracts before marriage. A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism concerned with the role of women in Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


Behavior within marriage

The Qu'ran considers the love between men and women to be a Sign of God.[Qur'an 30:21] Islam advocates a harmonious relationship between husband and wife, and mandates that the will of the woman be honoured.[citation needed] It puts the main responsibility of earning over the husband. Both are asked to fulfill the other's sexual needs.[citation needed] Husbands are asked to be kind to their wives and wives are asked to be obedient to their husbands. The Qur'an also encourages discussion and mutual agreement regarding family decisions.[20] Islam advocates a harmonious relationship between husband and wife. ... It has been suggested that Criticism of the Quran#Domestic behavior be merged into this article or section. ... The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Islamic symbols are non-textual and non-verbal visual symbols that have been used, or are used, to express identification with Islam or a particular tradition within Islam, to evoke feelings of joy, sadness, devotion, etc. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Sexuality

More positively, some hold that Islam enjoins sexual pleasure within marriage; see Asra Nomani's polemic "Islamic Bill of Rights for Women in the Bedroom". This is a sub-article of Islamic marital jurisprudence and human sexuality. ... Asra Q. Nomani is an Indian-American Muslim journalist, author, and feminist. ... The Islamic Bill of Rights for Women in the Bedroom is a list of rights for Islamic women in the bedroom written by Muslim author and feminist Asra Nomani. ...


A high value is placed on chastity (not to be confused with celibacy) for both men and women. To protect women from accusations of unchaste behaviour, the scripture lays down severe punishments towards those who make false allegations about a woman's chastity.[Qur'an 24:4] Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Female genital cutting has been associated with Islam and in certain areas has acquired a religious dimension[63] The factuality of this is disputed though, as a UNICEF study of fourteen African countries found no correlation between religion and prevalence of FGM.[64] Female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), female circumcision or female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...


Divorce

Main article: Talaq (Nikah)

The rules for talaq (divorce) vary among the major Islamic schools. For both Shi'a and Sunni Muslims, the right to demand a divorce is primarily for men. Unless otherwise specified in the marriage contract, women can only seek divorce through court proceedings by convincing a qadi to grant a divorce. Shi'as and Sunnis believe that a wife can ask for a hula (also transliterated khulah) divorce. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one script into another script. ...


Usually, assuming her husband demands a divorce, the divorced wife keeps her mahr (dowry), both the original gift and any supplementary property specified in the marriage contract. She is also given child support until the age of weaning, at which point the child's custody will be settled by the couple or by the courts. A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... In many countries, child support or child maintenance is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made by a non-custodial parent to a custodial parent, caregiver or guardian, for the care and support of children of a relationship or marriage that has been terminated. ...


Women’s right to divorce is often extremely limited compared with that of men in the Middle East.[65] While men can divorce their wives easily, women face many legal and financial obstacles. For example, in Yemen, women usually can ask for divorce only when the husband’s inability to support her life is admitted, while men can divorce at will by verbally declaring "I divorce you" to his wife. One time is similar to three times unlike commonly stated, since by verbally declaring the divorce to his wife, he is ending the current marriage whether it is said once or three times. If they however get back to each other and divorce happens again and then a third time, they are not allowed to get back together as husband and wife. Unless the wife enter into another lawful and fully consummated marriage and is unfortunate in that marriage and has a divorce from her husband. This rule was made to discourage men from easily using the verbal declaration of divorce by knowing that after the third time there will be no way to return to the wife and thus encourage men's tolerance and patience. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In practice in most of the Muslim world today divorce can be quite involved as there may be separate secular procedures to follow as well. Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


This contentious area of religious practice and tradition is being increasingly challenged by those promoting more liberal interpretations of Islam. Progressive Muslims have produced a considerable body of liberal thoughts within Islam12 (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam, and الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam; but some consider progressive Islam and liberal Islam as two distinct movements 3). ...


Movement and travel

Both husbands and wives are required to inform their spouses before leaving home.[66] A woman needs her husband's permission to leave home, though general permission is sufficient for routine trips—with such permission, the wife need not seek permission for each individual trip.[66]


Although no limitation or prohibition against women's travelling alone is mentioned in Quran, there is a debate in some Islamic sects, especially Salafis, regarding whether women may travel without a mahram (unmarriageable relative).[66] Some scholars state that a woman may not travel by herself on a journey that takes longer than three days (equivalent to 48 miles in medieval Islam).[67] According to the European Council for Fatwa and Research, this prohibition arose from fears for women's safety when travel was more dangerous.[66] Some scholars relax this prohibition for journeys likely to be safe, such as travel with a trustworthy group of men or men and women, or travel via a modern train or plane when the woman will be met upon arrival.[66] A Dublin-based private foundation, founded in London at 29-30 March 1997 on the initiative of the Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe, the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) is a largely self-selected body, composed by islamic clerics and scholars, presided by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, and...


Sheikh Ayed Al-Qarni, a Saudi Islamic scholar known for his moderate views, has said that neither the Qur'an nor the sunnah prohibits women from driving and that it is better for a woman to drive herself than to be driven by a stranger without a legal escort.[68] (He also stated, however, that he "personally will not allow [his] wife or daughters or sisters to drive."[68]) Women are forbidden to drive in Saudi Arabia per a 1990 fatwa (religious ruling);[69] Saudi Arabia is currently the only Muslim country that bans women from driving. [70][71] When the Taliban ruled Afghanistan, they issued a 2001 decree that also banned women from driving.[72] John Esposito, professor of International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University, has argued that these restrictions originate from cultural customs and not Islam.[70] Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ...


Dress code

Main article: Hijab

Hijab is the Quranic requirement that Muslims, both male and female, dress and behave modestly. The most important Quranic verse relating to hijab is sura 24:31, which says, "And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their private parts and not to display their adornment except that which ordinarily appears thereof and to draw their headcovers over their chests and not to display their adornment except to their [maharim]..." “Higab” redirects here. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transliterated mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ...


Scholars agree that a woman should act and dress in a way that does not draw sexual attention to her when she is in the presence of someone of the opposite sex. Some scholars specify which areas of the body must be covered; most of these require that everything besides the face and hands be covered, and some require all but the eyes to be covered, using garments such as chadors or burqas. Most mainstream scholars say that men, in contrast, should cover themselves from the navel to the knees. A chador (Persian چادر) is an outer garment worn by some Iranian women when they venture out into public; it is one possible way in which a Muslim woman may follow the Islamic ħijāb dress code. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Sartorial hijab as practiced varies throughout the Muslim world. In Iran, strict hijab requirements are enacted in law, while in Muslim-majority areas of India, social norms rather than law dictate the wearing of hijab. At the opposite end of the spectrum is Tunisia, where the government is actively discouraging women from wearing the veil.


Sartorial hijab, and the veil in particular, has often been viewed by Westerners as a sign of oppression of Muslim women.[73] It has also been the cause of much debate, especially in Europe amid increasing immigration of Muslims;[74] the 2006 United Kingdom debate over veils and the 2004 French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools are two notable examples. The Daily Express launched what it called a Crusade against the veil. The United Kingdom debate over veils began in October 2006 when the MP and government minister Jack Straw wrote in a local newspaper that, while he did not want to be prescriptive, he preferred talking to women who... The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (i. ...


Arab women often observe purdah (the practice of preventing men from seeing women). It is important to differentiate between purdah and hijab. Hijab is an Islamic tradition that is based on physical and psychological morality, while purdah does not necessarily conform to Islamic teachings. Ladies of Caubul (1848 lithograph, by James Rattray) showing the lifting of purdah in zenana areas. ...


Women in religious life

In Islam, there is no difference between men and women's relationship to God; they receive identical rewards and punishments for their conduct.[75]


According to a saying attributed to Muhammad, women are allowed to go to mosques.[76] However, as Islam spread, it became unusual for women to worship in mosques because of fears of unchastity caused by interaction between sexes; this condition persisted until the late 1960s.[77] Since then, women have become increasingly involved in the mosque, though men and women generally worship separately.[78] (Muslims explain this by citing the need to avoid distraction during prayer prostrations that raise the buttocks while the forehead touches the ground.[79]) Separation between sexes ranges from men and women on opposite sides of an aisle, to men in front of women (as was the case in the time of Muhammad), to women in second-floor balconies or separate rooms accessible by a door for women only.[79]


In Islam's earlier history, female religious scholars were relatively common. Mohammad Akram Nadwi, a Sunni religious scholar, has compiled biographies of 8,000 female jurists, and orientalist Ignaz Goldziher earlier estimated that 15 percent of medieval hadith scholars were women.[80] After the 1500s, however, female scholars became fewer,[80] and today—while female activists and writers are relatively common—there has not been a significant female jurist in over 200 years.[81] Opportunities for women's religious education exist, but cultural barriers often keep women from pursuing such a vocation.[80] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Ignaz Goldziher (June 22, 1850 - 1921), was a Jewish Hungarian orientalist and is widely considered among the founders of modern Islamic studies in Europe. ...


Women's right to become imams, however, is disputed by many. A fundamental role of an imam (religious leader) in a mosque is to lead the salah (congregational prayers). Generally, women are not allowed to lead mixed prayers. However, some argue that Muhammad gave permission to Ume Warqa to lead a mixed prayer at the mosque of Dar.[82][83] There is a current controversy among Muslims on the circumstances in which women may act as imams—that is, lead a congregation in salat (prayer). ... Salat redirects here. ...


Women and politics

The late Benazir Bhutto, former prime minister of Pakistan was the first woman elected to lead a Muslim state.[84]
See also: Female political leaders in Islam and in Muslim-majority countries

The only hadith relating to female political leadership is Sahih Bukhari 5:59:709, in which Muhammad is recorded as saying that people with a female ruler will never be successful.[85] (The al-Bukhari collection is generally regarded as authentic, though one Muslim feminist has questioned the reliability of the recorder of this particular hadith.[85]) However, some classical Islamic scholars, such as al-Tabari, supported female leadership.[85] In early Islamic history, women including Aisha, Ume Warqa, and Samra Binte Wahaib took part in political activities.[82] Other historical Muslim female leaders include Razia Sultana, who ruled the Sultanate of Delhi from 1236 to 1239,[86][87] and Shajarat ad-Durr, who ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1257.[88] In the past several decades, many countries in which Muslims are a majority, including Indonesia,[89] Pakistan,[90] Bangladesh,[91] and Turkey,[92] have been led by women. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 43 KB) Summary Copied over from English Wikipedia (en:Image:Benazir01. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 43 KB) Summary Copied over from English Wikipedia (en:Image:Benazir01. ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Women in Islamic societies still face enormous threats as political leaders. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The name al-Tabari means simply from Tabaristan, thus more than one Muslim scholar is known by this designation: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Ali the scholar from Tabiristan (838-870 A.D.) was the writer of a medical encyclopedia and the teacher of the scholar physician Zakariya al... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... Ume Warqa was a companion of the prophet Muhammad. ... Razia al-Din, (Urdu: رضیہ الدین) throne name Jalâlat ud-Dîn Raziyâ (Urdu:جلالت رضیہ الدین), usually referred to in history as Razia Sultan or Razia Sultana (Urdu: رضیہ سلطانہ ), was the only woman monarch to have ruled Delhi. ... The Delhi Sultanate, or Sulthanath-e-Hind/Sulthanath-e-Dilli refers to the various dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Shajar al-Durr (? - 1257), whose name means String of Pearls, grew up a slave in the Caliphs harem in Baghdad. ...

Iraqi women waiting to vote in elections, 2005.

According to Sheikh Zoubir Bouchikhi, Imam of the Islamic Society of Greater Houston’s Southeast Mosque, nothing in Islam specifically allows or disallows voting by women.[93] Until recently most Muslim nations were non-democratic, but most today allow their citizens to have some level of voting and control over their government. The disparate times at which women’s suffrage was granted in Muslim-majority countries is indicative of the varied traditions and values present within the Muslim world. Azerbaijan has had women's suffrage since 1918, but some Islamic states did not have women's suffrage until the last ten years[citation needed]. Today, aside from Brunei (where neither men nor women can vote)[94] and Saudi Arabia (where only men can vote),[95] all Muslim-majority nations allow women to vote. (Lebanon requires proof of education for women to vote.[96]) It is to be noted that even where women's suffrage as a right is technically present, women may not as a practical matter be able to vote.[citation needed] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This timeline lists the dates of the first womens suffrage in majority-Muslim countries. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ...


Modern debate on the status of women in Islam

Within the Muslim community, conservatives and Islamic feminists have used Islamic doctrine as the basis for discussion of women's rights, drawing on the Qur'an, the hadith, and the lives of prominent women in the early period of Muslim history as evidence.[97] Where conservatives have seen evidence that existing gender asymmetries are divinely ordained, feminists have seen more egalitarian ideals in early Islam.[97] Still others have argued that this discourse is essentialist and ahistorical, and have urged that Islamic doctrine not be the only framework within which discussion occurs.[97] A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism concerned with the role of women in Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... In philosophy, essentialism is the view, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ...


Whether perceived injustice is according to Islamic religious doctrine or culture is disputed.


Conservatives and the Islamist movement

A young Iranian woman is warned about her immodest dress. In April 2007, thousands of Iranian women were warned by the police in a crackdown on so-called "bad hijab."[98]

Conservatives reject the assertion that different laws prescribed for men and women imply that men are more valuable than women, arguing that the only criterion of value before God is piety.[citation needed] Some Islamic scholars justify the different religious laws for men and women by referring to the biological and sociological differences between men and women[citation needed]. For example, regarding the inheritance law which states that women’s share of inheritance is half that of men, the imam Ali ibn Musa Al-reza reasoned that at the time of marriage a man has to pay something to his prospective bride, and that men are responsible for both their wives' and their own expenses but women have no such responsibility.[99] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... “Higab” redirects here. ... In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue. ...


The nebulous revivalist movement termed Islamism is one of the most dynamic movements within Islam in the 20th and 21st centuries. The experience of women in Islamist states has been varied. Women in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan faced treatment condemned by the international community.[100] Women were forced to wear the burqa in public,[101] not allowed to work,[102] not allowed to be educated after the age of eight,[103] and faced public flogging and execution for violations of the Taliban's laws.[104][105] The position of women in Iran, which has been a theocracy since its 1979 revolution, is more complex. Iranian Islamists are ideologically to sex segregation,[citation needed]but allow many more rights such as allowing female legislators in Iran's parliament[106] and 60% of university students are women.[107] This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Public execution of a woman, known as Zarmina, by the Taliban at the Ghazi Sports Stadium, Kabul, November 16, 1999. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... 17th century painting of Safavi Iranian royal court depicting woman pouring wine at Chehel Sotoon Palace, Esfahan. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ...


Liberal Islam, Islamic feminism, and other progressive criticism

Liberal Muslims have urged that ijtihad, a form of critical thinking, be used to develop a more progressive form of Islam with respect to the status of women.[108] In addition, Islamic feminists have advocated for women's rights, gender equality, and social justice grounded in an Islamic framework. Although rooted in Islam, pioneers of Islamic feminism have also used secular and western feminist discourses and have sought to include Islamic feminism in the larger global feminist movement. Islamic feminists seek to highlight the teachings of equality in Islam to question patriarchal interpretations of Islamic teachings.[109] Progressive Muslims have produced a considerable body of liberal thoughts within Islam12 (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam, and الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam; but some consider progressive Islam and liberal Islam as two distinct movements 3). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism concerned with the role of women in Islam. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... A patriarch (from Greek: patria means father; arché means rule, beginning, origin) is a male head of an extended family exercising autocratic authority, or, by extension, a member of the ruling class or government of a society controlled by senior men. ...


After the September 11, 2001 attacks, international attention was suddenly focused on the condition of women in the Muslim world. [110] Critics asserted that women are not treated as equal members of Muslim societies[111][112] and criticized Islam for condoning this treatment.[111] Some critics have gone so far as to make allegations of gender apartheid due to women's status.[113] At least one critic has alleged that Western academics, especially feminists, have ignored the plight of Muslim women to be "politically correct."[114] The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ...


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and... This article is about female figures that appear in the Quran. ... The role of women in religion has only recently become a topic of research. ... Syrian Bedouin woman, 1893. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...

References

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  21. ^ a b The New Encyclopedia of Islam (2002), AltaMira Press. ISBN 0-7591-0189-2 . p.477
  22. ^ Fathi, Asghar. Women and the Family in Iran. Brill (1985), p25. ISBN 9004074260.
  23. ^ For example, where the deceased has both male and female children, a son's share is double that of a daughter's.[Qur'an 4:11] Additionally, the sister of a childless man inherits half of his property upon his death, while a brother of a childless woman inherits all of her property.[citation needed]
  24. ^ a b c d Al Qaradawy, Yusuf. The Status Of Women In Islam. Chapter: The Woman as Member of the Society: When is a woman allowed to work?
  25. ^ Haddad/Esposito pg.41
  26. ^ Assaad, R., 2003, Gender & Employment: Egypt in Comparative Perspective, in Doumato, E.A. & Posusney, M.P., Women and Globalization in the Arab Middle East: Gender, Economy and Society, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers
  27. ^ Women of Our World 2005
  28. ^ a b c Ibn Rushd. Bidayatu’l-Mujtahid, 1st ed., vol. 4, (Beirut: Daru’l-Ma‘rifah, 1997), p. 311.
  29. ^ According to Averroes, a 12th-century Maliki, "There is a general consensus among the jurists that in financial transactions a case stands proven by the testimony of a just man and two women." (Ibn Rushd. Bidayatu’l-Mujtahid, 1st ed., vol. 4, (Beirut: Daru’l-Ma‘rifah, 1997), p. 311).
  30. ^ Sahih Bukhari 3:48:826
  31. ^ Ghamidi. Burhan:The Law of Evidence. Al-Mawrid
  32. ^ Half of a Man!, Renaissance - Monthly Islamic Journal, 14(7), July 2004
  33. ^ Azeem, Sherif Abdel. "Women In Islam Versus Women In The Judaeo-Christian Tradition." World Assembly of Muslim Youth (1995).
  34. ^ a b c Ghamidi, Mizan, The Penal Law of Islam.
  35. ^ El Fadl, p86.
  36. ^ a b Hallaq, Wael B. A History of Islamic Legal Theories: An Introduction to Sunni Usul Al-fiqh. Cambridge University Press (1997), p7. ISBN 0521599865.
  37. ^ Faruq, Sherif. A guide to the contents of the Qur'an. Garnet & Ithaca Press p212. ISBN 1859640451.
  38. ^ Barak, Gregg. Crime and Crime Control: A Global View. Greenwood Press (2000), p99. ISBN 0313306818.
  39. ^ Joseph and Najmabadi, p407.
  40. ^ Asifa Quraishi. "Her Honor: An Islamic Critique of the Rape Laws of Pakistan from a Woman-Sensitive Perspective," in Windows of Faith: Muslim Women Scholar-Activists in North America, Gisela Webb (Ed.), Syracuse University Press (June 2000). The author also argues that this traditional view may be inconsistent with the requirements outlined in the Qur'an.
  41. ^ See, e.g., http://www.geo.tv/zs/Zina_article_Final.pdf.
  42. ^ In Pakistan, Rape Victims Are the 'Criminals' By SETH MYDANS From: New York Times, May 17, 2002
  43. ^ Saudi Rape Case Spurs Calls for Reform By RASHEED ABOU-ALSAMH Published: December 1, 2007
  44. ^ Nigeria: Under Islamic Law, Rights Still Unprotected
  45. ^ Changing Rape Laws in Pakistan
  46. ^ According to Ibn Qudamah, "This is the view of Omar, al-Zuhri, Qatadah, al-Thawri, al-Shafi'i, and others and we do not know anyone who has departed from this view." (Although this seems to indicate unanimity, Ibn Qudamah himself uses the language "overwhelming majority.") Muwaffaq al-Din Ibn Qudamah, al-Mughni (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi n.d), Vol. 10, p. 159, quoted in http://www.geo.tv/zs/Zina_article_Final.pdf.
  47. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud 38:4366 .
  48. ^ http://www.islam-democracy.org/documents/pdf/6th_Annual_Conference-JulieNorman.pdf
  49. ^ See, e.g., http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=1369 and Asifa Quraishi. "Her Honor: An Islamic Critique of the Rape Laws of Pakistan from a Woman-Sensitive Perspective," in Windows of Faith: Muslim Women Scholar-Activists in North America, Gisela Webb (Ed.), Syracuse University Press (June 2000). Mentioned in verses [Qur'an 5:33]
  50. ^ Feldman, Noah. "Why Shariah?", New York Times, 2008-03-16. 
  51. ^ a b Joseph and Najmabadi, p215.
  52. ^ http://www.extrajudicialexecutions.org/reports/E_CN_4_2000_3.pdf Chapter V, Section C
  53. ^ "Q&A: Honour killings explained", BBC News, 2004-06-22. Retrieved on 2007-07-09. 
  54. ^ For instance, the practice is little known in Indonesia, the world's most populous Islamic country, as well as in parts of West Africa with majority-Muslim populations.http://www.nuradeen.com/Reflections/ElementsOfSufism3.htm
  55. ^ "Ibni `Abbaas reported that a girl came to the Messenger of God, Muhammad (sws), and she reported that her father had forced her to marry without her consent. The Messenger of God gave her the choice [between accepting the marriage or invalidating it]." Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 2469. "...the girl said: "Actually I accept this marriage but I wanted to let women know that parents have no right [to force a husband on them]". Sunan Ibn Maja 1873.
  56. ^ Levy, p.106
  57. ^ a b c d On Christian Men marrying Muslim Women
  58. ^ Imam Khaleel Mohammed's defense of inter-faith marriage
  59. ^ Asharq Al-Awsat Interviews Sudanese Islamist leader Dr. Hassan Turabi
  60. ^ Friedmann (2003), p. 162
  61. ^ Qur'an, [Qur'an 5:5]
  62. ^ a b Ghamidi, Mizan, The Social Law of Islam.
  63. ^ Mohd. Salih al-Munajjid (Hafizullah) (Unknown). Is there any saheeh hadeeth about the circumcision of females?. Fatwa (Religious verdict, suggestion). MuslimAccess.Com. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  64. ^ UNICEF. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Exploration." Unicef.org, 2005.
  65. ^ Joseph and Najmabadi, p99.
  66. ^ a b c d e Women Traveling without Mahram. European Council for Fatwa and Research.
  67. ^ Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari. "Can Women Travel Without A Mahram?" Sunnipath.com (July 03, 2005).
  68. ^ a b Somayya Jabarti & Maha Akeel. "Women Not Prohibited From Driving in Islam, Says Al-Qarni." Arab News (January 11, 2004).
  69. ^ Amnesty International. "Saudi Arabia: Women." Amnesty.org.
  70. ^ a b John L. Esposito(2002), p.99, What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam, Oxford University Press
  71. ^ Natana J. Delong-Bas(2004), p.123, Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad, Oxford University Press
  72. ^ The Situation of Women in Afghanistan - United Nations Report
  73. ^ McGoldrick, Dominic. Human Rights and Religion: The Islamic Headscarf Debate in Europe. Hart Publishing (2006), p13. ISBN 1841136522.
  74. ^ Alam, Fareena. "Beyond the Veil." Newsweek (Nov. 26, 2006).
  75. ^ USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts
  76. ^ "Do not stop Allah's women-slave from going to Allah's Mosques." (Sahih Bukhari 2:13:23.)
  77. ^ Mattson, Ingrid. "Women, Islam, and Mosques." In Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America (Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, and Marie Cantlon, ed.). Indiana University Press (2006), p616. ISBN 0253346886.
  78. ^ Mattson, Ingrid. "Women, Islam, and Mosques." In Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America (Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, and Marie Cantlon, ed.). Indiana University Press (2006), p616-17. ISBN 0253346886.
  79. ^ a b Smith, Jane L. Islam in America. Columbia University Press (2000): p111. ISBN 0231109679.
  80. ^ a b c Power, Carla. "A Secret History." New York Times (Feb. 25, 2007).
  81. ^ Khaled Abou El Fadl. "In Recognition of Women." Themodernreligion.com. Originally published (in a slightly different form) in The Minaret (July/Aug 1991) and reprinted in Voices vol. 1, no. 2 (Dec/Jan 1992).
  82. ^ a b Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, Religious leadership of women in Islam, April 24, 2005, Daily Times, Pakistan
  83. ^ Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, (Bayrut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al- ‘Arabi, n.d.) vol.5, 3:1375
  84. ^ "Benazir Bhutto: Daughter of Tragedy" by Muhammad Najeeb, Hasan Zaidi, Saurabh Shulka and S. Prasannarajan, India Today, January 7, 2008
  85. ^ a b c Anne Sofie Roald. Women in Islam: The Western Experience, p186-7.
  86. ^ Beale, Thomas William and Henry George Keene. An Oriental Biographical Dictionary. W.H. Allen (1894), p392.
  87. ^ Ahmed, Nazeer. Islam in Global History: From the Death of Prophet Muhammed to the First World War. Xlibris (2000), p284-86..
  88. ^ Shajarat (Shaggar, Shagar) al-Durr And her Mausoleum in Cairo
  89. ^ Karon, Tony. "Megawati: The Princess Who Settled for the Presidency." Time (July 27, 2001).
  90. ^ Ali A. Mazrui, Pretender to Universalism: Western Culture in a Globalizing Age, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volume 21, Number 1, April 2001
  91. ^ MacDonald, Elizabeth and Chana R. Schoenberger. "The 100 Most Powerful Women: Khaleda Zia." Forbes (Aug. 30, 2007}.
  92. ^ "Tansu Çiller." About.com.
  93. ^ Islam Online.net
  94. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "Brunei." World Factbook (2007).
  95. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "Saudi Arabia." World Factbook (2007).
  96. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "Lebanon." World Factbook (2007).
  97. ^ a b c Deniz Kandiyoti, "Women, Islam and the State", Middle East Report, No. 173, Gender and Politics. (Nov.-Dec., 1991), pp. 9-14.
  98. ^ Harrison, Frances. "Crackdown in Iran over dress codes" BBC News (April 27 2007).
  99. ^ Quoted in Grand Ayatollah Makarim Shirazi, Tafsir Nemoneh, on verse 4:12.
  100. ^ M. J. Gohari (2000). The Taliban: Ascent to Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 108-110. For an example, see http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/6185.htm.
  101. ^ M. J. Gohari (2000). The Taliban: Ascent to Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 108-110.
  102. ^ Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Chronology of Events January 1995 - February 1997." UNHCR.org.
  103. ^ U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. "Report on the Taliban's War Against Women." State.gov (November 17, 2001).
  104. ^ "The Taliban's War on Women"PDF (857 KiB), Physicians for Human Rights, August 1998.
  105. ^ A woman being flogged in public
  106. ^ See, e.g., Tahereh Saffarzadeh, Masumeh Ebtekar, Marzieh Dabbaq and Zahra Rahnavard.
  107. ^ Esfandiari, Golnaz. "Iran: Number Of Female University Students Rising Dramatically." Radio Free Europe/Free Liberty (November 19, 2003).
  108. ^ Haddad, Moore, and Smith, p19.
  109. ^ Madran, Margot. "Islamic feminism: what's in a name?" Al-Ahram Weekly Online, issue no. 569 (January 17-23, 2002).
  110. ^ United States Institute of Peace. "Women, Human Rights, and Islam." Peace Watch (August 2002).
  111. ^ a b Timothy Garton Ash. "Islam in Europe", The New York Review of Books, 10-05-2006. 
  112. ^ Kamguian, Azam. "The Liberation of Women in the Middle East." NTPI.org.
  113. ^ Feminist author Phyllis Chesler, for example, asserted: "Islamists oppose the ideals of dignity and equality for women by their practice of gender apartheid."[1] For further examples, see http://www.google.com/search?q=%22gender+apartheid%22+islam
  114. ^ Lopez, Katherine Jean. A survey conducted by the Gallup Organization found that most Muslim women did not see themselves as oppressed.[2]"Witness to the Death of Feminism: Phyllis Chesler on Her Sisterhood at War." National Review (March 08, 2006).

Amin Ahsan Islahi (1904–1997) was an Indian/Pakistani exegete of the Quran , who became famous for his Urdu exegeses of Quran, Tadabbur-i-Qur’an—an exegesis that he based on Hamiduddin Farahis (1863-1930) idea of thematic and structural coherence in the Quran. ... Tadabbur-i-Qur’an is a tafsir (exegeses) of the Quran by Amin Ahsan Islahi based on the concept of thematic and structural coherence, which was originally inspired by Allama Hamiduddin Farahi. ... Jamal Badawi is an Egyptian born Muslim Canadian professor in St. ... For other uses of the word Brill see Brill (disambiguation) Brill is a village in Buckinghamshire, England, close to the border with Oxfordshire. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (1951- ) is a well-known Pakistani scholar, exegete, and educationist. ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ... The World Assembly of Muslim Youth is an Islamic organization whose stated purpose is to establish a platform where Muslim youth can get together in an Islamic environment. ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Wael B. Hallaq (born in 1955) is one of the world’s leading scholars in Sunni jurisprudence and Islamic legal thought. ... Afsāneh Najmābādi Afsāneh Najmābādi (Persian: افسانه نجم آبادي) (b. ... Ibn Qudamah (Arabic أبن قدامة ) was a noted Islamic scholar of the Hanbali madhhab, author of al-Mughni (a well-known Hanbali book of fiqh) as well as Tahrim an-Nazar (Censure of Speculative Theology, criticism of Ibn Aqils rationalist views. ... Look up Omar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (d. ... Qatadah (Surnamed Abdul Khateb) was a Companion (Sahaba) of the Prophet Muhammad (d. ... 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The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... ArabNews is the leading English language source of news presented from an Arab perspective. ... 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Works cited

  • El Fadl, Khaled Abou. "The Death Penalty, Mercy, and Islam: A Call for Retrospection." In Religion and the Death Penalty: A Call for Reckoning (Erik C. Owens, John David Carlson, and Eric P. Elshtain, eds.). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (2004), ISBN 0802821723.
  • Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521026994. 
  • Glassé, Cyril. The New Encyclopedia of Islam (2002), AltaMira Press, ISBN 0-7591-0189-2.
  • Yvonne Haddad and John Esposito. Islam, Gender, and Social Change, Published 1998. Oxford University Press, US. ISBN 0-19-511357-8.
  • Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Kathleen M. Moore, and Jane I Smith. Muslim Women in America: The Challenge of Islamic Identity Today. Oxford University Press (2006): ISBN 0195177835.
  • Hessini, L., 1994, Wearing the Hijab in Contemporary Morocco: Choice and Identity, in Göçek, F. M. & Balaghi, S., Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East: Tradition, Identity & Power, New York, Columbia University Press
  • Suad Joseph and Afsaneh Najmabadi. Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures BRILL (2005), ISBN 9004128182
  • Javed Ahmed Ghamidi. Mizan. Al-Mawrid (2001-present).
  • Levy, Reuben (1969). The Social Structure of Islam. UK: Cambridge University Press. 

Prof. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Afsāneh Najmābādi Afsāneh Najmābādi (Persian: افسانه نجم آبادي) (b. ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ...

Further reading

Scripture

Books

  • Bernadette Andrea, Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature, Cambridge University Press, 2008 [5]
  • John Esposito and Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Islam, Gender, and Social Change, Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-195-11357-8
  • Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender in Islam: Historical roots of a modern debate, Yale University Press, 1992
  • Valentine Moghadam (ed), Gender and National Identity.
  • Nadje Al-Ali and Nicola Pratt, Women in Iraq: Beyond the Rhetoric, Middle East Report, No. 239, Summer 2006
  • Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God: Fundamentalism in Judaism, Christianity and Islam, London, HarperCollins/Routledge, 2001
  • Suad Joseph, ed. Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures. Leiden: Brill, Vol 1-4, 2003-2007.
  • Saddeka Arebi, Women and Words in Saudi Arabia: The Politics of Literary Discourse, Columbia University Press, 1994, ISBN-10: 0231084218

For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Leila Ahmed is an Egyptian American professor of Womens Studies and Religion at the Harvard Divinity School. ... Karen Armstrong (b. ... Saddeka Arebi (d. ...

Articles

  • The Rights And Duties of Women In Islam
  • Women and Islam A set of essays discussing women in Islam, including polygamy, inheritance, marriage to non-Muslims, birth control, and Islamic dress. Also highlighting Quranic and Biblical references concerning women.
  • Women in Muslim History: Traditional Perspectives and New Strategies
  • My Mother and My Religion: Mothers in Islam
  • WOMEN IN THE MIDDLE EAST: PROGRESS OR REGRESS?” Middle East Review of International Affairs, Volume 10, No. 2, Article 2 - June 2006
  • The Articles, Books and Fatwas Related to Women
  • The Status of Women in Islam by Dr. Jamal Badawi
  • The Muslim Woman's Dress by Dr. Jamal A. Badawi
  • Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judeo-Christian Tradition
  • Women in the Quran and the Sunna
  • The Noble Women Scholars of Hadeeth
  • Symposium: Gender Apartheid and Islam
This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... Main article: Islamism This article is about criticism of political Islam For criticism of the religion of Islam, see Criticism of Islam. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Eurabia is a neologism that denotes a scenario where Europe allies itself to and eventually merges with the Arab world. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Persecution of Muslims refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article is about the controversy over the novel by Salman Rushdie. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Afshin Ellian (Tehran, Iran, 27 February 1966) is a Dutch professor of law, philosopher, and poet. ... Ayaan Hirsi Ali, MA ( ; Somali: ; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan 13 November 1969[2] in Mogadishu, Somalia) is a Dutch feminist and political writer, daughter of the Somali scholar, politician, and revolutionary opposition leader Hirsi Magan Isse. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... Irshad Manji (born 1968) is a Canadian Muslim feminist, author, journalist, activist and professor of leadership. ... Ibn Warraq (born 1946) is a secularist author of Pakistani origin and founder of the Institute for the Secularisation of Islamic Society and a senior research fellow at the Center for Inquiry[1][2] [3] focusing on Quranic criticism [4][5] Warraq gathered world notice through his controversial historiographies... Philippe de Villiers in Toulouse in April 2007 Philippe de Villiers (born Viscount Philippe Le Jolis de Villiers de Saintignon on March 25, 1949) was the Mouvement pour la France nominee for the French presidential election of 2007. ... Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American writer on Islam. ... Theo van Gogh (pronounced ) (July 23, 1957–November 2, 2004) was a Dutch film director, television producer, publicist and actor. ... Geert Wilders (IPA: , []; born 6 September 1963) is a Dutch politician. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Guantanamo Detainees (02/13/2004) This list of Guantánamo detainees is compiled from various sources. ... Moazzam Begg before speaking at a meeting about civil liberties Moazzam Begg (born 1968) is one of nine British Muslims who were held in extrajudicial detention in the Guantanamo Bay detainment camp, in Cuba, by the government of the United States of America. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism Wikisource has original text related to this article: Statement of Alberto J Mora on interrogation abuse, July 7, 2004 Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a joint military prison and... The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005. ... Protests in Islamabad, Pakistan, following allegations that U.S. military personnel had desecrated the Quran The Quran desecration controversy of 2005 captured international attention in April 2005 when Newsweek published an article containing allegations that U.S. personnel at the Guantánamo Bay prison camp had deliberately damaged... On October 30, 2005, Theresia Morangke (15), Alfita Poliwo (17) and Yarni Sambue (17) were beheaded by Muslim militants [1] as Ramadan trophies [2] in the Poso region of the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. ... Norman Kember and Harmeet Singh Sooden were held hostage, as depicted here on Al Jazeera television. ... Screenshot of Olaf Wiig (left) and Steve Centanni (right) in tape released after capture Fox News Channel journalists Olaf Wiig, a New Zealander photojournalist, and Steve Centanni, an American reporter, were kidnapped in the Gaza Strip by the Holy Jihad Brigades, a previously unknown group of Palestinian militants, from their... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse Beginning in 2004, accounts of abuse, torture, rape[1] and homicide[2][3] of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also known as Baghdad Correctional Facility) came to public attention. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Flying while Muslim be merged into this article or section. ... Police observing crowds prior to confrontations The 2005 Cronulla riots were a series of ethnically motivated mob confrontations which originated in and around Cronulla, a beachfront suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. ... The French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools bans wearing conspicuous religious symbols in French public (i. ... Immage from the CIAs surveillance of Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr recovered during investigations by the prosecuting authority of Milan [1] The Abu Omar Case (or Imam Rapito affair - Kidnapped Imam affair) refers to the abduction and transfer in Egypt of the Imam of Milan Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr, also... In mid-June 2007 Salman Rushdie was given the title of knight by the British Queen Elizabeth II. This action brought much criticism around the world in many countries with Muslim majority populations. ... Pope Benedict XVI, January 2006 The Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy arose from a lecture delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg in Germany. ... One of Vilkss original three drawings, depicting Muhammad as a roundabout dog. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Flag Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent Capital Damascus Capital-in-exile Córdoba Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - Established 660  - Disestablished 750 Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... Flag Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent Capital Damascus Capital-in-exile Córdoba Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - Established 660  - Disestablished 750 Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Cordoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Sufism (Arabic: ‎ - taá¹£awwuf, Kurdish Sufayeti, Persian: صوفی‌گری, sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf), is generally understood by scholars to be the inner or mystical dimension of Islam. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islam - percentage by country Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic marital jurisprudence and human sexuality. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... // Takaful is an Islamic insurance concept which is grounded in Islamic muamalat (banking transactions), observing the rules and regulations of Islamic law. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Sharia is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and science. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque on the day of the Fall of Constantinople Conversion of non-Muslim houses of worship into mosques began during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and under the Muslim rule. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... Persecution of Muslims refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ...

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Islam Women - Arab Girls - Islam Dating - Arab Women (379 words)
Islam dating sites as it is currently practiced in much of the world shall not exist among Muslims where a man and a woman are in a one-on-one intimate Muslim matrimonials, spending time together alone, getting to know each other in a very deep way.
That is purer for them." In conclusion, Islam lays its social structure on the basis of a permanent relationship between a man and a women in islam in the form of a family.
Pre-marital relationships in Islam are not considered respectful for neither the man nor the muslim girls, nor is it constructive for the concept or the building the family or the Islamic society.
IAS: Resources: Articles (2223 words)
Women, who at the beginning of Islam, were leading armies and making political decisions, were now, a few centuries later, expected to sit separately from men in mosques and in prayer ceremonies.
Islam is a religion where the standard for superiority is the level of ones knowledge, where human being was created in the best figure, and thus where advancing knowledge is a duty.
Whether women are constantly being held to an impossible standard, or subject to discrimination solely based on the fact that they are not equal to men, they are, by far, the group most affected by this form of prejudice.
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