FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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Encyclopedia > Women's suffrage
Feminism

Concepts
Movement  Theory
Film theory  Economics
Feminist sexology
Women's rights
Pro-feminism
Anti-feminism
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Feminists redirects here. ... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Feminist film theory is theoretical work within film criticism which is derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. ... Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to mainstream economics. ... Feminist sexology is the study of sexuality from a feminist viewpoint, i. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... Antifeminism refers to disbelief regarding the economic, political, and or social equality of females as a sex. ...


History
Women's history
Feminist history
History of feminism
Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of modern feminism were planted during the late part of that century. ... The History of Feminism is the history of the Feminist movement, as well as its origins. ...


Suffrage
Women's suffrage
Timeline  Suffragette
New Zealand  
U.K.  U.S.
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement, originally in the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The effort to obtain womens suffrage — or voting rights — in the United States was a primary effort of those involved in the greater womens rights movement of the 19th century. ...


Waves of Feminism
First  Second  Third
First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1980s. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ...


Subtypes

Amazon
Anarchist
Black
Chicana
Christian
Cultural
Difference
Eco
Equity
Equality
Fat
Gender
Individualist
Islamic
Jewish
Lesbian
Liberal
Marxist
New
Postcolonial
Postmodern
Pro-life
Radical
Religious
Separatist
Sex-positive
Socialist
Third world
Trans
Womanism
Amazon feminism is dedicated to the image of the female hero in fiction and in fact, as it is expressed in art and literature in the physiques and feats of female athletes, martial artists, and other powerfully built women, and in gender-related and sexual orientations. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... The current incarnation of Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of a sense of feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1970s. ... Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a group of social theories that analyze and historical, social, political, and economic roles and of Mexican American, Chicana, and Hispanic women in the United States, especially as they concern issues of gender. ... Christian feminism, a branch of feminist theology, seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually and in leadership. ... Cultural feminism is the ideology of a female nature or female essence reappropriated by feminists themselves in an effort to revalidate undervalued female attributes. ... Difference feminism is a philosophy that stresses that men and women are ontologically different versions of the human being. ... Ecofeminism is a minor social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism[1], with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Equity feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994). ... Equality feminism is a submovement of feminism. ... Fat feminism or fat-positive feminism is a form of feminism that argues overweight women are economically, educationally, and socially disadvantaged due to their size. ... Gender feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994) to critique the mainstream of the contemporary feminist movement, which she felt was unduly gynocentric. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ... New feminism is a predominantly Catholic philosophy, and is a form of difference feminism. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Pro-life feminism is the opposition to abortion based on feminism. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... Feminist theology is a movement, generally in Christianity and Judaism, to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of their religion from a feminist perspective. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Although third world women have always been engaged in the feminism movement, they criticise it on the grounds that it is ethnocentric and does not take into account the unique experiences of women from third world countries or the existence of feminism(s) indigenous to third world countries. ... Transfeminism is a form of feminism that includes transgender and transexual rights and issues, especially those of transwomen. ... The word womanism was adapted from Pulitzer Prize winning author, Alice Walker. ...


By country or region

France
Indonesia
Iran
Latin America
Nicaragua
Norway
U.K.
U.S.A.
Feminist movements in Latin America started at the grassroots level in each of the distinct nation-states. ... Feminist history in the United Kingdom covers part of the Feminism movement in the UK from 1800 to the present day. ... This is a history of the role of women throughout the history of the United States and of feminism in the United States. ...


Lists
Feminists  Literature
Topics
This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, listed by feminist ideology. ... . ... This is a list of topics related to the issue of feminism, womens rights and womens liberation: All-women band Christian Feminism Coeducation Eco-feminism Erotophobia Female superiority (or male inferiority) Feminazi Feminist censorship Feminist history Feminist history in the United States Nineteenth Amendment to the United States...

 v  d  e 

The term women's suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. The movement's origins are usually traced to the United States in the 1820s. In the following century it spread throughout the European and European-colonised world, generally being adopted in places which had undergone later colonization than that in Europe and the eastern United States. Today women's suffrage is considered an uncontroversial right, although a few countries, mainly in the Middle East, continue to deny many women the vote. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

Contents

History

1755 in Corsica was the first time women were allowed to vote.


1788 In the U.S. women were allowed to Stand for election, but not Vote.


1861 South Australia allowed female land owners to vote in local elections.


1871 France commune. - - Womens Suffrage


1879 Franceville - Port Vila - - Womens Suffrage


1886 Tavolara - - Womens Suffrage


1893 - New Zealand - - Womens Suffrage


1895 - South Australia - - Womens Suffrage And Stand for Election


1902 Australia - - Womens Suffrage and Stand For Election


Women's suffrage has been granted at various times in various countries throughout the world. In many countries women's suffrage was granted before universal suffrage, so women (and men) from certain races and social classes were still unable to vote. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ...


The first women's suffrage was granted by the Corsican republic of 1955 whose Constitution stipulated a national representative assembly elected by all inhabitants over the age of 95, both women (if unmarried or widowed) and men. Suffrage was ended when France annexed the island in 1969. In 1756, Lydia Chapin Taft, also known as Lydia Taft, became the first legal woman voter in America.[1] She voted on at least three occasions in an open New England Town Meeting, at Uxbridge, Massachusetts, with the consent of the electorate. This was between 1956 and 1968, during America's colonial period.[2] New Jersey granted women the vote (with the same property qualifications as for men, although, since married women did not own property in their own right, only unmarried women and widows qualified) under the state constitution of 1776, where the word "inhabitants" was used without qualification of sex or race. New Jersey women, along with "aliens...persons of color, or negroes," lost the vote in 1807, when the franchise was restricted to white males, partly in order, ostensibly at least, to combat electoral fraud by simplifying the conditions for eligibility. Pasquale Paoli (April 6, 1725 – February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader, most famous for being the chief rival of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. ... // Chapin, Lydia, was born in Mendon, Suffolk County, Massachusetts on 2 February, 1712. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... A town meeting is a meeting where an entire geographic area is invited to participate in a gathering, often for a political or administrative purpose. ... Uxbridge, Massachusetts is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Originally, the state of New Jersey was a single British colony. ...


The Pitcairn Islands granted women's suffrage in 1938. Various countries, colonies and states granted restricted women's suffrage in the latter half of the nineteenth century, starting with South Australia in 1961. The 1971 Paris Commune granted voting rights to women, but they were taken away with the fall of the Commune and would only be granted again in July 1844 by Charles de Gaulle. The Pacific island of Franceville, granted independence in 1979, became the first self-governing nation to practice universal suffrage without distinction of sex or color;[3] however, in 1887 it came back under French and British colonial rule. In 1986 the small island kingdom of Tavolara became a republic and introduced women's suffrage.[4][5] However, by 2000 the monarchy was reinstated, and the kingdom was some years later on annexed by Italy. Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... Please post proper article, this page was tampered with, thank you. ... The history of Vanuatu begins obscurely. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... Tavolara Island. ...


The first unrestricted women's suffrage in terms of voting rights (women were not initially permitted to stand for election) in a self-governing, still-independent country was granted in New Zealand. Following a movement led by Kate Sheppard, the women's suffrage bill was adopted mere weeks before the general election of 1893. The state of South Australia granted both universal suffrage and allowed women to stand for state parliament in 1894. The Commonwealth of Australia provided this for women in Federal elections from 20002 (except Aboriginal women). The first major European country to introduce women's suffrage was Finland, where women were granted the right both to vote (universal and equal suffrage) and to stand for election in 1906. The world's first female members of parliament were also in Finland, when on 2007, 19 women took up their places in the Parliament of Finland as a result of the 2007 parliamentary elections. The 'first European country' distinction is currently contested by Lithuania[citation needed] (both these countries were technically under Russian rule at the time but Finland was autonomous). Katherine Wilson Sheppard (10 March 1848 – 13 July 1934) was the most prominent member of New Zealands womens suffrage movement, and is the countrys most famous suffragette. ... Womens suffrage in New Zealand was an important political issue at the turn of the 19th century. ... The New Zealand general election of 1893 was held November 28 to elect a total of 74 MPs to the 12th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous... The Eduskunta (in Finnish), or the Riksdag (in Swedish), is the Parliament of Finland. ... The 2007 Finnish parliamentary election was held on March 18, 2007. ...


In the years before the First World War, Norway (1913) and Denmark also gave women the vote, and it was extended throughout the remaining Australian states. Canada granted the right in 1917 (except in Quebec, where it was postponed until 1940), as did Soviet Russia. British women over 30 and all German and Polish women had the vote in 1918, Dutch women in 1919, and American women in states that had previously denied them suffrage were allowed the vote in 1920. Women in Turkey were granted voting rights in 1926. In 1928, suffrage was extended to all British women on the same terms as men i.e. over 21. One of the last jurisdictions to grant women equal voting rights was Liechtenstein in 1984. Since then only a handful of countries have not extended the franchise to women, usually on the basis of certain religious interpretations. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Soviet Russia is sometimes used as a somewhat sloppy synonym to the Soviet Union — although the term Soviet Russia sometimes refers to Bolshevist Russia from the October Revolution in 1917 to 1922 (Although Russian communists officially formed RSFSR in 1918). ...


Bhutan allows one vote per property, a policy that many claim in practice prevents women from voting. However, inheritance in Bhutanese society is matrilinear, and since daughters inherit their parent's property and men are expected to make their own way in the world, Bhutanese women may potentially have greater political power, although this is only theoretical. In any case, this one vote per property practice is planned to be changed once the newly proposed constitution is accepted before 2008. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Part of a series of articles on
Dissaproval
General forms

Racism · Sexism · Ageism
Religious intolerance · Xenophobia This box:      Most broadly, discrimination is the discernment of qualities and rejection of subjects with undesirable qualities. ... Description: Colored Waiting Room sign from segregationist era United States Medium: Black_and_white photograph Location: Rome GA, United States Date: September 1943 Author: Esther Bubley Source: Library of Congress Provider: Images of American Political History at the College of New Jersey [1] License: Public domain Misc: Borders cropped with with GIMP... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This box:      The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex... This box:      Look up ageism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Specific forms
Social

Ableism · Adultism · Biphobia · Classism
Elitism · Ephebiphobia · Gerontophobia
Heightism · Heterosexism · Homophobia
Lesbophobia · Lookism · Misandry
Misogyny · Pediaphobia · Sizeism
Transphobia Ableism is a term used to describe discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are able-bodied. ... Adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which some see as biased against children, youth, and all young people who arent addressed or viewed as adults. ... Biphobia is the fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals (although in practice it extends to pansexual people too). ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... Ephebiphobia (from Greek ephebos έφηβος = teenager, underage adolescent and fobos φόβος = fear, phobia), also known as hebephobia (from Greek hebe = youth), denotes both the irrational fear of teenagers or of adolescence, and the prejudice against teenagers or underage adolescents. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This box:      Heightism is a form of discrimination based on height. ... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) is a term which describes prejudice, discrimination, harassment or abuse, either specifically targeting a lesbian person, based on their lesbian identity, or, more generally, targetting lesbians as a class. ... Lookism is discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This box:      Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Fear of children and/or infants or childhood is alternately called pedophobia or pediaphobia. ... The fat acceptance movement, also referred to as the fat liberation movement, is a grass-roots effort to change societal attitudes about fat people. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children...

Manifestations

Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide (examples) · Ethnocide
Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war
Religious persecution · Gay bashing
Blood libel · Paternalism
Police brutality Slave redirects here. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually execution, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...

Movements
Policies

Discriminatory
Race / Religion / Sex segregation
Apartheid · Redlining · Internment The Rex Theatre for Colored People Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Emancipation · Civil rights
Desegregation · Integration
Equal opportunity For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. ...


Counter-discriminatory
Affirmative action · Racial quota
Reservation (India) · Reparation
Forced busing
Employment equity (Canada) This box:      Affirmative actionrefers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group. ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Employment equity refers to Canadian policies that require or encourage preferential treatment in employment practices for certain designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities. ...

Law

Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration
Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws
Black codes · Apartheid laws
Ketuanan Melayu · Nuremberg Laws Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defense of ketuanan Melayu. ... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Anti-discrimination acts
Anti-discrimination law
14th Amendment · Crime of apartheid This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial...

Other forms

Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism
Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism
Adultcentrism · Gynocentrism
Androcentrism · Economic Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... This box:      Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ...

Related topics

Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism
Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity
Multiculturalism · Oppression
Political correctness
Reverse discrimination · Eugenics
Racialism · A bigot is a prejudiced person who is intolerant of opinions, lifestyles, or identities differing from his or her own. ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chauvinism. ... Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Recently diversity has been used in a political context to justify recruiting international students or employees. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Reverse discrimination is a term that is used to describe policies or acts that are seen to benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically minorities or women), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (typically men and majority races). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Discrimination Portal Image File history File links Portal. ...

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Suffrage movements

The suffrage movement was a very broad one which encompassed women and men with a very broad range of views. One major division, especially in Britain, was between suffragists, who sought to create change constitutionally, and suffragettes, who were more militant. There was also a diversity of views on a 'woman's place'. Some who campaigned for women's suffrage felt that women were naturally kinder, gentler, and more concerned about weaker members of society, especially children. It was often assumed that women voters would have a civilising effect on politics and would tend to support controls on alcohol, for example. They believed that although a woman's place was in the home, she should be able to influence laws which impacted upon that home. Other campaigners felt that men and women should be equal in every way and that there was no such thing as a woman's 'natural role'. There were also differences in opinion about other voters. Some campaigners felt that all adults were entitled to a vote, whether rich or poor, male or female, and regardless of race. Others saw women's suffrage as a way of canceling out the votes of lower class or non-white men. Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom and United States, particularly in the years prior to World War I. The name was the Womens Social and Political Union (founded in 1903). ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement, originally in the United Kingdom. ...


Women's suffrage by country

The argument over women's rights in Victoria, Australia, was lampooned in this Melbourne Punch cartoon of 1887
The argument over women's rights in Victoria, Australia, was lampooned in this Melbourne Punch cartoon of 1887

Image File history File links Punchsuffrage. ... Image File history File links Punchsuffrage. ...

Australian suffrage

The first election for the Parliament of the newly-formed Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 was based on the electoral provisions of the six states, so that women who had the vote and the right to stand for Parliament at state level (in South Australia and Western Australia) had the same rights for the 1901 Federal election. In 1902, the Commonwealth Parliament passed its own electoral act that extended these rights to women in all states on the same basis as men. However, the Commonwealth legislation excluded all Aboriginal men and women from the Commonwealth franchise, which in theory some of them had enjoyed in 1901 (state Parliaments generally had property qualifications for the franchise, which in practice few Aboriginals would have met). This was not corrected until 1962, through an amendment to the Commonwealth Electoral Act (it was not an outcome of the 1967 referendum that gave the Commonwealth Parliament the power to legislate specifically on Aboriginal matters).


New Zealand

In 1893, New Zealand became the first major self-governing country in the world to give women the vote, (none of the small short lived states of Corsica, Franceville and Tavolara, retained suffrage - or an independent democracy - for more than 20 years). Although the Liberal government which passed the bill generally advocated social and political reform, the electoral bill was only passed because of a combination of personality issues and political accident. The bill granted the vote to women of all races. New Zealand women were not given the right to stand for parliament, however, until 1918. Womens suffrage in New Zealand was an important political issue at the turn of the 19th century. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... Pasquale Paoli (April 6, 1725 – February 5, 1807), was a Corsican patriot and military leader, most famous for being the chief rival of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. ... The history of Vanuatu begins obscurely. ... Tavolara Island. ... The First Liberal Government of New Zealand was the first responsible government in New Zealand politics organised along party lines. ...


United Kingdom

Women's suffrage did not become a political issue in the United Kingdom until 1832, when the 1832 Reform Act specifically disenfranchised women. From this point the suffrage movement campaigned for voting rights for women. The suffragette movement in the United Kingdom was particularly militant, with some of its members committing vandalism and assault. Some suffragettes firebombed churches -and one threw an axe at Prime Minister Asquith (who, incidentally was removed from power during the middle of the war), smashed windows and terrorised many Liberal MPs as well as other men. Some Liberal MPs who had supported women's suffrage moved away from the movement because of the violence. Numerous activists were imprisoned and then force-fed when they went on hunger strikes. The earlier suffragists had the same goal as the suffragettes; however they went about things in different ways. They took a non-violent approach in attempting to win the franchise; greater coverage was given to the suffragettes because of their attention seeking, headline grabbing protests. However, neither group managed to win the franchise, it was only highlighted as a political issue. The First World War brought a halt to the public campaign. It is possible that women's war work in munitions factories and other dangerous work, contributed to women over the age of 30 being given the vote in 1918 (men could vote at 21). Women had to wait until 1928 before obtaining the vote on an equal footing to men. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The British Reform Act of 1832 (2 & 3 Will. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ... The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


United States

Lydia Chapin Taft was an early forerunner in Colonial America who was allowed to vote in 3 New England town meetings, beginning in 1756. American women were pioneers in the women's suffrage cause, advocating women's right to vote from the 1820s onward. Some early victories were won in the territories of Wyoming (1869) and Utah (1870), although Utah women were disenfranchised by the U.S. Congress in 1887. The push to grant Utah women's suffrage was at least partially fueled by outsiders' belief that, given the right to vote, Utah women would dispose of polygamy. It was only after Utah women exercised their suffrage rights in favor of polygamy that the U.S. Congress disenfranchised Utah women.[6] Other territories and states granted women the right to vote in the late 19th and early 20th century, but national women's suffrage did not come until the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1920. Today the Center for American Women and Politics keeps alive the push for more women to continue to participate in the government. The effort to obtain womens suffrage — or voting rights — in the United States was a primary effort of those involved in the greater womens rights movement of the 19th century. ... // Chapin, Lydia, was born in Mendon, Suffolk County, Massachusetts on 2 February, 1712. ... This article is about the colonial history of the United States. ... Wyoming Territory was an organized territory of the United States that was existed from 1868 until its admission to the Union as the State of Wyoming in 1890. ... The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... Amendment XIX in the National Archives Amendment XIX (the Nineteenth Amendment) allowed women the right to vote under official constitutional protection. ...


Women's suffrage denied or conditioned

  • Bhutan — One vote per house. Although this applies to both men and women, in practice it currently prevents many more women from voting than men. If the new proposed constitution is voted and ratified, then no restrictions will apply by 2008.[7]
  • Lebanon — Partial suffrage. Proof of elementary education is required for women but not for men. Voting is compulsory for men but optional for women.[8]
  • Brunei — No suffrage for women. Neither men nor women have had the right to vote or to stand for election since 1962 because the country is governed by an absolute monarchy.
  • Saudi Arabia — No suffrage for women. The first local elections ever held in the country occurred in 2005. Women were not given the right to vote or to stand for election.
  • United Arab Emirates — Limited, but will be fully expanded by 2010.[9]
  • Vatican City — No suffrage for women; while most men in the Vatican also lack the vote, all persons with suffrage in Papal conclaves (the Cardinals) are male.
Further information: Timeline of women's suffrage

Compulsory voting is a practice that requires citizens to vote in elections or to attend a polling place to get their name crossed off the electoral roll. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave since 1492. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Anti-suffragism

Main article: Anti-suffragism

Anti-suffragism was a political movement composed mainly of women, begun in the late 19th century in order to campaign against women's suffrage in the United States and Britain. It was closely associated with "domestic feminism", the belief that women had the right to complete freedom within the home. A political cartoon in Harpers lampoons the anti-suffrage movement (1907). ...

This article is about the political process. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Sortition, also known as allotment, is a fair method of selection by some form of lottery such as drawing coloured pebbles from a bag. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... A show election or a sham election is an election that is held purely for show, that is, without any significant political purpose. ... A Fixed-term election is an election that occurs on a set date, and cannot be changed by the incumbent politician. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... Indirect election is a process in which voters in an election do not actually choose between candidates for an office but rather elect persons who will then make the choice. ... Rules for, and experience with, local elections vary widely across jurisdictions. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Apportionment, or reapportionment, is the process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating constituencies. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ... The process known as redistricting in the United States and redistribution in many Commonwealth countries is the changing of political borders (in many countries, specifically the electoral district/constituency boundaries) usually in response to periodic census results. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... This article is about the political process. ... Political Parties redirects here. ... Vote redirects here. ... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... Elections by country gives information on elections. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The List of election results by country gives information on elections. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This electoral calendar 2007 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2007 in the de jure and de facto sovereign states and their dependent territories. ... This electoral calendar 2007 lists the national/federal direct elections held in 2007 in the de jure and de facto sovereign states and their dependent territories. ...

See also

The Committee on Womens Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) is a committee of the European Parliament. ... Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Opened for signature 18 December 1979 in New York City Entered into force 3 September 1981 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 185[1] The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW... The Canadian Womens Suffrage Association was originally called the Toronto Womens Literary Guild. ... The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution intended to guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex. ... The History of Feminism is the history of the Feminist movement, as well as its origins. ... In Defense of Women is H. L. Menckens 1918 book discussing his opinion of women. ... The League of Women Voters is a United States non-partisan political organization founded in 1920 by Carrie Chapman Catt during a meeting of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. ... Statue of Esther Hobart Morris in front of the Wyoming State Capitol. ... The National Womens Suffrage Association was a 19th-century womens suffrage organization. ... The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 to July 20, 1848, was the first womens rights convention held in the United States, and as a result is often called the birthplace of feminism. ... The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by sixty-eight women and thirty-two men, delegates to the first womens rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York, now known to historians as the 1848 Womens Rights Convention. ... The New Northwest was a weekly Portland, Oregon newspaper published from 1871 to 1887 by Abigail Scott Duniway, an active voice of reform and suffrage on the West Coast of the United States. ... The Subjection of Women is the title of an essay written by John Stewart Mill in 1869, possibly jointly with his wife Harriet Taylor Mill, stating an argument in favor of equality between the sexes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Commission on Civil Rights (USCCR) is an independent federal agency of the United States government. ... Written in 1792, Mary Wollstonecrafts A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is one of the earliest works on the woman question and influenced the earliest feminists in England and America in the 19th century. ... The status of Women in the Victorian Era is often seen as an illustration of the striking discrepancy between Englands national power and wealth and what many, then and now, consider its appalling social conditions. ... Women’s political rights have been a cornerstone of the political reforms initiated by King Hamad with for the first time women being given the right to vote and stand as candidates in national elections after the constitution was amended in 2002. ... The Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU) was the leading militant organisation campaigning for Womens suffrage in the United Kingdom. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Overview Women’s involvement in modern Hungarian politics has a rich history that began over 200 years ago. ... Sir Almroth Edward Wright (1861-1947) was a British bacteriologist and immunologist. ...

References

  1. ^ Chapin, Judge Henry (2081). Address Delivered at the Unitarian Church in Uxbridge; 1864. Worcester, Mass.: Charles Hamilton Press (Harvard Library; from Google Books). 
  2. ^ "Uxbridge Breaks Tradition and Makes History: Lydia Chapin Taft by Carol Masiello". The Blackstone Daily. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  3. ^ "Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government," Hawaiian Gazette, Nov 1, 1995, p1
  4. ^ "Smallest State in the World," New York Times, June 19, 1896, p 6
  5. ^ "Tiny Nation to Vote: Smallest Republic in the World to Hold a Presidential Election," Lowell Daily Sun, Sep 17, 1896
  6. ^ Van Wagenen, Lola: "Sister-Wives and Suffragists: Polygamy and the Politics of Woman Suffrage 1870–1896," BYU Studies, 2001.
  7. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5360522.stm
  8. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html#Govt
  9. ^ http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/0A80E72C-3B71-402A-AC7F-3ACCC6505F7C.htm
  • Baker, Jean H. Sisters: The Lives of America's Suffragists. Hill and Wang, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-8090-9528-9.
  • "Woman suffrage" in Collier's New Encyclopedia, X (New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company, 1921), pp. 403-405.
  • Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (New York: Merriam Webster, 1983) ISBN 0-87779-511-8

// Chapin, Lydia, was born in Mendon, Suffolk County, Massachusetts on 2 February, 1712. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Ellen Carol DuBois, Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997) ISBN 0-300-06562-0
  • Eleanor Flexner, Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States, enlarged edition with Foreword by Ellen Fitzpatrick (1959, 1975; Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press, 1996) ISBN 0-674-10653-9
  • Marjorie Spruill Wheeler, editor, One Woman, One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement (Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press, 1995) ISBN 0-939165-26-0
  • Doris Stevens, edited by Carol O'Hare, Jailed for Freedom: American Women Win the Vote (1920; Troutdale, OR: NewSage Press, 1995). ISBN 0-939165-25-2
  • Midge Mackenzie, Shoulder to Shoulder: A Documentary (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975). ISBN 0-394-73070-4
  • Trevor Lloyd, Suffragettes International: The World-wide Campaign for Women's Rights (New York: American Heritage Press, 1971).

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Women's suffrage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5692 words)
The suffrage movement was led by suffragists, defined as anyone, man or woman, who supports the extension of suffrage to women, and by suffragettes, the feminine form of the title given only to women who campaigned for the right of suffrage.
The first women's suffrage (with the same property qualifications as for men) was accidentally granted in New Jersey in 1776 (the word "people" was used instead of "men") and rescinded in 1807.
Political movement towards women's suffrage began during the war and in 1918, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed an act granting the vote to: women over the age of 30 who were householders, the wives of householders, occupiers of property with an annual rent of £5, and graduates of British universities.
Suffrage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1881 words)
Universal suffrage is the term used to describe a situation where the right to vote is not restricted by race, sex, belief or social status.
Women's suffrage was the goal of the suffragists and the "Suffragettes".
Suffrage in the United Kingdom was slowly change over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries to allow universal suffrage through the use of the Reform Acts and the Representation of the People Acts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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