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Encyclopedia > Women's rights
Feminism

Subtypes
Anarcha-feminism
Black feminism
Christian Feminism
Cultural feminism
Cyborg feminism
Ecofeminism
Fat feminism
Individualist feminism
Islamic feminism
Lesbian feminism
Liberal feminism
Marxist feminism
Postmodern feminism
Psychoanalytic feminism
Radical feminism
Religious feminism
Separatist feminism
Socialist feminism
Womanism
Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the liberation of women. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... The current incarnation of Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of a sense of feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1970s. ... Christian feminism, a branch of feminist theology, seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of women and men morally, socially, and in leadership. ... Cultural feminism is the ideology of a female nature or female essence reappropriated by feminists themselves in an effort to revalidate undervalued female attributes. ... Cyborg feminism is a sub-movement of feminism that uses the notion of a cyborg, machine-organism hybrid, to explore feminism. ... Ecofeminism is a social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism, with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Fat feminism or fat-positive feminism is a form of feminism that argues overweight women are economically, educationally, and socially disadvantaged due to their size. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ... Postmodern feminism is one approach to feminist theory that argues that there is no single cause for a womans subordination because sociological gender is itself constructed through language. ... Psychoanalytic feminism is based on Freud and his psychoanalytic theories. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... Feminist theology is a movement, generally in Christianity and Judaism, to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of their religion from a feminist perspective. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Defined by feminist author Alice Walker, Womanism is a commonly used term that was coined to mean specifically African American Feminism, but it has developed into a more encompassing version of feminism that crosses lines of race and class. ...


Topics
Feminist movement
Pro-feminism
Anti-feminism
Sex-positive feminism
Theory / film theory
Feminist sexology
Women's rights
Feminist economics
The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... Antifeminism refers to disbelief regarding the economic, political, and or social equality of females as a sex. ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Feminist film theory is theoretical work within film criticism which is derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. ... Feminist sexology is the study of sexuality from a feminist viewpoint, i. ... Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to mainstream economics. ...


History
Women's history
Feminist history
History of feminism
Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of modern feminism were planted during the late part of that century. ... The History of Feminism is the history of the Feminist movement, as well as its origins. ...


Suffrage
Women's suffrage
Suffragette
Timeline
New Zealand
United Kingdom
United States
The movement for womens suffrage is a social, economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage—the right to vote—to women. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ... Womens suffrage has been granted (and been revoked) at various times in various countries throughout the world. ...


Waves of Feminism
First-wave feminism
Second-wave feminism
Third-wave feminism
First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1980s. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ...


By country
Indonesia
Iran
Latin America
Nicaragua
Norway
United Kingdom
United States
Feminist movements in Latin America started at the grassroots level in each of the distinct nation-states. ...


Lists
Feminists
Literature
Topics
This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, listed by feminist ideology. ... . ... This is a list of topics related to the issue of feminism, womens rights and womens liberation: All-women band Christian Feminism Coeducation Eco-feminism Erotophobia Female superiority (or male inferiority) Feminazi Feminist censorship Feminist history Feminist history in the United States Nineteenth Amendment to the United States...

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Theories of rights
Animal rights
Children's rights
Civil rights
Collective rights
Group rights
Human rights
Inalienable rights
Individual rights
Legal rights
Men's rights
Natural rights
Negative & positive
Social rights
"Three generations"
Women's rights
Workers' rights
Youth rights
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The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. These liberties are grouped together and differentiated from broader notions of human rights because they often differ from the freedoms inherently possessed by and/or recognized for men and boys, and because activism surrounding this issue claims an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women. A right is the power or privilege to which one is justly entitled or a thing to which one has a just claim. ... A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The term collective rights refers to the rights of peoples to be protected from attacks on their group identity and group interests. ... Group rights are rights that all members of a group have by virtue of being in that group. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The term inalienable rights (or unalienable rights) refers to a set of human rights that are absolute, not awarded by human power, not transferable to another power, and incapable of repudiation. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A right is the power or privilege to which one is justly entitled or a thing to which one has a just claim. ... Mens rights is a stream in the mens movement. ... Natural rights is a philosophical hition of universal rights that are seen as inherent in the nature of people and not contingent on human actions or beliefs. ... Within the philosophy of human rights, some philosophers and political scientists see a distinction between positive and negative rights. ... Social rights refer to what are usually positive rights, which ensure to all people a fair standard of treatment. ... The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling Hate speech · Hate crime Lynching · Gay bashing Genocide · Holocaust Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing Pogrom · Race war Religious persecution Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism White/Black supremacy Hate groups · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism Womens/Universal suffrage Civil rights · Gay rights Childrens rights · Youth rights Groups NAACP... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Feminism and most modern sociological theory maintain that the differences between men and women are, at least in part, socially constructed 'differences' , (i.e. determined through history by specific human groups), rather than biologically determined, immutable conditions. See articles about women, the term some feminists see as a "gender unbiased term." Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ...


Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to:

Contents

Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... Equal pay for women is an issue involving pay inequality between men and women. ... Property designates those things that are commonly recognized as being the possessions of a person or group. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Child discipline be merged into this article or section. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... A contract is any promise or set of promises made by one party to another for the breach of which the law provides a remedy. ...

Western discourses on women’s rights in the Middle East

This section investigates Western discourses on women’s rights in the Middle East from both political and theoretical angles.


Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani, one of Iran’s current most influential ruling clerics and strong supporter of the Iranian President Dr. Ahmadinejad has stated that Western women have been ‘forced to abandon their natural talents, as created by God and endorsed by men’[1] neglecting to fulfil the role of motherhood which has ‘resulted in the birth of an unloved and uncared-for generation which lacks the fundamental basis of mother love and tenderness, and which has become an alienated and disrupted society’[2] Hence, according to Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani the West has “overreacted” to ‘feminist demands…creating total anomie as result.’[3]

Nonetheless, in Memoirs (1981) Egyptian feminist Sha’rawi(See Hoda Shaarawi) notes how the Egyptian delegation (of which she was a part) at the International Women’s conference in Rome in 1923 promised: This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Hoda Shaarawi (left) & Safia Zaghloul (right) Hoda Saarawi (Arabic: هدى شعراوى ) (June 22, 1879 - 12 December 1947) was an Egyptian feminist leader and nationalist. ...

"that we would follow in the footsteps of the women in Europe in the awakening of our women so that we could take our land to its rightful place among the advanced nations.” [4]

Indeed, the position of women in the Middle East is a complex and highly debated issue. This has especially been the case when scholars have attempted to understand the rights of women in Muslim societies. In Feminist Postcolonial Theory: A Reader (2003) Fadva El Guindi argues that Muslim women’s rights have often been approached “through liberal feminist agendas”. [5] Guindi notes that this cannot be an effective approach to understanding Muslim women’s rights as ‘these agendas are based on the Western experience and derive from Western values; hence they are irrelevant to most issues of concern to Muslim women.’[6]
Historically, the manners in which the West has analysed and understood women’s position and rights in Muslim societies have caused fierce debate amongst Middle Eastern scholars; native as well as Western. In the article Women in the Middle East (2000) As`ad AbuKhalil, an associate professor of political science at California State University, argues that ‘Western treatment of Muslim women has been hypocritical at best.’[7]
A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ...


Leila Ahmed, in the book Women and Gender in Islam nicknames the western attitude to Middle Eastern women’s rights as “colonial feminism” and notes how even the widely admired Egyptian Middle East feminist Doria Shafik’s (1914-1976) ‘political gestures…seemed to have been conceived and enacted with a Western audience in mind’.[8]


With this in mind, Leila Ahmed ponders about ‘the possible psychological consequences of colonization and the ways in which these intertwined with and affected the feminist vision’[9]which has been embraced and articulated. [10]


Egyptian Heba Rauf Ezzat, one of the youngest contemporary Islamic feminists, despite being critical of Western feminist agendas in the Middle East, acknowledges that women previously ‘have not been able really to obtain their rights in Islamic societies, which explains the successes of ‘western’ feminist movements’.[11] However, she continues by calling for ‘a new women’s liberation movement – an Islamic one.’ .[12]


Deniz Kandiyoti expands this discussion by arguing that:

Women are neither homogenous nor passive victims of patriarchal domination. They are full-fledged social actors, bearing the full set of contradictions implied by their class, racial and ethnic locations as well as their gender. This has important implications for women’s movements, which are to a large extent determined by the wider social context of which they form a part.’[13]


Notable women’s rights activists

  • Táhirih (?-1852) - Bábí poet, theologian, and proponent of women's rights in 19th-century Iran.
  • Jyotiba Phule (1827-1890) - Indian social reformer, critic of the caste system, founded a school for girls, a widow-remarriage initiative, a home for upper caste widows, and a home for infant girls to discourage female infanticide
  • Kate Sheppard (1847-1934) - New Zealand suffragette, influential in winning voting rights for women in 1893 (the first national election in which women were allowed to vote)
  • Hoda Shaarawi (1879-1947) - Egyptian feminist, organizer for the Mubarrat Muhammad Ali (women’s social service organization), the Union of Educated Egyption Women and the Wafdist Women’s Central Committee, founder and first president of the Egyptian Feminist Union
  • Dora Russell (1894-1986) - British progressive campaigner, advocate of marriage reform, birth control and female emancipation
  • Begum Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan (1905-1990) - Indian - Pakistani activist, founder of the All Pakistan Women’s Association, organizer of women’s nursing and first aid corps to help refugees in Delhi despite public resistance to women working outside the home
  • Susan Fauer (1941 –) was one of the founders of the Women's Free Trade Movement
  • Shirin Ebadi (1947-) On December 10, 2003, Ebadi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her significant and pioneering efforts for democracy and human rights, especially for the rights of women and children.
  • Unity Dow (born 1959) - Botswanan judge and writer, plaintiff in a case that allowed children of Botswanan women and foreign nationals to be considered Batswana
  • Nawal el-Saadawi (born 1931) - Egyptian writer and doctor, advocate for women’s health and equality
  • Carolyn Egan (birthdate unknown) - Canadian-American trade unionist and feminist, advocate for women’s reproductive rights, including access to birth control, abortion, and sex education
  • Shamima Shaikh (1960-1998) - South African activist, member of the Muslim Youth Movement of South Africa, proponent of Islamic gender equality

Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Water painting of a Sikh Women in Dastar (Turban) The role of women in Sikhism were first outlined in the Sikh Scriptures, which were written around 1500. ... Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz de Asbaje y Ramírez Sor Juana (12 November 1651 [or 1648, according to some biographers] – 17 April 1695), also known as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz or, in full, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz de Asbaje y Ram... Nun in cloister, 1930; photograph by Doris Ulmann A nun is a woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie. ... Mary Wollstonecraft. ... Táhirih (Arabic: ‎ The Pure One) or Qurratul-`Ayn (Arabic: ‎ Comfort of the Eyes) are both titles of Fátimih Baraghání (b. ... The room where The Báb declared His mission on May 23, 1844 in His house in Shiraz. ... Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her daughter Harriot. ... The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 - July 20, 1848, was the first womens rights convention held in the United States, and as a result is often called the birthplace of the feminist movement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into National American Woman Suffrage Association. ... The International Council of Women (ICW) was established in 1888 in Seneca Falls in New York State. ... Susan B. Anthony. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into National American Woman Suffrage Association. ... Summary Incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant was easily elected to a second term in office despite a split within the Republican Party that resulted in a defection of many key Republicans to opponent Horace Greeley. ... Mahatma Jyotirao Phule (April 11, 1827 - November 28, 1890) was a social worker noted for his work in the upliftment of widows and the lower castes in India. ... The Indian caste system is the traditional system of social division in the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by a number of endogamous groups often termed as jātis. ... Marianne Hainisch (born Perger) (* 25 March 1839 Baden bei Wien, † 5 May 1936 Vienna) was the founder and leader of the Austrian womens movement. ... Katherine Wilson Sheppard (10 March 1847 – 13 July 1934) was the most prominent member of New Zealands womens suffrage movement, and is the countrys most famous suffragette. ... Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Houses of Parliament, Westminster. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ... Ida Wells-Barnett Ida B. Wells, (July 16, 1862 – March 25, 1931), later known as Ida Wells-Barnett, was an African American civil rights advocate, and led a strong cause against lynching. ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually murder, conceived of by its perpetrators as extra-legal punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Qasim Amin (1863-1908) was an Egyptian jurist, one of the founders of the Egyptian National Movement and Cairo University. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Raden Adjeng Kartini or, more accurately, Raden Ayu Kartini, (Jepara, 21 April 1879 - Rembang, 13 September 1904), was a prominent Javanese and an Indonesian national heroine. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... Luisa Capetillo (October 28, 1879-October 10, 1922) born in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, was one of Puerto Ricos most famous labor organizers. ... A Trade Union (Labour union) ... is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... Hoda Shaarawi (left) & Safia Zaghloul (right) Hoda Saarawi (Arabic: هدى شعراوى ) (June 22, 1879 - 12 December 1947) was an Egyptian feminist leader and nationalist. ... The Egyptian Feminist Union (al-Ittihad al-Nisa al-Misri) was the first nationwide feminist movement in Egypt. ... Dora Black (3 April 1894 - 31 May 1986), the second wife of the legendary philosopher Bertrand Russell, led a life worthy of note. ... Begum Raana Liaquat Ali Khan Begum Raana Liaquat Ali Khan was born at Almora in the United Provinces in the year 1905 and was educated at Lucknow. ... Catherine Zeta Jones congratulating Shirin Ebadi at the Nobel Peace Prize concert in Oslo, December 11 2003. ... Unity Dow (born 1959) is a judge, human rights activist, and writer from Botswana. ... Motto: Pula  (Rain) Anthem: Fatshe leno la rona (Blessed Be This Noble Land) Capital (and largest city) Gaborone Official languages English (official) Tswana (national) Government Parliamentary Republic  - President Festus Gontebanye Mogae Independence from the UK   - Date September 30, 1966  Area  - Total 581,730 km² (41st) 224,606 sq mi   - Water... TSWANA (singular Motswana, plural Batswana) is the name of a Southern African people, and of its Bantu language. ... Nawal el-Saadawi (Arabic Nawal al-Sa3dâwi) (born October 27, 1931) is an Egyptian feminist writer and activist. ... Carolyn Egan is a trade unionist, feminist and political activist. ... Shamima Shaikh (September 14, 1960 - January 8, 1998) is South Africas most well-known Muslim womens rights activist. ...

See also

regarding "reproductive freedom" The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that was intended to guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex. ... Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the liberation of women. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to...

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Opened for signature 18 December 1979 in New York City Entered into force 3 September 1981 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 182[1] The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW... Statue of Esther Hobart Morris in front of the Wyoming State Capitol. ... Politics is the process and method of gaining or maintaining support for public or common action: the conduct of decision-making for groups. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ... The League of Women Voters is a United States non-partisan political organization founded in 1920 by Carrie Chapman Catt during a meeting of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into National American Woman Suffrage Association. ... The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 to July 20, 1848, was the first womens rights convention held in the United States, and as a result is often called the birthplace of the feminist movement. ... The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by sixty-eight women and thirty-two men, delegates to the first womens rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York, now known to historians as the 1848 Womens Rights Convention. ... The New Northwest was a weekly Portland, Oregon newspaper published from 1871 to 1887 by Abigail Scott Duniway, an active voice of reform and suffrage on the West Coast of the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Water painting of a Sikh Women in Dastar (Turban) The role of women in Sikhism were first outlined in the Sikh Scriptures, which were written around 1500. ... Women’s political rights have been a cornerstone of the political reforms initiated by King Hamad with for the first time women being given the right to vote and stand as candidates in national elections after the constitution was amended in 2002. ... Section Twenty-eight of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a part of the Canadian constitutions bill of rights. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The movement for womens suffrage is a social, economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage—the right to vote—to women. ... Islam considers men and women to be equal by nature. ...

External links

  • Roe Depot ~ a forum on reproductive rights & alternative birth control
  • Ansar Burney Trust working for women's rights in the Middle East
  • Human Rights Watch: Women's Rights
  • World Organization Against Torture: No Violence Against Women
  • Women in the (Christian) Church essay arguing against ordination of women in the Christian church
  • Women's Rights
  • How parental rights are not granted to women when it comes to divorce and children's movement
  • Weaver v NATFHE (now part of UCU)race discrimination case. Union's policy of not providing complainants of racist harassment with advice and assistance because the person accused of harassment could lose his job upheld by Industrial Tribunal. Employment Appeal Tribunal upheld this decision and extended it to cases of sexist harassment.

References

  1. ^ Afshar, Haleh (ed.) (1987) Women, State & Ideology Hong Kong: The Macmillan Press Ltd p 72
  2. ^ Afshar, Haleh (ed.) (1987) Women, State & Ideology Hong Kong: The Macmillan Press Ltd p 72
  3. ^ Afshar, Haleh (ed.) (1987) Women, State & Ideology Hong Kong: The Macmillan Press Ltd p 72
  4. ^ Sha’rawi quoted in Lewis, R, Mills, S (eds.) (2003) Feminist Postcolonial Theory: A Reader Great Britain: Edinburgh University Press Ltd p 598
  5. ^ Guindi, F, E “Veiling Resistance” in Lewis, R, Mills, S (eds.) (2003) Feminist Postcolonial Theory: A Reader Great Britain: Edinburgh University Press Ltd p 600
  6. ^ Guindi, F, E “Veiling Resistance” in Lewis, R, Mills, S (eds.) (2003) Feminist Postcolonial Theory: A Reader Great Britain: Edinburgh University Press Ltd p 600
  7. ^ AbuKhalil, A (September 2000 ) "Women in the Middle East" Foreign Policy in Focus Vol. 5, No. 30 p 1
  8. ^ Ahmed, L (1992) Women and Gender in Islam Michigan: Yale College p 206
  9. ^ Ahmed, L (1992) Women and Gender in Islam Michigan: Yale College p 207
  10. ^ Ahmed, L (1992) Women and Gender in Islam Michigan: Yale College p 207
  11. ^ Quoted in Al-Ali, Nadje (2000) Secularism, Gender and the State in the Middle East: The Egyptian Women’s Movement UK: Cambridge University Press p 82
  12. ^ Quoted in Al-Ali, Nadje (2000) Secularism, Gender and the State in the Middle East: The Egyptian Women’s Movement UK: Cambridge University Press p 82
  13. ^ Kandiyoti, D (1991) Women, Islam and the State Hong Kong: Macmillan Academic and Professional Ltd p 17

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