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Encyclopedia > Women's history

Women's history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. When used as the name of a field of study within women's studies, "women's history" refers to the study and interpretation of women's suffrage. The history of women in the United States dates back to colonial era and condition for women varied greatly. In other countries, see Women in Cuba (Herstory) women have also had a powerful role [1]. Female symbol Female is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces egg cells. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... With stylus and tablet, an upper-class Pompeiian, Sappho, demonstrates her privilege: literacy Womens studies is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning women, feminism, gender, and politics. ... The movement for womens suffrage, led by suffragists (peaceful protestors) and suffragettes (violent protestors), was a social, economic and political reform movement aimed at extending the suffrage (the right to vote) to women, advocating equal suffrage (abolition of graded votes) rather than universal suffrage (abolition of all discrimination, for... This is a history of feminism and the role of women throughout the history of the United States. ...

Contents


Rights and equality

The Legal rights of women refers to the social and human rights of women. One of the first women's rights declaration was the "Declaration of Sentiments". From women's involvement within the abolition movements, women became aware of the male dominance and oppression. From then on women struggled for equality. The History of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of the feminist movement were planted during the latter portion of that century. The advent of the reformist age during the 19th century meant that those invisible minorities or marginalised majorities were to find a catalyst and a microcosm in such new tendencies of reform. The earliest works on the so-called "woman question" criticised the restrictive role of women, without necessarily claiming that women were disadvantaged or that men were to blame. In the UK, the Feminism movement began in the 1800s and continues in the present day. In the early 20th century, Simone de Beauvoir wrote a detailed analysis of women's oppression. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the sexual revolution changed substantial the condition of women in the Western world. The trigger for the revolution was the development of the birth control pill in 1960, which gave women access to easy and reliable contraception. This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by sixty-eight women and thirty-two men, delegates to the first womens rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York, now known to historians as the 1848 Womens Rights Convention. ... Abolition is the act of formally destroying something through legal means, either by making it illegal, or simply no longer allowing it to exist in any form. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of the feminist movement were planted during the latter portion of that century. ... Feminist history in the United Kingdom covers part of the Feminism movement in the UK from 1800 to the present day. ... Simone de Beauvoir Simone de Beauvoir (January 9, 1908 – April 14, 1986) was a French author, philosopher, and feminist. ... The sexual revolution was a substantial change in sexual morality and sexual behavior throughout the West in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ...


Sex and reproduction

In the history of sex, the social construction of sexual behavior - its taboos, regulation and social and political impact - has had a profound effect on women in the world since prehistoric times. The history of abortion dates back to ancient times and has impacted men and women in a variety of ways in different times and places. Historically, it is unclear how often the ethics of abortion (induced abortion) was discussed. In the later half of the 20th century some nations began to legalize abortion. This controversial subject has sparked heated debate and in some cases even violence. // The social construction of sexual behavior - its taboos, regulation and social and political impact - has had a profound effect on the various cultures of the world since prehistoric times. ... The history of abortion dates back to ancient times and has impacted men and women in a variety of ways in different times and places. ...


Women have been exposed to various tortuous sexual conditions and been discriminated in various fashions in history. An example are the Comfort women, women who were forced to work as sex slaves in military brothels in Japanese-occupied countries during World War II (but is not address fully in Japanese history textbooks, according to some). Comfort women is a euphemism for women who were forced to work as sex slaves in military brothels in Japanese-occupied countries during World War II. In the Japanese language, ianfu (慰安婦, comfort women) is a term coined by Asahi Shinbun in the 1980s to refer to these wartime prostitutes. ... Chinese demonstrators in Beijing protesting Japanese textbook revisionism. ...


Clothing

The Social aspects of clothing has been related to the traditions regarding certain items of clothing intrinsically suited different gender roles. In particular, the wearing of skirts and trousers has given rise to common phrases expressing implied restrictions in use and disapproval of offending behaviour. For example, ancient Greeks often considered the wearing of trousers by Persian men as a sign of an effeminate attitude. Women's clothing in Victorian fashion was used as a means of control and admiration. Reactions to the elaborate confections of French fashion led to various calls for reform on the grounds of both beauty (Artistic and Aesthetic dress) and health (dress reform; especially for undergarments and lingerie). Although trousers for women did not become fashion items until the later 20th century, women began wearing men's trousers (suitably altered) for outdoor work a hundred years earlier. In the 1960s, AndrĂ© Courrèges introduced long trousers for women as a fashion item, leading to the era of the pantsuit and designer jeans and the gradual eroding of the prohibitions against girls and women wearing trousers in schools, the workplace, and fine restaurants. Corsets also have long been used for fashion, and body modification, such as waistline reduction. There were ,and are, many different styles and types of corsets, varying depending on the intended use, corset maker's style, and the fashions of the era. This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... (See also List of types of clothing and Clothing terminology) Humans nearly universally wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments, attire, or apparel) on the body. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Windsor Castle in Modern Times by Landseer depicts the Queen and the Prince Consort at home in the 1840s. ... A pair of mens briefs Undergarments, also called underwear, undercrackers, lingerie (undergarments for women), or sometimes intimate clothing, are clothes worn next to the skin, usually under other clothes. ... Lingerie is a term, derived from the French language, for womens undergarments. ... Chez TrouserChez Trouser The origin of modern mens trousers: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The status of Women in the Victoria Era is often seen as an illustration of the striking discrepancy between the nation's power and richness and what many, then and now, consider its appalling social conditions. Victorian morality was full of many contradictions. A plethora of social movements concerned with improving public morals co-existed with a class system that permitted harsh living conditions for many, such as women. There is an apparent contradiction between the widespread cultivation of an outward appearance of dignity and restraint and the prevalence of social phenomena that included prostitution. In the Victorian era, the bathing machine was developed. It was a device that flourished in the 19th century to allow people to wade in the ocean at beaches without violating Victorian notions of modesty. The bathing machine was part of sea-bathing etiquette that was more rigorously enforced upon women than men. The status of Women in the Victoria Era is often seen as an illustration of the striking discrepancy between the nations power and richness and what many, then and now, consider its appalling social conditions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The bathing machine was a device which flourished in the 19th century to allow people to wade in the ocean at beaches without violating Victorian notions of modesty. ...


Religion

The Christian views of women vary considerably today and have varied even more throughout the last two millennia, evolving along with or counter to the societies in which Christians have lived. When some women have interreligious marriage, or marriage (either religious or civil) between partners professing different religions, they seldom can do so without disobeying both of these religions. This article contains weasel words, which may compromise its neutrality. ... Interreligious marriage is marriage (either religious or civil) between partners professing different religions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ...


Women in Islam, equal before God with men, have been exposed to various restrictions. These have been placed on girls and women in many countries, regarding their civil rights, education, dress code, professional lives, marriage, divorce, and legal status due to cultural influence, the sharia, and lack of proper Islamic knowledge. The role of women under Sharia, the Islamic law, classically draws no distinction between religious and secular life. Theologically, there are many differences in legislation regarding women. The earlier Madhhabs tend to be more conservative, while modern schools have varied from modern liberal movements within Islam to Wahhabism and Salafism, both of which are much more traditional. The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Sharia (Arabic: ; also Sharīah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is the Arabic word for Islamic law, also known as the Law of Allah. ... Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ...


Fighting and combat

Women have participated in warfare in a variety of ways in different times and places. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Female roles in the military. ...


See also

The following is a list of links either about women's history, or containing relevant information, often in a "History" section.


Lists

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This is a list of womens organisations. ... This is a list of current and historical womens universities and colleges. ... This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, listed by feminist ideology. ...

General

  • Equal Rights Amendment : a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which would have guaranteed equal rights under law for Americans regardless of gender.
  • History of feminism
  • Women's History Month - March, a month to celebrate the Women's history and International Women's Day
  • Suffragette members of the women's suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. Suffragist is a more general term for members of the movement, whether radical or conservative, male or female. American women preferred this more inclusive title but people in the United States who were hostile to suffrage for the American woman used the UK title.
  • A History of Woman Suffrage : A history book of the suffrage movement, primarily in the United States, composed of six volumes from 1887 to 1922.
  • Men's League for Women's Suffrage : a society formed in 1907 by the left-wing writers Henry Brailsford, Max Eastman, Laurence Housman, Henry Nevinson and others to pursue women's suffrage.
  • Woman's Christian Temperance Union The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is the oldest continuing non-sectarian women's organization in the US and worldwide.
  • Subjection of women is the title of an essay written by John Stewart Mill in 1869, stating his views in favor of a much wider selection of people being allowed to vote.

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which would have guaranteed equal rights under law for Americans regardless of sex. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of the feminist movement were planted during the latter portion of that century. ... Womens History Month is an annual declared month in the United States that highlights contributions of women to events in history. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... International Womens Day, or International Womans Day (IWD), is marked on 8 March every year. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ... History of Woman Suffrage was produced by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage and Ida Husted Harper in six volumes from 1887 to 1922. ... A society formed in 1907 by the left-wing writers Henry Brailsford, Max Eastman, Laurence Housman, Henry Nevinson and others to pursue womens suffrage. ... Henry Noel Brailsford (1873 - 1958) was the most prolific British left-wing journalist of the first half of the 20th century. ... Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883–March 25, 1969) was a leftist American writer. ... Laurence Housman (July 18, 1865 - 1959) was an English playwright. ... The Womans Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is the oldest continuing non-sectarian womens organization in the US and worldwide. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Sexuality

  • Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concerns the culture, knowledge, and references shared by various people by virtue of their membership in a minorities or their state of being transgendered.
  • Effeminacy is character trait of a male showing femininity, unmanliness, womanliness, weakness, softness and/or a delicacy, which contradicts traditional masculine, male gender roles.

Christopher Street Parade Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concern the culture, knowledge, and references shared by members of sexual minorities or transgendered people by virtue of their membership in those minorities or their state of being transgendered. ... Effeminacy is character trait of a male showing femininity, unmanliness, womanliness, weakness, softness and/or a delicacy, which contradicts traditional masculine, male gender roles. ...

Research

The Schlesinger Library is a research library at Radcliffe Institue for Advanced Study, Harvard University. ...

Other

  • Demography is the study of human population dynamics. It encompasses the study of the size, structure and distribution of populations, and how populations change over time due to births, deaths, migration and ageing.

Demography is the study of human population dynamics. ...

External links



  Results from FactBites:
 
WIC - Women's History in America (4166 words)
Whole eras were influenced by women rulers for instance, Queen Elizabeth of England in the 16th century, Catherine the Great of Russia in the 18th century, and Queen Victoria of England in the 19th century.
Higher education particularly was broadened by the rise of women's colleges and the admission of women to regular colleges and universities.
Women in the United States during the 19th century organized and participated in a great variety of reform movements to improve education, to initiate prison reform, to ban alcoholic drinks, and, during the pre-Civil War period, to free the slaves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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