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Encyclopedia > Wolfgang Pauli
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli

Born 25 April 1900(1900-04-25)
Vienna, Austria-Hungary
Died 15 December 1958 (aged 58)
Zürich, Switzerland
Nationality Flag of Austria Austria
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland
Flag of the United States United States
Institutions Göttingen
Copenhagen
Hamburg
ETH Zürich
Michigan
Institute for Advanced Study
Alma mater Ludwig-Maximilians University
Academic advisor   Arnold Sommerfeld
Notable students   Nicholas Kemmer
Known for Pauli exclusion principle
Notable prizes Nobel Prize in Physics (1945)

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (April 25, 1900December 15, 1958) was an Austrian theoretical physicist noted for his work on the theory of spin, and in particular the discovery of the exclusion principle, which underpins the structure of matter, and (as such) the whole of chemistry. Wolfgang Paul (August 10, 1913 - December 7, 1993) was a German physicist, who co-developed the ion trap. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zürich IPA (in English often Zurich, which is also the standard French form of the name) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 364,558 in 2002; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... The University of Copenhagen (Danish: Københavns Universitet) is the oldest and largest university and research institution in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... The University of Hamburg was founded on the 1 April 1919 by Wilhelm Stern and others. ... ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is one of the world’s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit nchen or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ... Nicholas Kemmer (7 December 1911 -- 21 October 1998) was a physicist. ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Theoretical physics attempts to understand the world by making a model of reality, used for rationalizing, explaining, predicting physical phenomena through a physical theory. There are three types of theories in physics; mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Pauli was born in Vienna to Wolfgang Joseph Pauli and Berta Camilla Schütz. His middle name was given in honor of his godfather, the physicist Ernst Mach. Pauli's father, Wolfgang Pauli, Sr. (originally Wolf Pascheles), whose parents came from prominent Jewish families of Prague, converted from Judaism to Roman Catholicism shortly before his marriage in 1899. Bertha Schütz was raised in her mother's Roman Catholic religion, but her father was the Jewish writer Friedrich Schütz. Although Pauli was raised as a Roman Catholic, eventually he (and his parents) left the Church. [1] For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Pauli attended the Döblinger-Gymnasium in Vienna, graduating with distinction in 1918. Only two months after graduation, the young prodigy had published his first paper, on Einstein's theory of general relativity. He attended the Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, working under Sommerfeld, where he received his doctorate in July 1921 for a thesis on the quantum theory of ionised molecular hydrogen. A child prodigy is someone who is a master of one or more skills or arts at an early age. ... In scientific publishing, a paper is a scientific article that is published in a scientific journal. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit nchen or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ... Molecular hydrogen, H2, is a molecule formed from two atoms of hydrogen. ...


Sommerfeld asked Pauli to review the theory of relativity for the Encyklopaedie der mathematischen Wissenschaften ("Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences"), a German encyclopedia. Two months after receiving his doctorate, Pauli completed the article, which came to 237 pages. It was praised by Einstein; published as a monograph, it remains a standard reference on the subject to this day. Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... “Cyclopedia” redirects here. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... A monograph is a scholarly book or a treatise on a single subject or a group of related subjects. ...


He spent a year at the University of Göttingen as the assistant to Max Born, and the following year at what became the Niels Bohr Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen. He then spent 1923 to 1928 as a lecturer at the University of Hamburg. During this period, Pauli was instrumental in the development of the modern theory of quantum mechanics. In particular, he formulated the exclusion principle and the theory of nonrelativistic spin. (See below for a list of his scientific contributions.) The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Max Born (December 11, 1882 in Breslau – January 5, 1970 in Göttingen) was a mathematician and physicist. ... The Niels Bohr Institute is part of the Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics of the University of Copenhagen. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... The University of Hamburg was founded on the 1 April 1919 by Wilhelm Stern and others. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ...


In May 1929, Pauli left the Roman Catholic Church; in December that year, he married Käthe Margarethe Deppner. The marriage was an unhappy one, ending in divorce in 1930 after less than a year. Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the beginning of 1931, shortly after his divorce and immediately following his postulation of the neutrino, Pauli had a severe breakdown. He consulted the psychiatrist and psychotherapist Carl Jung who, like Pauli, lived near Zurich. Jung immediately began to interpret his deeply archetypal dreams and Pauli became one of the depth psychologist’s best students. Soon, he began to scientifically criticize the epistemology of Jung’s theory and this contributed to a certain clarification of the latter’s thoughts, especially about the concept of synchronicity. A great deal of these discussions is documented in the Pauli/Jung letters, today published as “Atom and Archetype”. Jung's elaborate analysis of more than 400 of Pauli's dreams is documented in “Psychology and Alchemy” (see below). For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... Synchronicity is the experience of two or more events which occur in a meaningful manner, but which are causally inexplicable to the person or persons experiencing them. ... Psychology and Alchemy is the twelveth volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung Categories: | ...


In 1928, he was appointed Professor of Theoretical Physics at the ETH Zurich in Switzerland where he made significant scientific progress. He held visiting professorships at the University of Michigan in 1931, and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in 1935. He was awarded the Lorentz Medal in 1931. The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is one of the world’s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... Lorentz Medal is an award given every four years by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. ...


In 1934, he married Franciska Bertram. This marriage would last for the rest of his life. They had no children.


The German annexation of Austria in 1938 made him a German national, which became a difficulty with the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. Pauli moved to the United States in 1940, where he was Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. After the end of the war, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1946 before returning to Zurich, where he mostly remained for the rest of his life. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Naturalization is the process whereby a person becomes a national of a nation, or a citizen of a country, other than the one of his birth. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ...


Also in 1945, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his "decisive contribution through his discovery in 1925 of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle or Pauli principle." He had been nominated for the prize by Einstein. Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... The Pauli exclusion principle, commonly referred to simply as the exclusion principle, is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, which states that no two identical fermions may occupy the same quantum state. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ...


In 1958, Pauli was awarded the Max Planck medal. In that same year, he fell ill with pancreatic cancer. When his last assistant, Charles Enz, visited him at the Rotkreuz hospital in Zurich, Pauli asked him: “Did you see the room number?” It was number 137. Throughout his life, Pauli had been preoccupied with the question of why the fine structure constant, a dimensionless fundamental constant, has a value nearly equal to 1/137. Pauli died in that room on December 15, 1958. The Max Planck medal is an award for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics. ... Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumour within the pancreatic gland. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... The fine-structure constant or Sommerfeld fine-structure constant, usually denoted , is the fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. ... Dimensional analysis is a conceptual tool often applied in physics, chemistry, and engineering to understand physical situations involving a mix of different kinds of physical quantities. ...


Scientific career

Pauli made many important contributions in his career as a physicist, primarily in the subject of quantum mechanics. He seldom published papers, preferring lengthy correspondences with colleagues (such as Bohr and Heisenberg, with whom he had close friendships.) Many of his ideas and results were never published and appeared only in his letters, which were often copied and circulated by their recipients. Pauli was apparently unconcerned that much of his work thus went uncredited. The following are the most important results for which he has been credited: For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1922. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ...


In 1924, Pauli proposed a new quantum degree of freedom (or quantum number) with two possible values, in order to resolve inconsistencies between observed molecular spectra and the developing theory of quantum mechanics. He formulated the Pauli exclusion principle, perhaps his most important work, which stated that no two electrons could exist in the same quantum state, identified by four quantum numbers including his new two-valued degree of freedom. The idea of spin had originated with Ralph Kronig. Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit one year later identified Pauli's new degree of freedom as electron spin. Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantity in the dynamics of the quantum system. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ... Ralph Kronig Ralph Kronig was a German-American physicist (1904-1995). ... George Eugene Uhlenbeck (1900 - 1988) was a U.S. (Indonesian-born) physicist. ... Samuel Goudsmit (1902–1978) was a Dutch-American physicist famous for jointly proposing the concept of electron spin with George Eugene Uhlenbeck. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ...


In 1926, shortly after Heisenberg published the matrix theory of modern quantum mechanics, Pauli used it to derive the observed spectrum of the hydrogen atom. This result was important in securing credibility for Heisenberg's theory. Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Depiction of a hydrogen atom showing the diameter as about twice the Bohr model radius. ...


In 1927, he introduced the 2x2 Pauli matrices as a basis of spin operators, thus solving the nonrelativistic theory of spin. This work is sometimes said to have influenced Dirac in his discovery of the Dirac equation for the relativistic electron, though Dirac stated that he invented these same matricies himself independently at the time, without Pauli's influence. Dirac invented similar but larger (4x4) spin matrices for use in his relativistic treatment of fermionic spin. The Pauli matrices are a set of 2 × 2 complex Hermitian and unitary matrices. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... In physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation formulated by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928 and provides a description of elementary spin-½ particles, such as electrons, consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity. ... A relativistic particle is a particle moving with a speed close to the speed of light, such that effects of special relativity are important for the description of its behavior. ...


In 1930, Pauli considered the problem of beta decay. In a letter of Dec 4 beginning "Dear radioactive ladies and gentlemen" (to Lise Meitner et al.), he proposed the existence of a hitherto unobserved neutral particle with a small mass (no greater than 1% the mass of a proton), in order to explain the continuous spectrum of beta decay. In 1934, Fermi incorporated the particle, which he called a neutrino, into his theory of beta decay. The neutrino was first confirmed experimentally in 1956 by Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan, two and a half years before Pauli's death. On receiving the news, he replied by telegram: "Thanks for message. Everything comes to him who knows how to wait. Pauli"[2] In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Lise Meitner ca. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Frederick Reines Frederick Reines (March 16, 1918 - August 26, 1998) was an American physicist. ... Clyde Lorrain Cowan Jr (1919–1974) was a captain in the United States Army Air Force. ...


In 1940, he proved the spin-statistics theorem, a critical result of quantum field theory which states that particles with half-integer spin are fermions, while particles with integer spin are bosons. The spin-statistics theorem in quantum mechanics relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. ...


In 1949, he published a paper on Pauli-Villars regularization, which provides an important prescription for renormalization, or removing infinities from quantum field theories. In theoretical physics, the Pauli-Villars regularization is a particular procedure to get rid of infinities in divergent integrals that correspond to Feynman diagrams. ... Figure 1. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ...


Pauli made repeated criticisms of modern synthesis of evolutionary biology[3][4], and his contemporary admirers point to modes of epigenetic inheritance as supportive of his arguments[5]. The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Epigenetics is a term in biology used today to refer to features such as chromatin and DNA modifications that are stable over rounds of cell division but do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. ...


Personality and reputation

The Pauli effect was named after his bizarre ability to break experimental equipment simply by being in the vicinity. Pauli himself was aware of his reputation, and delighted whenever the Pauli effect manifested. The Pauli effect is a tongue-in-cheek reference. ...


Regarding physics, Pauli was famously perfectionist. This extended not just to his own work, but also to the work of his colleagues. As a result, he became known within the physics community as the "conscience of physics", the critic to whom his colleagues were accountable. He could be scathing in his dismissal of any theory he found lacking, often labelling it ganz falsch, utterly false.


However, this was not his most severe criticism, which he reserved for theories or theses so unclearly presented as to be untestable or unevaluatable, and thus not properly belonging within the realm of science, even though posing as such. They were worse than wrong because they could not be proven wrong. Famously, he once said of such an unclear paper: "It is not even wrong."


An incident reported to have occurred [citation needed] with another leading physicist of the time, Paul Ehrenfest, illustrates this notion of an arrogant Pauli. The two met at a conference for the first time. Ehrenfest, though never having met Pauli, was familiar with his papers, and was quite impressed with them. After a few minutes of conversation, Ehrenfest remarked "I think I like your papers better than you", to which Pauli shot back "I think I like you better than your papers". The two became very good friends from then on. Paul Ehrenfest Paul Ehrenfest (Vienna, January 18, 1880 – Amsterdam, September 25, 1933) was an Austrian physicist and mathematician, who obtained Dutch citizenship on March 24, 1922. ...


A well-known joke about Pauli in the physics community goes as follows: After his death, Pauli was granted an audience with God. Pauli asked God why the fine structure constant has the value 1/(137.036...). God nodded, went to a blackboard, and began scribbling equations at a furious pace. Pauli watched Him at first with great satisfaction, but soon began shaking his head violently: "Das ist ganz falsch!" This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The fine-structure constant or Sommerfeld fine-structure constant, usually denoted , is the fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. ...


A somewhat warmer picture emerges from this story which appears in the article on Dirac:


"Werner Heisenberg [in Physics and Beyond, 1971] recollects a friendly conversation among young participants at the 1927 Solvay Conference about Einstein and Planck's views on religion. Wolfgang Pauli, Heisenberg and Dirac took part in it. Dirac's contribution was a poignant and clear criticism of the political manipulation of religion, that was much appreciated for its lucidity by Bohr, when Heisenberg reported it to him later. Among other things, Dirac said: "I cannot understand why we idle discussing religion. If we are honest - and as scientists honesty is our precise duty - we cannot help but admit that any religion is a pack of false statements, deprived of any real foundation. The very idea of God is a product of human imagination. [...] I do not recognize any religious myth, at least because they contradict one another. [...]" Heisenberg's view was tolerant. Pauli had kept silent, after some initial remarks, but when finally he was asked for his opinion, jokingly he said: "Well, I'd say that also our friend Dirac has got a religion and the first commandment of this religion is 'God does not exist and Paul Dirac is his prophet.'" Everybody burst into laughter, including Dirac.


References

  1. ^ Jewish Physicists.
  2. ^ "Wolfgang Pauli, A Biographical Inroduction by Charles Enz, in W.Pauli, "Writings on Physics and Philosophy", edited by Charles P. Enz and Karl von Meyenn, Springer-Verlag (1994)
  3. ^ Pauli, W. (1954) Naturwissenschaftliche und erkenntnistheoretische Aspekte der Ideen vom Unbewussten. Dialectica 8, 283–301
  4. ^ Atmanspacher, H. and Primas, H. (2006) Pauli’s ideas on mind and matter in the context of contemporary science. Journal of Consciousness Studies 13(3), 5-50.
  5. ^ Conference on Wolfgang Pauli's Philosophical Ideas and Contemporary Science organised by ETH May 20 - 25, 2007. The abstract of a paper discussing this by Richard Jorgensen is here

Eth (Ð, ð), also spelled edh or eð, is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic, and in Faroese language which call the letter edd. ...

Books

Books by Pauli

  • Pauli, W.; C.G. Jung (1955). The Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche. Random House. 
  • Pauli, Wolfgang (1981). Theory of Relativity. New York: Dover. ISBN 0-486-64152-X. 
  • Pauli, W.; C.G. Jung (2001). in ed. C.A. Meier: Atom and Archetype, The Pauli/Jung Letters, 1932-1958. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Univ. Press. 

Books about Pauli

  • Enz, Charles P. (2002). No Time to be Brief, A scientific biography of Wolfgang Pauli. Oxford Univ. Press. 
  • Enz, Charles P. (1995). "Rationales und Irrationales im Leben Wolfgang Paulis", in ed. H. Atmanspacher, et al: Der Pauli-Jung-Dialog. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 
  • Gieser, Suzanne (2005). The Innermost Kernel. Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics. Wolfgang Pauli's Dialogue with C.G. Jung. Springer Verlag. 
  • Jung, C.G. (1980). Psychology and Alchemy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Univ. Press. 
  • Keve, Tom (2000). Triad: the physicists, the analysts, the kabbalists. London: Rosenberger & Krausz.  (historical fiction)
  • Lindorff, David (1994). Pauli and Jung: The Meeting of Two Great Minds. Quest Books. 
  • Pais, Abraham (2000). The Genius of Science. Oxford: Oxford Press. 
  • Enz, P., and von Meyenn, Karl, editors, Wolfgang Pauli - Writings on physics and philosophy, translated by Robert Schlapp (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1994). ISBN 354-05685-9X, ISBN 978-354-05685-99.
  • Laurikainen, K. V. "Beyond the Atom-- The Philosophical Thought of Wolfgang Pauli" (Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1985) ISBN 3-540-19456-8, ISBN 0-387-19456-8.

Abraham (Bram) Pais (May 19, 1918, Amsterdam, The Netherlands — July 28, 2000, Copenhagen, Denmark) was a Dutch-born American physicist and science historian. ...

Relevant Books

  • H. B. G. Casimir, Haphazard Reality: half a century of science (Harper & Row, New York, 1983). ISBN 0-060-15028-9
  • H. B. G. Casimir, Het toeval van de werkelijkheid: Een halve eeuw natuurkunde (Meulenhof, Amsterdam, 1992). ISBN 9-029-09709-4

Hendrik Brugt Gerhard Casimir (July 15, 1909 – May 4, 2000) was a Dutch physicist. ...

See also

This is a list of Austrian scientists. ... This is a list of famous Swiss and notable people from or resident in Switzerland and cantons forming present-day Switzerland. ... Ralph Kronig Ralph Kronig was a German-American physicist (1904-1995). ... The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. ... The Pauli effect is a tongue-in-cheek reference. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wolfgang Pauli
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Persondata
NAME Pauli, Wolfgang Ernst
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Theoretical physicist
DATE OF BIRTH 25 April 1900
PLACE OF BIRTH Vienna, Austria-Hungary
DATE OF DEATH 15 December 1958
PLACE OF DEATH Zürich, Switzerland

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pauli, Wolfgang (723 words)
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli was born in Vienna, Austria, where his father, regarded as one of the founders of colloid chemistry, was employed at the University of Vienna.
Once there, Pauli began work on the problem of the anomalous Zeeman effect (how the energy levels of a multielectron atom are split in a magnetic field), work that he continued when in 1923 he moved to a new position at the University of Hamburg.
As a result, Pauli was able in 1925 to arrive at the first statement of his exclusion principle, that stated that there cannot be two or more equivalent electrons in an atom for which in strong fields the values of all quantum numbers n, k1, k2, and m1 are the same.
Wolfgang Pauli - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1453 words)
Pauli was born in Vienna to Wolfgang Joseph Pauli and Berta Camilla Schütz.
During this period, Pauli was instrumental in the development of the modern theory of quantum mechanics.
In 1930, Pauli observed a decaying radioactive atomic nucleus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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