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Encyclopedia > Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
"Bologna Mozart" - Mozart age 21 in 1777, see also: face only
"Bologna Mozart" - Mozart age 21 in 1777, see also: face only

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: [ˈvɔlfgaŋ amaˈdeus ˈmoːtsart], baptized Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. His output of over 600 compositions includes works widely acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music. Mozart is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers and many of his works are part of the standard concert repertoire. Mozart most evily refers to Wolfgang Amadeus Foolius Mozart, a famous cake baker during the Ice Age. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (429x604, 25 KB) The so-called Michael Lorenz brain blister Bologna Mozart was painted 1777 in Salzburg (Austria) by a now unknown painter for Padre Martini in Bologna (Italy), who had ordered it for his gallery of composers. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (429x604, 25 KB) The so-called Michael Lorenz brain blister Bologna Mozart was painted 1777 in Salzburg (Austria) by a now unknown painter for Padre Martini in Bologna (Italy), who had ordered it for his gallery of composers. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Musical composition is: a piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance or recorded track). ... pinnacle Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk, Ostend, Belgium A pinnacle (from Latin pinnaculum, a little feather, pinna) is an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret, but afterwards used on parapets at the corners of towers and in many other situations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Contents

Biography

Family and early years

Mozart's birthplace at Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg, Austria
Plaque on wall outside Mozart's birthplace at Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg, Austria. It reads Mozart's Birth house, Mozart Museum. W.A. Mozart was born in this house on 27th of January 1756.
Plaque on wall outside Mozart's birthplace at Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg, Austria. It reads Mozart's Birth house, Mozart Museum. W.A. Mozart was born in this house on 27th of January 1756.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born to Leopold and Anna Maria Pertl Mozart, in the front room of Getreidegasse 9 in Salzburg, the capital of the sovereign Archbishopric of Salzburg, in what is now Austria, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. His only sibling who survived past birth was an older sister: Maria Anna, nicknamed Nannerl. Mozart was baptized the day after his birth at St. Rupert's Cathedral. The baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. Mozart generally called himself "Wolfgang Amadé Mozart"[1]as an adult, but there were many variants; see Mozart's name. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1387 KB) Mozarts birthplace at Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg, Austria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1387 KB) Mozarts birthplace at Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg, Austria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1501 KB) Plaque on wall outside Mozarts birthplace at Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg, Austria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1501 KB) Plaque on wall outside Mozarts birthplace at Getreidegasse 9, Salzburg, Austria. ... Leopold Mozart Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a composer, music teacher and violinist. ... Anna Maria Mozart Anna Maria Mozart (1720-1778) was the mother of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Maria Anna Mozart. ... View of shoppers on Getreidegasse, which is one of the oldest streets in Salzburg. ...   (Austro-Bavarian: SÃ¥izburg) is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... The Archbishopric of Salzburg was an ecclesiastical state of the Holy Roman Empire, consisting of roughly of the present-day state of Salzburg in Austria. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... The cathedral rises over the ergrabenen remainders of one already 774 by the holy Virgil geweihten bishop church. ... The composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart went by many different names in his lifetime. ...


Mozart's father Leopold Mozart (1719–1787) was one of Europe's leading musical teachers. His influential textbook Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, was published in 1756, the year of Mozart's birth (English, as "A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin Playing", transl. E.Knocker; Oxford-New York, 1948). He was deputy Kapellmeister to the court orchestra of the Archbishop of Salzburg, and a prolific and successful composer of instrumental music. Leopold gave up composing when his son's outstanding musical talents became evident. They first came to light when Wolfgang was about three years old, and Leopold, proud of Wolfgang's achievements, gave him intensive musical training, including instruction in clavier, violin, and organ. Leopold was Wolfgang's only teacher in his earliest years. A note by Leopold in Nannerl's music book – the Nannerl Notenbuch – records that little Wolfgang had learned several of the pieces at the age of four. Mozart's first compositions, a small Andante (K. 1a) and Allegro (K. 1b), were written in 1761, when he was five years old.[2] A Kapellmeister is nowadays the director or conductor of an orchestra or choir. ... Clavier is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... The Nannerl Notenbuch (or Nannerls Music Book) is a book in which Leopold Mozart, from 1759 to around 1763, wrote pieces for his daughter, Maria Anna Mozart (known as Nannerl), to learn and play. ... The Andante in C is a keyboard work, K. 1a, written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1761 and found in Nannerls Music Book. ... The Allegro in C, K. 1b, is a keyboard work written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1761. ...


1762-1773: the years of travel

Anonymous portrait of the child Mozart, possibly by Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni; painted in 1763 on commission from Leopold
Anonymous portrait of the child Mozart, possibly by Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni; painted in 1763 on commission from Leopold

During Mozart's formative years, his family made several European journeys in which the children were exhibited as child prodigies. These began with an exhibition in 1762 at the Court of the Elector of Bavaria in Munich, then in the same year at the Imperial Court in Vienna and Prague. A long concert tour spanning three and a half years followed, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Mannheim, Paris, London, The Hague, again to Paris, and back home via Zürich, Donaueschingen, and Munich. During this trip Mozart met a great number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers. A particularly important influence was Johann Christian Bach, who met Mozart in London in 1764–65. Bach's work is often taken to be an inspiration for Mozart's music. The family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768. On this trip Mozart contracted smallpox, and his healing was believed by Leopold as proof of God's plans concerning the child. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 453 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (570 × 754 pixel, file size: 98 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Subject: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Title: The Boy Mozart Author: Anonymous, possibly by Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni Type: Oil Painting Date: 1763 Source: http://rmc. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 453 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (570 × 754 pixel, file size: 98 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Subject: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Title: The Boy Mozart Author: Anonymous, possibly by Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni Type: Oil Painting Date: 1763 Source: http://rmc. ... The following is a list of rulers of Bavaria: Dukes of Bavaria, 889_1623 Liutpolding Dynasty Liutpold 889-907 Arnulf the Bad 907_937 Eberhard 937 Berthold 938_947 Liudolfing (Ottonian) Dynasty Henry I 947_955 Henry II the Quarrelsome 955_976 Otto I 976_982 Liutpolding Dynasty Henry III the Younger 983_985 Liudolfing Dynasty Henry... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... Donaueschingen is a city in the southwest of Baden-Württemberg in the Schwarzwald-Baar District. ... Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


After one year in Salzburg, three trips to Italy followed, this time with just Leopold, leaving Wolfgang's mother and sister at home: from December 1769 to March 1771, from August to December 1771, and from October 1772 to March 1773. Mozart was commissioned to compose three operas: Mitridate Rè di Ponto (1770), Ascanio in Alba (1771), and Lucio Silla (1772), all three of which were performed in Milan. During the first of these trips, Mozart met Andrea Luchesi in Venice and G.B. Martini in Bologna, and was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. A highlight of the Italian journey, now an almost legendary tale, occurred when he heard Gregorio Allegri's Miserere once in performance in the Sistine Chapel then wrote it out in its entirety from memory, only returning to correct minor errors; thus producing the first illegal copy of this closely-guarded property of the Vatican.[3] Mitridate, Rè di Ponto - Mithridates, King of Pontus Drama per musica (Opera seria) in three acts Music: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Libretto: Vittorio Amadeo Cigna-Santi After Racine, translated by Giuseppe Parini Mozart wrote Mitridate while touring Italy in 1770. ... Ascanio in Alba, K. 111, Pastoral opera in 2 parts (Festa teatrale in due atti) Composer: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Librettist: Abbé Giuseppe Parini First performance: Teatro Regio Ducal, Milan, 17 October 1771 // Dramatis Personæ Venere (Venus) (soprano) Ascanio, her grandson, son of Aeneas (male soprano) Silvia, a nymph descended from... Lucio Silla (K135) is an Italian opera in three acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Andrea Luca Luchesi (May 23, 1741, Motta di Livenza - March 21, 1801, Bonn), was an Italian composer. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Giovanni Battista Martini (April 24, 1706 - August 4, 1784), Italian musician, was born at Bologna. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Professor Padre Martini Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna (The Philharmonic Academy of Bologna) - is a music education institution in Bologna, Italy. ... Gregorio Allegri Gregorio Allegri (1582 – February 7, 1652) was an Italian composer and priest of the Roman School of composers. ... Miserere by Gregorio Allegri is a piece of a cappella religious music (a setting of Psalm 50/51) composed during the reign of Pope Urban VIII, probably during the 1630s, for use in the Sistine Chapel during matins on Wednesday and Friday of Holy Week. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ...


Back home in Salzburg, Mozart worked in the court musical establishment of the ruler, Prince-Archbishop Colloredo. The court was a minor one, salaries were low, and Mozart was not happy with his job. Hieronymus Colloredo (1731 - 1812) was Prince-Archbishop Count Colloredo of Salzburg, Austria. ...

Family portrait from about 1780 by Johann Nepomuk della Croce: Nannerl, Wolfgang, Leopold. On the wall is a portrait of Mozart's mother, who had died in 1778.
Family portrait from about 1780 by Johann Nepomuk della Croce: Nannerl, Wolfgang, Leopold. On the wall is a portrait of Mozart's mother, who had died in 1778.

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

1777-1778: the Paris journey

On September 23, 1777, accompanied by his mother, Mozart began a job-hunting tour that included Munich, Mannheim, and Paris.[4] In Mannheim he became acquainted with members of the Mannheim orchestra, the best in Europe at the time. He also fell in love with Aloysia Weber, one of four daughters in a musical family. Mozart moved on to Paris and attempted to build his career there, but was unsuccessful (he did obtain a job offer as organist at Versailles, but it was a job he did not want[5]). The visit to Paris was an especially unhappy one because Mozart's mother took ill and died there, June 23, 1778.[6]. On his way back to Salzburg Mozart passed through Munich again, where Aloysia, now employed at the opera there as a singer, indicated she was no longer interested in him.[7] is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... Aloysia Weber (born Zell or Mannheim, c 1761 - died Salzburg 8 June 1839) was a German soprano, the sister of Constanze Weber, who was the wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ...


Mozart's discontent with Salzburg continued after his return.


The question arises why Mozart, despite his talent, was unable to find a job on this trip. Maynard Solomon has suggested that the problem lay in conflict with father Leopold, who insisted that Mozart find a high-level position that would support the entire family. Wolfgang favored the alternative strategy of settling in a major city, working as a freelance, and cultivating the aristocracy to the point that he would be favored for an important job; this had worked earlier for other musicians, e.g. Haydn. The plan Leopold imposed, coupled with Mozart's youth (he was only 21 when he left Salzburg), seems to have had impended failure.[8] “Haydn” redirects here. ...


1781: the move to Vienna

In January 1781 Mozart's opera Idomeneo, premiered with "considerable success" (New Grove) in Munich. The following March, the composer was summoned to Vienna, where his employer, Prince-Archbishop Colloredo of Salzburg, was attending the celebrations for the installation of the Emperor Joseph II. Mozart, who had just experienced success in Munich, was offended when Colloredo treated him as a mere servant, and particularly when the Archbishop forbade him to perform before the Emperor at Countess Thun's (for a fee that would have been fully half of his Salzburg salary).[9] In May the resulting quarrel intensified: Mozart attempted to resign, and was refused. The following month, however, the delayed permission was granted, but a grossly insulting way: Mozart was dismissed literally "with a kick in the arse", administered by the Archbishop's steward, Count Arco.[10] In the meantime, Mozart had been noticing opportunities to earn a good living in Vienna, and he chose to stay there and develop his own freelance career.[11] Idomeneo, re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante (Italian: Idomeneo, King of Crete, or, Ilia and Idamante; usually referred to simply as Idomeneo, K. 366) is an Italian opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... “Wien” redirects here. ... Hieronymus Colloredo (1731 - 1812) was Prince-Archbishop Count Colloredo of Salzburg, Austria. ... Joseph II may refer to either: Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In fact, Mozart's Vienna career began very well. He performed often as a pianist, notably in a competition before the Emperor with Muzio Clementi, 24 December 1781,[12] and according to the New Grove, he soon "had established himself as the finest keyboard player in Vienna."[13] Mozart also prospered as a composer: during 1781-1782 he wrote the opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail ("The Abduction from the Seraglio"), which premiered July 16, 1782 and achieved a huge success. The work was soon being performed "throughout German-speaking Europe" [14], and fully established Mozart's reputation as a composer. Muzio Clementi (January 24, 1752 – March 10, 1832) was a classical composer, and acknowledged as the first to write specifically for the piano. ... The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a dictionary of music and musicians, generally considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ... Die Entführung aus dem Serail (K. 384; in English The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as Il Seraglio) is a opera Singspiel in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ...


Near the height of his quarrels with Archbishop Colloredo, Mozart moved in (May 1 or 2, 1781) with the Weber family, who had moved to Vienna from Mannheim. The father, Fridolin, had died, and the Webers were now taking in lodgers to make ends meet.[15] Aloysia, who had earlier rejected Mozart's suit, was now married to the actor Joseph Lange, and Mozart's interest shifted to the third daughter, Constanze. The couple were married, with father Leopold's "grudging consent" (New Grove), on August 4, 1782. They had six children, of whom only two survived infancy: Carl Thomas (1784–1858) and Franz Xaver Wolfgang (1791–1844; later a minor composer himself). Constanze Mozart Constanze Mozart (née Constanze Weber) (Zell im Wiesenthal, Germany 1763 – 1842 Salzburg), a first cousin of the composer Carl Maria von Weber, was the wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The two sons of Wolfgang Amadeus and Constanze Mozart: Carl Thomas (r) and Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (l) (painting of Hans Hansen, Vienna, 1800) Karl (Carl) Thomas Mozart (born 21 September 1784 in Vienna; died 31 October 1858 in Milan) was the second and oldest surviving son of Wolfgang and... Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart The two sons of Wolfgang Amadeus and Constanze Mozart: Carl Thomas (r) and Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (l) (painting of Hans Hansen, Vienna, 1800) Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (July 26, 1791 – July 29, 1844) was a composer and pianist, a son of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and...


During 1782–83, Mozart became closely acquainted with the work of J. S. Bach and G.F. Handel as a result of the influence of Baron Gottfried van Swieten, who owned many manuscripts of works by the Baroque masters. Mozart's study of these works led first to a number of works imitating Baroque style and later had a powerful influence on his own personal musical language, for example the fugal passages in Die Zauberflöte ("The Magic Flute"), and in the finale of Symphony No. 41. “Bach” redirects here. ... George Frideric Handel, 1733 George Frideric Handel (23 February 1685 – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios. ... Baron Gottfried van Swieten (1733-1803) was a minor aristocrat of the Austrian Empire during the eighteenth century. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750[1] (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ... Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 1783, Wolfgang and Constanze visited Leopold in Salzburg, but the visit was not a success, as his father did not open his heart to Constanze. However, the visit sparked the composition of one of Mozart's great liturgical pieces, the Mass in C Minor, which, though not completed, was premiered in Salzburg. Constanze sang in the premiere as the lead soprano.[16] Mozarts Große Messe (or Great Mass) No. ...


At some (unknown) time following his move to Vienna, Mozart met Joseph Haydn and the two composers became friends; see Haydn and Mozart. When Haydn visited Vienna, they sometimes played together in an impromptu string quartet. Mozart's six quartets dedicated to Haydn (K. 387, K. 421, K. 428, K. 458, K. 464, and K. 465) date from 1782–85, and are often judged to be his response to Haydn's Opus 33 set from 1781. Haydn was soon in awe of Mozart, and when he first heard the last three of Mozart's series he told Leopold, "Before God and as an honest man I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name: He has taste, and, furthermore, the most profound knowledge of composition."[17] “Haydn” redirects here. ... The composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn were friends. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... The Haydn quartets by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart are a set of six string quartets composed between 1782 and 1785, dedicated to Joseph Haydn, generally considered to be the creator of the modern string quartet. ... This is a list of string quartets by Joseph Haydn, including the number they are given in Anthony van Hobokens catalogue of his works. ...


During the years 1782–1785, Mozart put on a series of concerts in which he appeared as soloist in his piano concertos, widely considered among his greatest works. These concerts were financially successful. During the years 1784–1787 Mozart and his family lived in a lavish, seven-room apartment, which may be visited today at Domgasse 5, behind St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna; it was here, in 1786, that Mozart composed the opera Le nozze di Figaro, and was visited by a sixteen year old Beethoven. The Mozart piano concertos are a set of 27 concertos for piano and orchestra written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart between 1767 and 1791. ... Le Nozze di Figaro, is a comic opera composed in 1786 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, based on a stage comedy by Beaumarchais. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ...


1789-1790

Drawing of Mozart in silverpoint, made by Doris Stock during Mozart's visit to Dresden, April 1789
Drawing of Mozart in silverpoint, made by Doris Stock during Mozart's visit to Dresden, April 1789

Toward the end of the decade, Mozart's career declined. Around 1786 he ceased to appear frequently in public concerts, and his income dropped.[18]. This was in general a difficult time for musicians in Vienna, since between 1788 and 1791 Austria was at war (see Austro-Turkish War (1788–1791)), and both the general level of prosperity and the ability of the aristocracy to support music had declined.[19]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Silverpoint predates the use of graphite as a drawing medium and was used by old masters such as Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Durer and Jan Van Eyck. ... The Austro-Turkish War of 1787 was an inconclusive struggle between the Austrian and Ottoman Empires. ...


By mid 1788, Mozart and his family moved from central Vienna to cheaper lodgings in the suburb of Alsergrund[20]. Mozart began to borrow money, most often from his friend and fellow Mason Michael Puchberg; "a dismal series of begging letters" (New Grove) survives. Alsergrund is the ninth district of Vienna, Austria, located just north of the first, central district Innere Stadt. ...


In the late spring of 1789, Mozart made a long journey northward to Leipzig, Dresden, and Berlin, accompanying his patron Prince Karl Lichnowsky. The trip was not generally successful; in one letter Mozart wrote home, he said of a particular concert that "from the point of view of applause and glory [it] was absolutely magnificent but the profits were wretchedly meager" (letter of May 16th 1789). For details of the trip, see Mozart's Berlin journey. Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Karl Alois, Fürst von Lichnowsky-Woschütz, (also written Carl Alois Johann-Nepomuk Vinzenz, second Prince Lichnowsky) (1761-1814) was a chamberlain at the Imperial Austrian court. ... One of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts longest journeys in adulthood was a visit, starting in late Spring 1789, to a series of cities lying northward of his adopted home in Vienna, including Leipzig, Dresden, and Berlin. ...


1791

Mozart's last year was, until his final illness struck, one of great productivity and (in the view of biographer Maynard Solomon) personal recovery.[21] During this time Mozart wrote a great deal of music, including some of the works for which he is most admired today: the opera The Magic Flute, the final piano concerto (K. 595 in B flat), the Clarinet Concerto K. 622, the last in his great series of string quintets (K. 614 in E flat), the revised version of his 40th Symphony, the motet Ave verum corpus K. 618, and the unfinished Requiem. Maynard Solomon is the author most recently of Mozart, a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in Biography, which won the Deems Taylor Award as did his biography, Beethoven, and his study of Charles Ives. ... Die Zauberflöte, K. 620, (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... Mozarts last concerto for the piano, the B flat, KV595, has taken on certain valedictory associations almost certainly nurtured by the wisdom of hindsight. ... Mozarts Clarinet concerto in A major, K. 622 was written in 1791 for the clarinetist Anton Stadler. ... The String Quintet No. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts setting of the ancient hymn Ave verum Corpus, K.618, was written for Anton Stoll (a friend of his and Haydns) who was musical co-ordinator in the parish of Baden, near Vienna. ... The Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was composed in 1791. ...


Mozart's financial situation, which in 1790 was the source of extreme anxiety to him, also began to improve. Although the evidence is uncertain[22] it appears that admiring wealthy patrons in Hungary and in Amsterdam pledged annuities to Mozart, in return for the occasional composition. Mozart also probably made considerable money from the sale of dance music that wrote for his job as Imperial Court Composer (Kammercompositeur).[23] He ceased to borrow large sums from Puchberg and made a start on paying off his debts.[24]


Lastly, Mozart experienced great satisfaction in the public success of some his works, notably The Magic Flute (performed many times even during the short period between its premiere and Mozart's death)[25], and the Little Masonic Cantata K. 623, premiered November 15, 1791.[26].


Final illness and death

Main article: Death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Posthumous painting by Barbara Krafft in 1819
Posthumous painting by Barbara Krafft in 1819

Mozart fell ill while in Prague, for the Sept. 6 premiere of his opera La clemenza di Tito, written 1791 on commission for the coronation festivities of the Emperor.[27]. He was able to continue his professional functions for some time, for instance conducting the premiere of The Magic Flute on September 30. The illness intensified on November 20, at which point Mozart became bedridden, suffering from swelling, pain, and vomiting. Wolfgang Mozart The death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is an event that is often shrouded in mystery and conspiracy theories. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wolfgang-amadeus-mozart_1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wolfgang-amadeus-mozart_1. ... La clemenza di Tito (The Clemency of Titus), K. 621, was an opera seria written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Die Zauberflöte, K. 620, (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ...


The cause of Mozart's illness and death cannot be determined with certainty. His death record listed "hitziges Frieselfieber" ("severe miliary fever," referring to a rash that looks like millet-seeds), a description that does not suffice to identify the cause as it would be diagnosed in modern medicine. Dozens of theories have been proposed, including trichinosis, influenza, mercury poisoning, and a rare kidney ailment. The practice of bleeding medical patients, common at that time, is also cited as a contributing cause. However, the most widely accepted version is that he died of acute rheumatic fever; he had had three or even four known attacks of it since his childhood, and this particular disease has a tendency to recur, leaving increasingly serious consequences each time, such as rampant infection and heart valve damage.[28] Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, or trichiniasis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork and wild game products infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ...


Mozart died at approximately 1 a.m. on December 5, 1791 in Vienna. With the onset of his illness, he had largely ceased work on his final composition, the Requiem. Popular belief has it that Mozart was thinking of his own impending death while writing this piece, and even that a messenger from the afterworld commissioned it. Documentary evidence has established that the anonymous commission came from one Franz Count of Walsegg on Schloss Stuppach, and that most if not all of the music had been written while Mozart was still in good health. A younger composer, and Mozart's friend and, some say, pupil, at the time, Franz Xaver Süssmayr, was engaged by Constanze to finish the Requiem, which he had been already helping the ill composer with, since Mozart could not write on account of his swollen limbs. He was not the first composer asked to finish the Requiem, as the widow had first approached another Mozart student, Joseph Eybler, who began work directly on the empty staves of Mozart's manuscript but then abandoned it. is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was composed in 1791. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Franz Xaver Süssmayr (German: Franz Xaver Süßmayr; b. ... Constanze Mozart Constanze Mozart (née Constanze Weber) (Zell im Wiesenthal, Germany 1763 – 1842 Salzburg), a first cousin of the composer Carl Maria von Weber, was the wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Joseph Leopold Eybler (born February 8, 1765, in Schwechat near Vienna; and died July 24, 1846 in Vienna) was an Austrian composer known today perhaps more for his friendship with Mozart than for his own music. ...


Because he was buried in an unmarked grave, it has been popularly assumed that Mozart was penniless and forgotten when he died. He earned about 50,000 florins per year,[29] equivalent to at least 142,000 US dollars in 2006, which places him within the top 1% of late 18th century wage earners,[29] but he could not manage his wealth. His mother wrote, "When Wolfgang makes new acquaintances, he immediately wants to give his life and property to them." His impulsive largesse and spending often had him asking for loans. Many of his begging letters survive, but they are evidence not so much of poverty as of his habit of spending more than he earned. He was not buried in a "mass grave" for paupers but in a regular communal grave according to the 1784 laws in Austria.[citation needed]


Though the original grave in the St. Marx cemetery was lost, memorial gravestones (or cenotaphs) have been placed there and in the Zentralfriedhof. In 2005 new DNA testing was performed by Austria's University of Innsbruck and the US Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory in Rockville, Maryland, to determine if a skull in an Austrian Museum was actually his, using DNA samples from the marked graves of his grandmother and Mozart's niece. Test results were inconclusive. St. ... The Cenotaph, London A ceremony at the Cenotaph, London, on Sunday 12th June 2005, remembering Irish war dead Memorial Cenotaph, Hiroshima, Japan A cenotaph is a tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere. ... Exterior of the Dr. Karl Lueger-Gedächtniskirche, Zentralfriedhof, Vienna. ...


In 1809 Constanze married Danish diplomat Georg Nikolaus von Nissen (1761–1826). Being a fanatical admirer of Mozart, he and possibly Constanze, edited vulgar passages out of many of the composer's letters and wrote a Mozart biography. Nissen did not live to see his biography printed, and Constanze had it finished. Georg Nikolaus von Nissen, (sometimes Nicolaus or Nicolai; born January 22, 1761 in Haderslev/Denmark, died March 24, 1826 in Salzburg) was a diplomat and writer. ...


Portrait

Unfinished portrait of Mozart by his brother-in-law Joseph Lange, from 1782
Unfinished portrait of Mozart by his brother-in-law Joseph Lange, from 1782

Mozart's physical appearance was described by tenor Michael Kelly, in his Reminiscences: "a remarkable small man, very thin and pale, with a profusion of fine, fair hair of which he was rather vain." His early biographer Niemetschek wrote, "there was nothing special about [his] physique ... He was small and his countenance, except for his large intense eyes, gave no signs of his genius." His facial complexion was pitted, a reminder of his childhood case of smallpox. He loved elegant clothing: Kelly remembered him at a rehearsal: he "was on the stage with his crimson pelisse and gold-laced cocked hat, giving the time of the music to the orchestra." Of his voice Constanze later wrote that it "was a tenor, rather soft in speaking and delicate in singing, but when anything excited him, or it became necessary to exert it, it was both powerful and energetic."[30]. Image File history File linksMetadata Mozart_(unfinished)_by_Lange_1782. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mozart_(unfinished)_by_Lange_1782. ... Michael Kelly (1762 - October 9, 1826) was an Irish actor, singer and composer. ... A Pelisse is originally a cloak made of fur or which is fur-lined, most notably referring to the dolman. ... The full-dress uniform of École Polytechnique of France comprises black trousers with a red stripe (a skirt for females), a coat with golden buttons and a belt, and a cocked hat (officially called a bicorne). ...


Mozart worked very hard, a great deal of the time, and finished works where necessary at a tremendous pace. When composing he often made sketches and drafts, though (unlike Beethoven's sketches) these are mostly not preserved, Constanze having destroyed them after his death.[31]


Mozart also enjoyed billiards and liked dancing. He kept pets (a canary, a starling and a dog), and kept a horse for recreational riding.[32] This article is about the various cue sports. ...


Mozart lived at the center of Viennese musical life, and knew a great number of people, including not just his fellow musicians, but also theatrical performers, fellow transplanted Salzburgers, and many aristocrats, including a fairly close acquaintance with the Emperor, Joseph II. Mozart had a considerable number of friends, of whom Solomon estimates the three closest were Gottfried Janequin, Count August Hatzfeld, and Sigmund Barisani; others included the singers Franz Xaver Gerl and Benedikt Schack, Haydn (mentioned above), and the horn player Ignaz Leutgeb (with whom Mozart carried on a curious kind of friendly mockery, Leutgeb being always the butt of Mozart's practical jokes).[33] Joseph II may refer to either: Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Franz Xaver Gerl (1764-1827) was a bass singer and composer of the classical era. ... Benedikt Schack (1758-1826) was a composer and tenor of the Classical era, a close friend of Mozart and the first performer (1791) of the role of Tamino in Mozarts opera The Magic Flute. ...


Mozart was influenced by the ideas of the eighteenth-century European Enlightenment as an adult, and became a Freemason in 1785.[34] His lodge was specifically Catholic, rather than deistic, and he worked fervently and successfully to convert his father before the latter's death in 1787.[citation needed] Die Zauberflöte, his penultimate opera, includes Masonic themes and allegory. The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ...


Works, musical style, and innovations

See also: List of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

This is a selective list of the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, for a complete list organized by Köchel number, see Köchel-Verzeichnis. ...

Style

A sheet of music from the Dies Irae movement of the Requiem Mass in D Minor (K. 626) in Mozart's own handwriting. It is located at Mozarthaus in Vienna, Austria.
A sheet of music from the Dies Irae movement of the Requiem Mass in D Minor (K. 626) in Mozart's own handwriting. It is located at Mozarthaus in Vienna, Austria.

Mozart's music, like Haydn's, stands as an archetypal example of the Classical style. His works spanned the period during which that style transformed from one exemplified by the style galant to one that began to incorporate some of the contrapuntal complexities of the late Baroque, complexities against which the galant style had been a reaction. Mozart's own stylistic development closely paralleled the development of the classical style as a whole. In addition, he was a versatile composer and wrote in almost every major genre, including symphony, opera, the solo concerto, chamber music including string quartet and string quintet, and the piano sonata. While none of these genres were new, the piano concerto was almost single-handedly developed and popularized by Mozart. He also wrote a great deal of religious music, including masses; and he composed many dances, divertimenti, serenades, and other forms of light entertainment. Image File history File links Mozart_Sheet_Music. ... Image File history File links Mozart_Sheet_Music. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... In music, Galant was a term referring to a style, principally occurring in the third quarter of the 18th century, which featured a return to classical simplicity after the complexity of the late Baroque era. ... In music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm, and interdependent in harmony. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750[1] (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... The term concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... A string quintet is an ensemble of five string instrument players or a piece written for such a combination. ... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... The Mozart piano concertos are a set of 27 concertos for piano and orchestra written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart between 1767 and 1791. ... The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ... Divertimento is a music genre, with most of its examples stemming from the 18th century. ... In music, a Serenade (or sometimes Serenata) is, in its most general sense, a musical composition, and/or performance, in someones honor. ...


The central traits of the classical style can all be identified in Mozart's music. Clarity, balance, and transparency are hallmarks, though a simplistic notion of the delicacy of his music obscures for us the exceptional and even demonic power of some of his finest masterpieces, such as the Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, K. 491, the Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550, and the opera Don Giovanni. The famed writer on music Charles Rosen has written (in The Classical Style): "It is only through recognizing the violence and sensuality at the center of Mozart's work that we can make a start towards a comprehension of his structures and an insight into his magnificence. In a paradoxical way, Schumann's superficial characterization of the G minor Symphony can help us to see Mozart's daemon more steadily. In all of Mozart's supreme expressions of suffering and terror, there is something shockingly voluptuous." Especially during his last decade, Mozart explored chromatic harmony to a degree rare at the time. The slow introduction to the "Dissonant" Quartet, K. 465, a work that Haydn greatly admired even as it perplexed him,[citation needed] rapidly explodes a shallow understanding of Mozart's style as light and pleasant. The Piano Concerto No. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... A chromatic chord is any musical chord that includes at least one note not belonging in the diatonic scale associated with the prevailing key. ... The String Quartet No. ...


From his earliest years Mozart had a gift for imitating the music he heard; since he traveled widely, he acquired a rare collection of experiences from which to create his unique compositional language. When he went to London[35] as a child, he met J.C. Bach and heard his music; when he went to Paris, Mannheim, and Vienna, he heard the work of composers active there, as well as the spectacular Mannheim orchestra; when he went to Italy, he encountered the Italian overture and opera buffa, both of which were to be hugely influential on his development. Both in London and Italy, the galant style was all the rage: simple, light music, with a mania for cadencing, an emphasis on tonic, dominant, and subdominant to the exclusion of other chords, symmetrical phrases, and clearly articulated structures. This style, out of which the classical style evolved, was a reaction against the complexity of late Baroque music. Some of Mozart's early symphonies are Italian overtures, with three movements running into each other; many are "homotonal" (each movement in the same key, with the slow movement in the parallel minor). Others mimic the works of J.C. Bach, and others show the simple rounded binary forms commonly being written by composers in Vienna. One of the most recognizable features of Mozart's works is a sequence of harmonies or modes that usually leads to a cadence in the dominant or tonic key. This sequence is essentially borrowed from baroque music, especially Bach. But Mozart shifted the sequence so that the cadence ended on the stronger half, i.e., the first beat of the bar. Mozart's understanding of modes such as Phrygian is evident in such passages. Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. ... The Italian overture is a piece of orchestral music with which in the late 17th and early 18th century several operas, oratorios and other large-scale works opened. ... Opera buffa (a form of comic opera), also known as Commedia in musica or Commedia per musica, is a genre of opera. ... In Western musical theory a cadence (Latin cadentia, a falling) is a particular series of intervals or chords that ends a phrase, section, or piece of music. ... The Italian overture is a piece of orchestral music with which in the late 17th and early 18th century several operas, oratorios and other large-scale works opened. ... Binary form is a way of structuring a piece of music into two related sections, both of which are usually repeated. ... In music, a scale is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... In Western musical theory a cadence (Latin cadentia, a falling) is a particular series of intervals or chords that ends a phrase, section, or piece of music. ...


As Mozart matured, he began to incorporate some more features of Baroque styles into his music. For example, the Symphony No. 29 in A Major K. 201 uses a contrapuntal main theme in its first movement, and experimentation with irregular phrase lengths. Some of his quartets from 1773 have fugal finales, probably influenced by Haydn, who had just published his Opus 20 set. The influence of the Sturm und Drang ("Storm and Stress") period in German literature, with its brief foreshadowing of the Romantic era to come, is evident in some of the music of both composers at that time. Mozart's Symphony No. 25 in G minor, K. 183 is another excellent example of this style. The Symphony No. ... Sturm und Drang (literally: storm and stress) was a Germany literary movement that developed during the latter half of the 18th century. ... The Symphony No. ...


Over the course of his working life, Mozart switched his focus from instrumental music to operas, and back again. He wrote operas in each of the styles current in Europe: opera buffa, such as The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, or Così fan tutte; opera seria, such as Idomeneo; and Singspiel, of which Die Zauberflöte is probably the most famous example by any composer. In his later operas, he developed the use of subtle changes in instrumentation, orchestration, and tone colour to express or highlight psychological or emotional states and dramatic shifts. Here his advances in opera and instrumental composing interacted. His increasingly sophisticated use of the orchestra in the symphonies and concerti served as a resource in his operatic orchestration, and his developing subtlety in using the orchestra to psychological effect in his operas was reflected in his later non-operatic compositions. [36] Opera buffa (a form of comic opera), also known as Commedia in musica or Commedia per musica, is a genre of opera. ... Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans: ), K. 492, is an opera buffa (comic opera) composed in 1786 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, based on a stage comedy by Pierre Beaumarchais, Le mariage de Figaro (1784). ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... Così fan tutte, ossia La scuola degli amanti, K. 588, is an opera buffa by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Opera seria is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and serious style of Italian opera that predominated in Europe from the 1720s to ca 1770. ... Idomeneo, re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante (Italian: Idomeneo, King of Crete, or, Ilia and Idamante; usually referred to simply as Idomeneo, K. 366) is an Italian opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Singspiel (song-play) is a form of German-language music drama, similar to modern musical theater, though it is also referred to as a type of operetta or opera. ... Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ...


Influence

Mozart merchandise on sale at an outside market stall in Residenz Square in Salzburg
Mozart merchandise on sale at an outside market stall in Residenz Square in Salzburg

Many important composers since Mozart's time have expressed profound appreciation of Mozart. Rossini averred, "He is the only musician who had as much knowledge as genius, and as much genius as knowledge."[citation needed] Ludwig van Beethoven's admiration for Mozart is also quite clear. Beethoven used Mozart as a model a number of times: for example, Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 4 in G major demonstrates a debt to Mozart's Piano Concerto in C major, K. 503. A plausible story – not corroborated – regards one of Beethoven's students who looked through a pile of music in Beethoven's apartment. When the student pulled out Mozart's A major Quartet, K. 464, Beethoven exclaimed "Ah, that piece. That's Mozart saying 'here's what I could do, if only you had ears to hear!' "; Beethoven's own Piano Concerto No. 3 in C minor is an obvious tribute to Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, and yet another plausible – if unconfirmed – story concerns Beethoven at a concert with his sometime-student Ferdinand Ries. As they listened to Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 24, the orchestra reached the quite unusual coda of the last movement, and Beethoven whispered to Ries: "We will never think of anything like that!" Beethoven's Quintet for Piano and Winds is another obvious tribute to Mozart, similar to Mozart's own quintet for the same ensemble. Beethoven also paid homage to Mozart by writing sets of variations on several of his themes: for example, the two sets of variations for cello and piano on themes from Mozart's Magic Flute, and cadenzas to several of Mozart's piano concertos, most notably the Piano Concerto No. 20 K. 466. A famous story asserts that, after the only meeting between the two composers, Mozart noted that Beethoven would "give the world something to talk about."[citation needed] However, it is not certain that the two ever met.[citation needed] Tchaikovsky wrote his Mozartiana in praise of Mozart; and Mahler's final word was alleged to have been simply "Mozart". The theme of the opening movement of the Piano Sonata in A major K. 331 (itself a set of variations on that theme) was used by Max Reger for his Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Mozart, written in 1914 and among Reger's best-known works.[37] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1419 KB) Mozart merchandise on sale at an outside market stall in Residenz Square in Salzburg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1419 KB) Mozart merchandise on sale at an outside market stall in Residenz Square in Salzburg. ... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868)[1] was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... The Piano Concerto No. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Piano Concerto No. ... Ferdinand Ries (1784–1838) was a Bonn-born pupil of Beethoven who published a collection of reminiscences of his teacher. ... The Piano Concerto No. ... In music, variation is a formal technique where material is altered during repetition; reiteration with changes. ... Die Zauberflöte, K. 620, (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Piano Concerto No. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... The first two bars of Sonata in A, K331 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Piano Sonata No. ... Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger (March 19, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German composer, organist, pianist and teacher. ...

The first two measures of Mozart's Sonata XI, K.331.

In addition, Mozart received outstanding praise from several fellow composers including Frédéric Chopin, Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, and many more.[38] Image File history File links MozartExcerptK331. ... Image File history File links MozartExcerptK331. ... The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin, believed to have been taken by Louis-Auguste Bisson in 1849. ... Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ...


Mozart has remained an influence in popular contemporary music in varying genres ranging from Jazz to modern Rock. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ...


Köchel catalogue

Main article: Köchel-Verzeichnis

In the decades after Mozart's death there were several attempts to catalogue his compositions, but it was not until 1862 that Ludwig von Köchel succeeded in this enterprise. Many of his famous works are referred to by their Köchel catalogue number. (For a selective list organized by genre, with commentary, see List of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart) The Köchel-Verzeichnis is a complete, chronological catalogue of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart which was originally created by Ludwig von Köchel. ... Portrait of von Köchel Ludwig Alois Ferdinand Ritter von Köchel (January 14, 1800 - June 3, 1877) was a musicologist, writer, composer, botanist and publisher. ...


Rumours and controversies

Mozart is unusual among composers for being the subject of an abundance of misconceptions. Many rumours began soon after Mozart died, but few have any basis in fact; biographers often resorted to fiction in order to produce a work. Sorting out fabrications from real events is a vexing and continuous task for Mozart scholars. Dramatists and screenwriters, free from responsibilities of scholarship, have found excellent material among these rumours.


An especially popular case is the supposed rivalry between Mozart and Antonio Salieri, and, in some versions, the tale that it was poison received from the latter that caused Mozart's death; this is the subject of Aleksandr Pushkin's play Mozart and Salieri, Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Mozart and Salieri, and Peter Shaffer's play Amadeus. The last of these has been made into a feature-length film of the same name. Shaffer's play attracted criticism for portraying Mozart as vulgar and loutish, a characterization felt by many to be unfairly exaggerated, but in fact frequently confirmed by the composer's letters and other memorabilia. For example, Mozart wrote canons on the words "Leck mich im Arsch" ("Lick me in the arse") and "Leck mir den Arsch fein recht schön sauber" ("Lick me in the arse nice and clean") as party pieces for his friends.[citation needed] The Köchel numbers of these canons are 231 and 233. Antonio Salieri Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750 – May 7, 1825), was an Italian composer and conductor. ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... Mozart and Salieri (Motsart i Sal’yeri in transliteration) is an opera in two acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to Russian libretto by the composer, based on a verse drama by Alexander Pushkin. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... Mozart and Salieri (Motsart i Sal’yeri in transliteration) is an opera in two acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to Russian libretto by the composer, based on a verse drama by Alexander Pushkin. ... // Sir Peter Levin Shaffer (born May 15, 1926) is an English dramatist, author of numerous award-winning plays, several of which have been filmed. ... Playbill, 1981 For other uses, see Amadeus (disambiguation). ... Amadeus is a 1984 film directed by MiloÅ¡ Forman and based on the stage play Amadeus. ... In music, a canon is a contrapuntal composition that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e. ... Posthumous painting by Barbara Krafft in 1819 Lick Me in the Ass (German: ) is a canon in B-flat major composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 231 (K382c), with lyrics in German. ... Posthumous painting by Barbara Krafft in 1819 Lick Me in the Ass (German: ) is a canon in B-flat major composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, K. 231 (K382c), with lyrics in German. ...


Another debate involves Mozart's alleged status as a kind of superhuman prodigy, from childhood right up until his death. While some have criticized his earlier works as simplistic or forgettable, others revere even Mozart's juvenilia. In any case, several of his early compositions remain very popular. The motet Exultate, jubilate (K. 165), for example, composed when Mozart was seventeen years old, is among the most frequently recorded of his vocal compositions. In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ...


Benjamin Simkin, a medical doctor, argues in his book Medical and Musical Byways of Mozartiana[39] that Mozart had Tourette syndrome. However, no Tourette syndrome expert, organization, psychiatrist or neurologist has stated that there is credible evidence that Mozart had this syndrome, and several have stated that they do not believe there is enough evidence to substantiate the claim.[40] “Tourette” redirects here. ... Tourette syndrome (also Tourettes syndrome, Tourettes or TS) is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of motor and phonic tics. ...


Media

Orchestral

K191
Bassoon Concerto in B-flat major, 1st movement, Allegro
K191
Bassoon Concerto in B-flat major, 2nd movement, Andante ma adagio
K191
Bassoon Concerto in B-flat major, 3rd movement
K550
Mozart's 40th Symphony, 1st movement
K550
Mozart's 40th Symphony, 2nd movement
K550
Mozart's 40th Symphony, 3rd movement
K550
Mozart's 40th Symphony, 4th movement
K527
Overture to Don Giovanni
K525
Eine kleine Nachtmusik, 4th movement
K364, 1st movement
Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra
K364, 2nd movement
Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra
K364, 3rd movement
Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra
K314
Concerto in D for Flute
K622
Clarinet Concerto in A major, 1st movement
K622
Clarinet Concerto in A major, 2nd movement
K622
Clarinet Concerto in A major, 3rd movement


Vocal Image File history File links Mozart_-_Bassoon_Concerto_in_Bb_major_-_Allegro. ... The Bassoon Concerto in B flat major (K191), written in 1774 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, is the most standard piece in the entire bassoon repertory. ... Image File history File links Mozart_-_Bassoon_Concerto_in_Bb_major_-_Andante_ma_adagio. ... The Bassoon Concerto in B flat major (K191), written in 1774 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, is the most standard piece in the entire bassoon repertory. ... Image File history File links Mozart_-_Bassoon_Concerto_in_Bb_major_-_Rondo_Tempo_di_Menuetto. ... The Bassoon Concerto in B flat major (K191), written in 1774 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, is the most standard piece in the entire bassoon repertory. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Symphony 40 g-moll - 1. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Symphony 40 g-moll - 2. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. ... Image File history File links Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart_-_Symphony_40_g-moll_-_3. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Symphony 40 g-moll - 4. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. ... Image File history File links Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Don Giovanni - Overtüre. ... Image File history File links Mozart_Eine_kleine_Nachtmusik_KV525_Satz_4_Rondo. ... The Serenade for strings in G major, better known as Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A little night music or less literally, A little serenade), is one of the most popular compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Image File history File links Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart_-_Sinfonia_Concertante_für_Violine,_Viola_und_Orchester_-_1. ... In the 1770s Mozart had been experimenting with the Sinfonia concertante genre, leading in 1779 to the Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra K. 364, which can be considered his most successful realisation in this cross-over genre between Symphony and Concerto. ... Image File history File links Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart_-_Sinfonia_Concertante_für_Violine,_Viola_und_Orchester_-_2. ... In the 1770s Mozart had been experimenting with the Sinfonia concertante genre, leading in 1779 to the Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra K. 364, which can be considered his most successful realisation in this cross-over genre between Symphony and Concerto. ... Image File history File links Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Sinfonia Concertante für Violine, Viola und Orchester - 3. ... In the 1770s Mozart had been experimenting with the Sinfonia concertante genre, leading in 1779 to the Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra K. 364, which can be considered his most successful realisation in this cross-over genre between Symphony and Concerto. ... Mozart - Concerto in D for Flute K.314. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Klarinettenkonzert A-Dur - 1. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Klarinettenkonzert A-Dur - 2. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Klarinettenkonzert A-Dur - 3. ...

K321, 1st movement
Vesperae de dominica - dixit dominus
K321, 2nd movement
Vesperae de dominica - confitebor
K321, 3rd movement
Vesperae de dominica - beatus vir
K321, 4th movement
Vesperae de dominica - laudate pueri
K321, 5th movement
Vesperae de dominica - laudate dominum
K321, 6th movement
Vesperae de dominica - magnificat


Piano Mozart - vesperae de dominica. ... Mozart - vesperae de dominica. ... Mozart - vesperae de dominica. ... Mozart - vesperae de dominica. ... Mozart - vesperae de dominica. ... Mozart - vesperae de dominica. ...

Rondo Alla Turca from K331
Piano Sonata No. 11 in A major, 3rd movement
K545
Piano Sonata in C major, 1st movement
K545
Piano Sonata in C major, 2nd movement
K545
Piano Sonata in C major, 3rd movement
K378/K317d
Piano/Violin Sonata in B Flat (arranged for flute)
K466
Piano Concerto No.20 in D minor, 1st movement
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Rondo Alla Turka. ... K545 allegro. ... K545 andante. ... K545 rondo. ... Mozart - KV 570. ... Image File history File links Mozart_-_Piano_Concerto_No. ...

See also

  • Complete works editions
    • Alte Mozart-Ausgabe
    • Neue Mozart-Ausgabe

This is a selective list of the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, for a complete list organized by Köchel number, see Köchel-Verzeichnis. ... The composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart went by many different names in his lifetime. ... The composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is often said to have had a special relationship with the city of Prague and its people. ... The Original Mozartkugeln from the Konditorei FÜRST in Salzburg A Mozartkugel (English: Mozart sphere) is a type of ball-shaped chocolate-coated confectionery, consisting of a core of pistachio- and almond-marzipan, with an outer layer of nougat coated with bittersweet chocolate. ... The Mozart effect can refer to: A disputed set of research results that indicate that listening to certain kinds of complex music may induce a short-lived (fifteen minute) improvement on the performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as spatio-temporal reasoning; [1] [2] Popularized versions of the... A page from the Alte Mozart-Ausgabe, showing a portion of the Clarinet Quintet, K. 581. ... The Bärenreiter study score reprint (2006) of the Neue Mozart-Ausgabes volumes containing all of Mozarts piano concertos. ...

References

  1. ^ Deutsch (1965), cited below
  2. ^ Cliff Eisen, Stanley Sadie, '(Johann Chrysostom) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart', Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 2006-05-09)
  3. ^ Documents describing Mozart's transcription of the Allegri Miserere at Wikisource
  4. ^ New Grove, section 3
  5. ^ Solomon 1995, 149
  6. ^ New Grove, section 3
  7. ^ New Grove, section 3
  8. ^ Solomon's discussion of the job search appears in Chapter 9 of his 1995 book, entitled "A Fool's Errand".
  9. ^ New Grove, section 4
  10. ^ Wolfgang, in a letter to his father Leopold from June 9, 1781. In the original: "bey der Thüre durch einen Tritt im Arsch hinaus werfen".
  11. ^ Source for all material in this paragraph: New Grove, section 4
  12. ^ New Grove, section 4
  13. ^ New Grove, section 4
  14. ^ New Grove, section 4. For a listing see the index entry for this opera in Deutsch 1965.
  15. ^ Solomon 1995, 253
  16. ^ Solomon 1995, 270
  17. ^ Letter from Leopold Mozart to his daughter Maria Anna from February 16, 1785. In the original: "Ich sage ihnen vor gott, als ein ehrlicher Mann, ihr Sohn ist der größte Componist, den ich von Person und den Nahmen nach kenne: er hat Geschmack, und über das die größte Compositionswissenschaft."
  18. ^ For the drop in concert activity, see New Grove, section 6; for income estimates see Mozart's income.
  19. ^ Solomon 1995
  20. ^ New Grove, section 6
  21. ^ All information in this paragraph is from Solomon 1995, Chap. 30)
  22. ^ Solomon 1995, 477
  23. ^ Solomon 1995, 477
  24. ^ Solomon 1995, 477
  25. ^ Solomon 1995, 487
  26. ^ Solomon 1995, 490
  27. ^ Solomon 1995, 485
  28. ^ Solomon 1995, 491
  29. ^ a b Harding, Luke. Mozart more of a prince than a pauper. The Guardian. April 5, 2006]. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  30. ^ All quotations and other material in this paragraph from Solomon 1995, 308
  31. ^ Solomon 1995, 310
  32. ^ Solomon 1995, 319
  33. ^ On Mozart's friendships see Solomon 1995, ch. 20)
  34. ^ Davenport ((1932), p. 178: "...and idealism itself never touched him until he became a Freemason. After 1785, when he joined the order, he threw himself into its fervid mystic love for mankind, but withheld the same feeling from individuals."
  35. ^ The Mozarts first lodged in Cecil Court off Tottenham Court Road, then in Frith Street in Soho, and later in Ebury Street, where a blue plaque commemorates their stay. See BBC World Service article.
  36. ^ Einstein, Alfred: Mozart: His Character, His Work, translated by Mendel & Broder, Panther books, 1946. ISBN 5860327702
  37. ^ Penguin Guide to Classical Compact Discs
  38. ^ Notable Quotes About Mozart. Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  39. ^ Did Mozart Have Tourette Syndrome? at Daniel Publishing PMID 1286388
  40. ^ FAMOUS PEOPLE WITH TOURETTE'S SYNDROME AND/OR OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER, SchoolBehavior.com, May 20, 2006.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a dictionary of music and musicians, generally considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Alfred Einstein (December 30, 1880–February 13, 1952), was a German-American musicologist and music editor. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ...

Further reading

  • Braunbehrens, Volkmar (1986) Mozart in Vienna: 1781-1791, Timothy Bell Trans, HarperPerennial. ISBN 0-06-0974052
  • Davenport, Marcia (1932) Mozart, The Chautauqua Press.
  • Deutsch, Otto Erich (1965) Mozart: A Documentary Biography, Eric Blom et al. Trans, Stanford University Press.
  • Deutsch, Wilhelm Otto (2005) Mozart und die Religion
  • Eisen, Cliff and Simon P. Keefe, eds. (2006) The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85659-0
  • Greither, Aloys (1962) Wolfgang Amadé Mozart, Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH.
  • Gutman, Robert W. (2001) Mozart: A Cultural Biography, Random, 2001 ISBN 0-15-100482-X
  • Jick, Hershel (1997) A Listener's Guide to Mozart's Music, Vantage, ISBN 0-533-12308-9
  • Melograni, Piero (2006) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: A Biography, The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-51956-2. Read an excerpt
  • Mila, Massimo (1979) Lettura delle Nozze di Figaro, Einaudi. ISBN 88-06-18937-9
  • Robbins, Gregory Allen. Mozart & Salieri, Cain & Abel: A Cinematic Transformation of Genesis 4
  • Rayner, Mark (2005) The Amadeus Net, ENC, 2005 ISBN 0-9752540-1-4
  • Robbins Landon, H. C. (1988) 1791: Mozart's Last Year, Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28107-6
  • Rushton, Julian: Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus in 'The New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie (London, 1992) ISBN 0-333-73432-7
  • Sadie, Stanley, ed. (2000) Mozart and his Operas, St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-24410-X
  • Solomon, Maynard(1995) Mozart: A life, Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092692-9
  • Till, Nicholas (1992) Mozart and the Enlightenment, Faber, Norton. ISBN 0-571-16169-3

American author and music critic Marcia Davenport was born Marcia Glick in New York City on June 9, 1903, the daughter of opera singer Alma Gluck and Bernard Glick, and she became the step-daughter of violinist Efrem Zimbalist when Gluck remarried. ... Cliff Eisen (born in Toronto, 21 January 1952) is a Canadian musicologist and one of the worlds leading Mozart experts. ... Howard Chandler Robbins Landon (born March 6, 1926) is a musicologist. ... The New Grove Dictionary of Opera is an encyclopedia (or encyclopedic dictionary) of opera, considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ... Stanley Sadie, CBE, (October 30, 1930-March 21, 2005) was a British musicologist, music critic, and editor. ... Maynard Solomon is the author most recently of Mozart, a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in Biography, which won the Deems Taylor Award as did his biography, Beethoven, and his study of Charles Ives. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

General references

  • The Mozart Project – the life, times and music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • Infography about Mozart
  • Compact Mozart biography - at mozartones.com
  • The Danish Radio Sinfonietta's official Mozart website - Articles, downloads, and links
  • A Profile of Amadeus Mozart from Aaron Green, guide to Classical Music at About.com.
  • WAMozartFan.com The Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Educational Fanpage - resource for students, teachers and music lovers.
  • The Music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, from Classical Music Pages
  • Mozart Forum Exploring the world of Classical-Era Music (1770-1827), encompassing the music, personalities and accomplishments of Mozart and his contemporaries.
  • Mozart Archive
  • Mozart
  • Année Mozart (French) blog about W.A. Mozart and his family
  • WorldCat Identities page for 'Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus 1756-1791'
  • "mozart") 783 Digitised Works of and about Mozart in The European Library

Scores

  • Digital Mozart Edition: Neue Mozart-Ausgabe published online
  • Piano Sheet Music of Compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Out of Copyright Editions)
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart free scores in the International Music Score Library Project
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart free scores in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
  • Works by Mozart at Project Gutenberg
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart free scores in the Werner Icking Music Archive
  • Mozart's Scores by Mutopia Project
  • Mozart Melody Index at Tunespotting.com
  • Mozart melodies at Musipedia
  • Mozart scores in PDF for the piano
  • Full opera scores to Mozarts greatest operas (Scroll halfway down on the page)
  • Salzburg Mozarteum
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Information
  • Mozart Scores You can preview scores while listening audio streams

The Bärenreiter study score reprint (2006) of the Neue Mozart-Ausgabes volumes containing all of Mozarts piano concertos. ... The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... The Werner Icking Music Archive, often abbreviated WIMA, is a web archive of public domain sheet music. ... Musipedia is a search engine for identifying pieces of music. ...

Recordings

  • Free Mozart recordings of string quartets, symphonies, concertos and more from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum podcast, "The Concert."
  • (Hundreds of) MIDI files at Kunst der Fuge (to be saved and listened) and Classical MIDI Connection (to be listened only)
  • Mozart at Piano Society - Biography and various free recordings in MP3 format.
  • Mozart cylinder recordings, from the Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara Library.
  • Mozart at archive.org
  • Mozart Video's - Free Selection of Mozart Video Performances
  • Listen to a free recording of Ave verum corpus, KV 618 from Coro Nostro, a mixed chamber choir based in Leicester, UK.
  • Live recording of recitative and aria for soprano, piano & orchestra, Ch'io mi scordi di te...Non temer amato bene, KV 505 (Mary Gayle Greene, mezzo-soprano)
  • Piano Sonatas K 533, 545, 570, 576 MP3 Creative Commons Recording

Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... The Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project is a free digital collection maintained by the University of California, Santa Barbara Libraries with streaming and downloadable versions of over 5,000 phonograph cylinders manufactured between 1895 and the mid 1920s. ... The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It is one out of 10 campuses of the University of California. ...

Specific topics

  • A free walking tour of Mozart in Prague via podcast
  • The "Mozart Catalogue" digitised by the British Library - Go to "Turning the Pages"
  • Cadenzas from the A Clarinet Concerto - Clariperu Many trancriptions from artists like Sabine Meyer, John McCaw, Charles Neidich, etc.
  • Mozart's Thematic Catalogue - turn the pages of Mozart's musical diary online (requires Shockwave plugin)
  • gallica.bnf.fr, picture of Mozart, his mother, his father, his wife, and his family (bnf = French National Library).
  • Mozart and pauses
  • The "Jenamy Concerto" The proper name of Mozart's piano concerto K. 271 revealed
  • Mozart und die Religion (2005), Wilhelm Otto Deutsch
  • Born between Salzburg and Braunau am Inn
  • Information about Mozart, Salzburg and the city's musical heritage
  • Mozart's 250th Birthday, from NPR
  • The alleged last portrait painting of Mozart
  • Mozart and Freemasonry
Persondata
NAME Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Mozart, Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus (full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION composer
DATE OF BIRTH January 27, 1756
PLACE OF BIRTH Salzburg, Austria
DATE OF DEATH December 5, 1791
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna, Austria

A composer is a person who writes music. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Austro-Bavarian: SÃ¥izburg) is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Wien” redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4976 words)
Mozart was born to Leopold and Anna Maria Pertl Mozart, in the front room of 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg, the capital of the sovereign Archbishopric of Salzburg, in what is now Austria, then part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Mozart in 1767 as an 11-year-old boy was fleeing from Vienna due to a smallpox epidemic and wrote his Sixth Symphony in F Major in Olomouc.
Mozart was much taken by the sound of Benjamin Franklin's glass armonica, and composed two works for it: an Adagio in C (K. 617a [K. 356]) and an Adagio and Rondo for armonica, flute, oboe, viola, and cello (K. 617), both composed in 1791 after he heard the instrument played by the virtuoso Marianne Kirchgaessner.
SPECTRUM Biographies - Wolfgan Amadeus Mozart (779 words)
Leopold Mozart was a successful composer and violinist and served as assistant concertmaster at the Salzburg court.
Mozart and his older sister Maria Anna "Nannerl" were the couple's only surviving children, and their musical education began at a very young age.
Mozart was buried in an unmarked grave, as was customary for those of his social standing, in Vienna.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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