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Encyclopedia > Wojciech Jaruzelski
Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski
Wojciech Jaruzelski

Wojciech Jaruzelski in 2006 Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 37 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wojciech Jaruzelski ...


In office
December 31, 1989 – December 21, 1990
Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki
Preceded by (Was President of the PRP)
Succeeded by Lech Wałęsa

In office
July 19, 1989 – December 31, 1989
Prime Minister Mieczysław Rakowski, Czesław Kiszczak, Tadeusz Mazowiecki
Preceded by Council of State
Succeeded by (Became President of the Republic of Poland)

In office
November 6, 1985 – July 19, 1989
Prime Minister Zbigniew Messner, Mieczysław Rakowski
Preceded by Henryk Jabłoński
Succeeded by (Became President)

In office
February 11, 1981 – November 6, 1985
President Henryk Jabłoński (Council of State Chairman)
Preceded by Józef Pińkowski
Succeeded by Zbigniew Messner

In office
October 18, 1981 – July 29, 1989
Preceded by Stanisław Kania
Succeeded by Mieczysław Rakowski

In office
1969 – 1985
Prime Minister Józef Cyrankiewicz, Piotr Jaroszewicz, Edward Babiuch, Józef Pińkowski, Wojciech Jaruzelski
Preceded by Marian Spychalski
Succeeded by Florian Siwicki

In office
1981 – 1991

Born July 6, 1923 (1923-07-06) (age 84)
Kurów, Second Polish Republic
Political party Polish United Workers' Party
Spouse Barbara Jaruzelska
Profession Military
Religion Atheist
Military service
Awards Virtuti Militari, Polonia Restituta, Cross of Valor

Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (pronounced: Image:Ltspkr.png /'vɔjʨɛx jaru'zɛlskʲi/) (born July 6, 1923) is a Polish statesman, former Communist political and military leader. He served as Prime Minister from 1981 to 1985, head of the Polish Council of State from 1985 to 1989, and President from 1989 to 1990. Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ... The Republic of Poland, a country in Central Europe, lies between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Tadeusz Mazowiecki (born April 18, 1927 in PÅ‚ock) is a Polish author, journalist, social worker and politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist prime minister in Central and Eastern Europe after World War II. Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Prime Minister of Poland... WaÅ‚Ä™sa redirects here. ... Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... MieczysÅ‚aw Rakowski (born December 1, 1926) is a comunist historian and journalist. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Tadeusz Mazowiecki (born April 18, 1927 in PÅ‚ock) is a Polish author, journalist, social worker and politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist prime minister in Central and Eastern Europe after World War II. Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Prime Minister of Poland... The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the 1947s Small Constitution. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Zbigniew Messner (b. ... MieczysÅ‚aw Rakowski (born December 1, 1926) is a comunist historian and journalist. ... Henryk JabÅ‚oÅ„ski (27 December 1909 - 27 January 2003) was a Polish politician, socialist, historian and professor at Warsaw University. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Henryk JabÅ‚oÅ„ski (27 December 1909 - 27 January 2003) was a Polish politician, socialist, historian and professor at Warsaw University. ... Józef PiÅ„kowski (1929-2000) was a Polish Communist politician who served as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1981. ... Zbigniew Messner (b. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP; in Polish, Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR), was the governing political party in communist-ruled Poland from its creation (through a fusion of the communist Polish Workers Party and the left wing of the Polish Socialist Party) in December 1948 until the regimes... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... StanisÅ‚aw Kania StanisÅ‚aw Kania (born March 8, 1927) was a Polish communist political leader. ... MieczysÅ‚aw Rakowski (born December 1, 1926) is a comunist historian and journalist. ... Current ministry Aleksander SzczygÅ‚o List of Ministrys of National Defense of the Republic of Poland (). Current ministry is Aleksander Marek SzczygÅ‚o. ... Józef Cyrankiewicz (April 23, 1911 - January 20, 1989) was a Polish communist political figure. ... Gen. ... Edward Babiuch (born 1927) was a Polish Communist political figure. ... Józef PiÅ„kowski (1929-2000) was a Polish Communist politician who served as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1981. ... Marian Spychalski (1906-1980) was a Polish Communist politician who served as Polish Head of State from 1968 to 1970. ... General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat PuÅ‚awy County Gmina Kurów Established 12th century City rights 1442-1870 Government  - Mayor Jan Łubek Area  - Village 11. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP, in Polish Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza - PZPR) was a socialist party governing in the Peoples Republic of Poland from 1948 to 1989. ... Atheist redirects here. ... Virtuti Militari The Virtuti Militari (Latin: For Military Virtue) was created in 1792 and is Polands highest military decoration for valor in the face of the enemy and one of the oldest military decorations in the world still in use . ... Commanders Cross The Order of Polonia Restituta (Polish Order Odrodzenia Polski) is a Polish Order (decoration), established on February 4, 1921. ... The Cross of Valor (Polish: ) is a Polish military decoration. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the 1947s Small Constitution. ... Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is directly elected by the people to serve a term of five years. ...

Contents

Military career

Jaruzelski was born into a family of Polish gentry. He was raised on the family estate near Wysokie (in the vicinity of Białystok) and later in the Warsaw Catholic boarding school of Bielany. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wysokie may refer to the following places in Poland: Wysokie in Gmina Rudna, Lubin County in Lower Silesian Voivodeship (SW Poland) Other places called Wysokie (listed in Polish Wikipedia) Category: ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km² (39. ...


After the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact when he was a teenager, his family fled to Lithuania. Later they were deported to the Asian part of the Soviet Union, where his father died at Biysk of lack of medical treatment. When the Soviets began building up Polish army units, Jaruzelski was among the first to join. At the end of World War II he participated in the Battle of Berlin. Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Biysk or Biisk (Russian: ) is a city in Altai Krai of Russia. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[3] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[4] Strength Total strength 2...


As an officer of the Ludowe Wojsko Polskie, Jaruzelski was trained at the Polish Higher Infantry School and the General Staff Academy, and joined the Polish United Workers' Party (the former Polish Communist Party). In the first post-war years, he was among the military fighting the Polish anti-communist guerrillas ("cursed soldiers") in the Świętokrzyskie region. The Piast eagle worn by LWP soldiers. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... For other uses, see Academy (disambiguation). ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP, in Polish Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza - PZPR) was a socialist party governing in the Peoples Republic of Poland from 1948 to 1989. ... This article is about the 1918-1938 Communist Party of Poland. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... This is a monument to the Armia Krajowa in Sopot, Poland. ... Capital city Kielce Area 11,672 km² Population (2006)  - Density 1,283,500 110/km² Powiats  - Urban counties  - Land counties 1 13 Communes 102 Administrative divisions: ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodeship (also ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Province — Polish: ) is a voivodeship, or province, in central Poland. ...


He quickly rose in the military and Party, becoming a member of the Central Committee in 1964. In 1968, he was named the Minister of Defense. In the same year, he was heavily involved in the "cleansing" of the Polish army as part of Mieczysław Moczar's anti-semitic campaign. (In fact, he had close links to Moczar; he was best man at Moczar's second wedding, which does not appear in Jaruzelski's autobiographical works). Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... A defence minister ( Commonwealth English) or defense minister ( American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... MieczysÅ‚aw Moczar (original name MikoÅ‚aj Demko, pseudonym Mietek, born December 25, 1913 in Łódź - died November 1, 1986) was a Polish communist who played a prominent role in the history of the Polish Peoples Republic. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For music albums named Autobiography, see Greek eauton = self, bios = life and graphein = write) is a form of biography, the writing of a life story. ...


In 1968, during the Prague Spring, he led the Polish military participation in the invasion of Czechoslovakia. People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the...

Jaruzelski (right, in uniform) with Fidel Castro in Poland, May 1972
Jaruzelski (right, in uniform) with Fidel Castro in Poland, May 1972

In 1970, he was involved in the plot against Władysław Gomułka, which led to the appointment of Edward Gierek as Communist Party General Secretary. He took part in organizing the suppression of striking workers, which led to massacres in the coastal cities of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Elbląg and Szczecin. Wojciech Jaruzelski and Fidel Castro (May 1972) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wojciech Jaruzelski and Fidel Castro (May 1972) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GomuÅ‚ka (February 6, 1905, Krosno – September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader. ... Edward Gierek Edward Gierek (January 6, 1913 - July 29, 2001) was a Polish Communist leader. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... Look up massacre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at GdaÅ„sk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... ElblÄ…g (IPA: ; German: ) is a city in northern Poland with 127,892 inhabitants (2006). ... Stettin redirects here. ...


Leader of the Polish military government

Jaruzelski became the party's General Secretary and Prime Minister in 1981, when Lech Wałęsa's Solidarity movement was starting to gain popularity, both within Poland and abroad. On December 13, 1981, Jaruzelski imposed martial law in Poland (in Polish stan wojenny.) The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... WaÅ‚Ä™sa redirects here. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ...


According to his explanation, this action was intended to prevent a threat of Soviet invasion. Lawyers hold that the circumstances of the martial law were even in violation of the communist constitution. Most former opposition members argue that it was merely an action by the Polish communist regime to retain power and strangle the newly born and developing civil society. An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


Moreover, historical evidence released under Russian President Boris Yeltsin has been brought to light indicating that the Soviet Union did not plan to invade Poland; in fact, the Soviets strictly rejected Jaruzelski's request for military help in 1981, leaving the Solidarity "problem" to be sorted out by the Polish government. This question, as well as many other facts about Poland in the years 1945-1989, are presently under the investigation of government historians at the Institute of National Remembrance (Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, IPN), whose publications reveal facts from the communist-era archives. List of Presidents of Russia Boris Yeltsin1 (July 10, 1991 – December 31, 1999) two terms. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Instytut PamiÄ™ci Narodowej (IPN, Institute of National Remembrance) is a Polish institution created by the IPN Act in 18 December 1998. ... Archive of the AMVC An archive refers to a collection of historical records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ...


Political reforms and presidency

The policies of Mikhail Gorbachev also stimulated political reform in Poland. By the close of the tenth plenary session in December 1988, the Communist Party was forced, after strikes, to approach leaders of Solidarity for talks. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Look up reform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


From February 6 to April 15, 1989, talks of 13 working groups in 94 sessions, which became known as the Round-Table negotiations, radically altered the shape of the Polish government and society. The talks resulted in an agreement to vest political power in a newly created bicameral legislature and in a President who would be the chief executive. Solidarity was legalized. After the elections, the communists, who were guaranteed 65 percent of the seats in the Sejm (the lower house), did not win a majority, and Solidarity-backed candidates won 99 out of 100 freely contested seats in the Senate. Jaruzelski, whose name was the only one the Communist Party allowed on the ballot for the presidency, won by just one vote in the National Assembly. is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Round-table negotiations. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... The word Presidency is often used to describe the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although Jaruzelski tried to persuade Solidarity to join the communists in a "grand coalition," Wałęsa refused, saying that Solidarity's goal was to liberate Poland from Communist-Soviet oppression. Jaruzelski resigned as General Secretary of the Communist Party but found he was forced to come to terms with a government formed by Solidarity. A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ...


In 1990, Jaruzelski resigned as Poland's leader and was succeeded by Wałęsa in December. Subsequently, Jaruzelski faced charges for a number of actions such as murder that he committed while he was Defense Minister during the Communist period. WaÅ‚Ä™sa redirects here. ...


On January 31, 1991, General Jaruzelski retired from the army service. is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...


After retirement

In May 2005, Russian President Vladimir Putin awarded a medal commemorating 60th anniversary of victory over Nazi Germany to Jaruzelski. Other former leaders awarded the medal include Romania's former King Michael I.[1] Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ... A medal is a small metal object, usually engraved with insignia, that is awarded to a person for athletic, military, scientific, academic or some other kind of achievement. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... King Michael I of the Romanians (born October 25, 1921), Prince of Hohenzollern[1][2][3], reigned as King of the Romanians (in Romanian Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor or Majestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor) from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from...


Czech President Václav Klaus criticized this step, claiming that Jaruzelski is a symbol of the Warsaw Pact troops' invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Jaruzelski said that he had apologised and that the decision on the August 1968 invasion had been a great "political and moral mistake".[2] This is a list of presidents of the Czech Republic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... -1... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On March 28, 2006, Jaruzelski was awarded a Siberian Exiles Cross by Polish President Lech Kaczyński. However, after making this fact public Kaczyński claimed that this was a mistake and blamed the bureaucracy for giving him a document containing 1293 names without notifying him of Jaruzelski's presence within it. After this statement Jaruzelski returned the cross. is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...  , IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... This article is about the sociological concept. ...


On March 31, 2006, the IPN charged him with committing Communist crimes, mainly the creation of a criminal military organisation with the aim of conducting crimes (mostly concerned with the illegal imprisonment of people). The second charge involves the incitement of state ministers to commit acts beyond their competence[citation needed]. is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ...


The Polish Ministry of Defence is currently engaged in a process that would allow it to deny Jaruzelski any military pension he currently receives.[3] For the lodging, see Pension (lodging). ...


See also

  • History of Poland (1945-1989)

The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and...

References

  1. ^ Putin gives medal to Poland's communist-era strongman
  2. ^ http://www.mosnews.com/news/2005/08/22/jaruzelski.shtml
  3. ^ MON pyta IPN o współpracę Jaruzelskiego z IW

External links

  • Jaruzelski's official website
Political offices
Preceded by
Józef Pińkowski
Prime Minister of Poland
1981–1985
Succeeded by
Zbigniew Messner
Preceded by
Henryk Jabłoński
Chairman of the Council of State
1985–1989
Succeeded by
Himself
as President of Poland
Vacant
Title last held by
Bolesław Bierut
President of Poland
1989–1990
Succeeded by
Lech Wałęsa
Party political offices
Preceded by
Stanisław Kania
General Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party
1981–1989
Succeeded by
Mieczysław Rakowski
Józef PiÅ„kowski (1929-2000) was a Polish Communist politician who served as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1981. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Poland. ... Zbigniew Messner (b. ... Henryk JabÅ‚oÅ„ski (27 December 1909 - 27 January 2003) was a Polish politician, socialist, historian and professor at Warsaw University. ... The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the 1947s Small Constitution. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (real name BolesÅ‚aw Rotenschwanz, April 18, 1892–March 12, 1956) was a Polish-born Communist leader, a Stalinist who became President of Poland after the Soviet occupation of the country in the aftermath of World War II. // Damaged monument to Bierut formerly standing in Lublin, 2007... This is a list of Polish presidents. ... WaÅ‚Ä™sa redirects here. ... StanisÅ‚aw Kania StanisÅ‚aw Kania (born March 8, 1927) was a Polish communist political leader. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP, in Polish Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza - PZPR) was a socialist party governing in the Peoples Republic of Poland from 1948 to 1989. ... MieczysÅ‚aw Rakowski (born December 1, 1926) is a comunist historian and journalist. ... The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the 1947s Small Constitution. ... BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (real name BolesÅ‚aw Rotenschwanz, April 18, 1892–March 12, 1956) was a Polish-born Communist leader, a Stalinist who became President of Poland after the Soviet occupation of the country in the aftermath of World War II. // Damaged monument to Bierut formerly standing in Lublin, 2007... Aleksander Zawadzki Aleksander Zawadzki (December 16, 1899 _ August 7, 1964) was a Polish Communist political figure and head of state of Poland from 1952 to 1964. ... Edward Ochab (1906-1989) was a Polish Communist politician who was First Secretary of the Communist party between March and October 1956 and served as head of state in the years 1964-1968. ... Marian Spychalski (1906-1980) was a Polish Communist politician who served as Polish Head of State from 1968 to 1970. ... Józef Cyrankiewicz (April 23, 1911 - January 20, 1989) was a Polish communist political figure. ... Henryk JabÅ‚oÅ„ski (27 December 1909 - 27 January 2003) was a Polish politician, socialist, historian and professor at Warsaw University. ... Image File history File links Herb_PRL.svg‎ Coat of arms of the former Peoples Republic of Poland (1945-1989) Obtained from Webchantier. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP, in Polish Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza - PZPR) was a socialist party governing in the Peoples Republic of Poland from 1948 to 1989. ... BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (real name BolesÅ‚aw Rotenschwanz, April 18, 1892–March 12, 1956) was a Polish-born Communist leader, a Stalinist who became President of Poland after the Soviet occupation of the country in the aftermath of World War II. // Damaged monument to Bierut formerly standing in Lublin, 2007... Edward Ochab (1906-1989) was a Polish Communist politician who was First Secretary of the Communist party between March and October 1956 and served as head of state in the years 1964-1968. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GomuÅ‚ka (February 6, 1905, Krosno – September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader. ... Edward Gierek Edward Gierek (January 6, 1913 - July 29, 2001) was a Polish Communist leader. ... StanisÅ‚aw Kania StanisÅ‚aw Kania (born March 8, 1927) was a Polish communist political leader. ... MieczysÅ‚aw Rakowski (born December 1, 1926) is a comunist historian and journalist. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Pilsudski redirects here. ... Gabriel Narutowicz , (March 17, 1865 – December 16, 1922) was the first elected President of the Republic of Poland. ... Maciej Rataj (19 February 1884 - 21 June 1940) was a Polish politician, president, socialist activist and writer. ... Term of office from December 20, 1922 until May 14, 1926 Profession university professor Political party PSL Piast Date of birth March 15, 1869 Place of birth Kalisz, Poland Date of death April 9, 1953 Place of death GoÅ‚Ä…bki near Warsaw, Poland Stanislaw Wojciechowski was born on March 15... Maciej Rataj (19 February 1884 - 21 June 1940) was a Polish politician, president, socialist activist and writer. ... Office Term of office from June 1, 1926, until September 30, 1939 Profession Professor of chemistry Political party none (until 1892, Proletariat) Spouse Maria, née DobrzaÅ„ska Date of birth December 1, 1867 Place of birth Mierzanów, Poland Date of death October 2, 1946 Place of death Versoix... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... BolesÅ‚aw Wieniawa-DÅ‚ugoszowski (1881 - 1942) was a Polish General and man of letters. ... Term of Office from September 30, 1939 until June 6, 1947 Profession Lawyer Political Party none (BBWR) First Lady not married Date of Birth January 28, 1885 Place of Birth Kutaisi, Georgia Date of Death June 6, 1947 Place of Death Wales, United Kingdom WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Raczkiewicz (January 28... August Zaleski (1883-1972) was a Polish economist, politician and diplomat. ... The Council of Three (Polish Rada Trzech) was a collegial body created by the Polish Government in Exile in 1954 with prerogatives of the President of Poland. ... StanisÅ‚aw Ostrowski StanisÅ‚aw Ostrowski (b. ... Edward Bernard RaczyÅ„ski (1891-1993) was a Polish aristocrat, diplomat, politician and President of Poland in exile (between 1979 and 1986). ... Kazimierz Sabbat (February 27, 1913 - July 19, 1989), was a President of the Polish Government in Exile from the 8th of April, 1986 until his death, the 19th of July, 1989. ... Ryszard Kaczorowski (b. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (real name BolesÅ‚aw Rotenschwanz, April 18, 1892–March 12, 1956) was a Polish-born Communist leader, a Stalinist who became President of Poland after the Soviet occupation of the country in the aftermath of World War II. // Damaged monument to Bierut formerly standing in Lublin, 2007... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Kowalski (August 26, 1894 - December 14, 1958) - Polish communist politician, who served as Sejm Marshal during first Sejm of the Communist Poland (1947-1952) and, ex officio, as the head of state (Acting President of the State National Council) for one day (February 4 - February 5, 1947). ... BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (real name BolesÅ‚aw Rotenschwanz, April 18, 1892–March 12, 1956) was a Polish-born Communist leader, a Stalinist who became President of Poland after the Soviet occupation of the country in the aftermath of World War II. // Damaged monument to Bierut formerly standing in Lublin, 2007... Aleksander Zawadzki Aleksander Zawadzki (December 16, 1899 _ August 7, 1964) was a Polish Communist political figure and head of state of Poland from 1952 to 1964. ... Edward Ochab (1906-1989) was a Polish Communist politician who was First Secretary of the Communist party between March and October 1956 and served as head of state in the years 1964-1968. ... Marian Spychalski (1906-1980) was a Polish Communist politician who served as Polish Head of State from 1968 to 1970. ... Józef Cyrankiewicz (April 23, 1911 - January 20, 1989) was a Polish communist political figure. ... Henryk JabÅ‚oÅ„ski (27 December 1909 - 27 January 2003) was a Polish politician, socialist, historian and professor at Warsaw University. ... WaÅ‚Ä™sa redirects here. ... Aleksander KwaÅ›niewski ( ; born November 15, 1954) is a Polish politician who served as the President of Poland from 1995 to 2005. ...  , IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish, German Government Monarchy Regency Council Cardinal Kakowski Prince Lubomirski Józef Ostrowski Prime Minister  - 1917-1918 Jan Kucharzewski  - 1918 Antoni Ponikowski  - 1918 Jan Kanty Steczkowski  - 1918 Ladislaw Wróblewski Historical era World War I  - Established November 5, 1916  - Disestablished November 11, 1918 Currency Polish marka... Jan Kucharzewski (1876-1952) was a Polish historian, lawyer, and politician, prime minister of Poland (1917-1918) In 1898 he graduated from Warsaw University, he was a memeber of Zet political organizaction, National Democrats (Narodowa Demokracja) movement, and National League (Liga Narodowa) till 1911. ... Antoni Ponikowski (1878-1949) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister from 1921 to 1922. ... Jan Kanty Steczkowski (1862–1929) was a Polish economist, solicitor and politician. ... Redirect page ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Wróblewski (1875-1951) was a Polish politician, scientist, diplomat and lawyer. ... Ignacy DaszyÅ„ski Ignacy DaszyÅ„ski (1866-1936) was a Polish politician. ... Ignacy DaszyÅ„ski Ignacy DaszyÅ„ski (1866-1936) was a Polish politician. ... JÄ™drzej Moraczewski (1879-1944) was a Polish politician who served as second Prime Minister of Poland, from November 1918 to January 1919. ... Ignacy Jan Paderewski Ignacy Jan Paderewski GBE (November 6, 1860 - June 29, 1941) was a Polish pianist, composer, diplomat and politician, and the third Prime Minister of Poland. ... Leopold Skulski (1878-after 1939) was prime minister of Poland from 1919 to 1920. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Grabski WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Grabski (July 7, 1874 - March 3, 1938) was a Polish politician, economist and Prime Minister of Poland. ... Wincenty Witos Wincenty Witos (1874 - 1945) was an actvist of the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) from 1895 and leader of Piast faction from 1913. ... Antoni Ponikowski (1878-1949) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister from 1921 to 1922. ... Artur ÅšliwiÅ„ski (1877-1953) was the Prime Minister of Poland from June 26-July 16 of 1922. ... Julian Ignacy Nowak (1865-1946) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister during 1922. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounced ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... Wincenty Witos Wincenty Witos (1874 - 1945) was an actvist of the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) from 1895 and leader of Piast faction from 1913. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Grabski WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Grabski (July 7, 1874 - March 3, 1938) was a Polish politician, economist and Prime Minister of Poland. ... Aleksander Skrzynski (1882-1931) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister from 1925 to 1926. ... Wincenty Witos Wincenty Witos (1874 - 1945) was an actvist of the Polish Peasant Party (PSL) from 1895 and leader of Piast faction from 1913. ... Kazimierz Bartel ( 1882- 1941), was a Polish mathematician and politician; Prime Minister of Poland,1926-1930. ... Pilsudski redirects here. ... Kazimierz Bartel ( 1882- 1941), was a Polish mathematician and politician; Prime Minister of Poland,1926-1930. ... Kazimierz Switalski Col. ... Kazimierz Bartel ( 1882- 1941), was a Polish mathematician and politician; Prime Minister of Poland,1926-1930. ... Walery SÅ‚awek (1879-1939) was a Polish politician who three times served as Prime Minister of Poland in the early 1930s. ... Pilsudski redirects here. ... Walery SÅ‚awek (1879-1939) was a Polish politician who three times served as Prime Minister of Poland in the early 1930s. ... Aleksander Prystor (1874-1941) was a Polish politician who served as Prime Minister of Poland from 1931 to 1933. ... Janusz JÄ™drzejewicz (1885-1951) - was a Polish politician and teacher, one of the leaders of Sanacja and a Prime Minister of Poland (1933-1934). ... Leon KozÅ‚owski (1892-1944) was a Polish archaeologist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Poland from 1934 to 1935. ... Walery SÅ‚awek (1879-1939) was a Polish politician who three times served as Prime Minister of Poland in the early 1930s. ... Marian Zyndram-KoÅ›ciaÅ‚kowski (1892-1946) was a Polish politician who served as President of Warsaw in 1934 and Prime Minister of Poland from 1935 to 1936. ... Felicjan SÅ‚awoj SkÅ‚adkowski Felicjan SÅ‚awoj SkÅ‚adkowski (1885-1962) was a Polish general and a politician who served as the last Prime Minister of Poland before World War II, who read medicine at the Jagiellonian University. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounced ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk (1901 - 1966), Polish politician, was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile during World War II, and later Deputy Prime Minister in postwar Poland. ... Tomasz Arciszewski (1877-1955) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister of the Polish government-in-exile in London from 1944 to 1947, thus presiding over the period when the government lost the recognition of the Western Powers. ... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... Tadeusz Tomaszewski was a prime minister Polish Government in Exile (1939-1990). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jerzy Hryniewski (December 29, 1895 - March 15, 1978) was a Polish politician, who is best know for serving as Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile from January 18 to May 13, 1954. ... StanisÅ‚aw Cat Mackiewicz (December 18, 1896 in Petersburg - February 18, 1966 in Warsaw) - Polish conservative writer, a monarchist, Member of Parliament (Sejm) 1928-1935, from BBWR faction. ... Hugon Hanke (born 1904 - died December 19, 1964) was a Polish politician, best know for being a Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland in Exile (in 1955) and his unexcepted return to the communist-ruled country while serving as PM. He was involved in politics during time of Second... Antoni PajÄ…k (July 31, 1893 - November 25, 1965) was a Polish socialist (member of the Polish Socialist Party) politician, who served as Prime Minister of Poland in exile for nearly ten years (1955-1965). ... Aleksander Zawisza (1896-1977) was the Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile. ... Zygmunt Muchniewski (1896–1979) was a Polish politician who headed the Christian Democracy party and was the Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile from 16 July 1970–August 1972. ... Alfred UrbaÅ„ski (1899-1983) was a Polish politician, member of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS), primary know for his political activities within Polish Government in Exile. ... Kazimierz Sabbat (February 27, 1913 - July 19, 1989), was a President of the Polish Government in Exile from the 8th of April, 1986 until his death, the 19th of July, 1989. ... Edward Franciszek Szczepanik, (August 22, 1915 – 11 October 2005, in Worcestershire) was a Polish economist and the last Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... Edward Osóbka-Morawski (1909-1997) was a Polish politician who served as Prime Minister of the Communist Lublin government, and then of Poland, from January 1945 to 1947. ... Józef Cyrankiewicz (April 23, 1911 - January 20, 1989) was a Polish communist political figure. ... BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (real name BolesÅ‚aw Rotenschwanz, April 18, 1892–March 12, 1956) was a Polish-born Communist leader, a Stalinist who became President of Poland after the Soviet occupation of the country in the aftermath of World War II. // Damaged monument to Bierut formerly standing in Lublin, 2007... Józef Cyrankiewicz (April 23, 1911 - January 20, 1989) was a Polish communist political figure. ... Gen. ... Edward Babiuch (born 1927) was a Polish Communist political figure. ... Józef PiÅ„kowski (1929-2000) was a Polish Communist politician who served as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1981. ... Zbigniew Messner (b. ... MieczysÅ‚aw Rakowski (born December 1, 1926) is a comunist historian and journalist. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Tadeusz Mazowiecki (born April 18, 1927 in PÅ‚ock) is a Polish author, journalist, social worker and politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist prime minister in Central and Eastern Europe after World War II. Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Prime Minister of Poland... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Tadeusz Mazowiecki (born April 18, 1927 in PÅ‚ock) is a Polish author, journalist, social worker and politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist prime minister in Central and Eastern Europe after World War II. Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Prime Minister of Poland... Jan Krzysztof Bielecki (born May 3, 1951) is a Polish liberal politician. ... Jan Ferdynand Olszewski (born August 20, 1930 in Warszawa) is a Polish lawyer and political figure. ... Waldemar Pawlak (born 5 September 1959), twice served as Prime Minister of Poland (the first time in June 1992, he failed to form a cabinet). ... Categories: People stubs | Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | 1946 births | Prime Ministers of Poland ... Waldemar Pawlak (born 5 September 1959), twice served as Prime Minister of Poland (the first time in June 1992, he failed to form a cabinet). ... Józef Oleksy Józef Oleksy (born 22 June 1946 in Nowy SÄ…cz) is a Polish politician, chairman of Democratic Left Alliance (Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej). ... WÅ‚odzimierz Cimoszewicz (born September 13, 1950 in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish politician, the Prime Minister of Poland from 1996 to autumn 1997, the Foreign Minister of Poland in the governments of Leszek Miller (2001-2004) and Marek Belka (2004-2005) , and speaker of the Sejm (lower chamber of... Professor Jerzy Buzek (born 3 July 1940 in ÅšmiÅ‚owice, then Germany, now Smilovice, Czech Republic) is a Polish academic lecturer and politician, prime minister of Poland from 1997-2001 and today a Member of European Parliament, elected 13th June, 2004 with the record number of votes in whole Poland. ... Leszek Cezary Miller IPA: [] (born July 3, 1946 in Å»yrardów) is a Polish left-wing politician, a many-year leader of the Democratic Left Alliance, Prime Minister of the government of the Republic of Poland in 2001-2004. ... Marek Belka (pronounce: [marεk bεlka]) (b. ... Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz ( ) (born December 20, 1959 in Gorzów Wielkopolski) is a Polish politician who served as Prime Minister of Poland from October 2005 to July 2006. ...   IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is a polish politician and was the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland from July 2006 to November 2007 and is the chairman of Law and Justice (Polish: ), a party which he co-founded in 2002. ... Donald Franciszek Tusk (IPA: [], born 22 April 1957, GdaÅ„sk) is a liberal Polish politician, co-founder and chairman of the Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska), and the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jaruzelski, Wojciech Witold - MSN Encarta (453 words)
Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (pronounced: /'vɔjʨɛx jaru'zɛlskʲi/) (born July 6, 1923) is a former Polish Communist political and military leader.
Wojciech Jaruzelski, born in 1923, head of state (1981-1989) of communist-led Poland and president (1989-1990) of post-communist Poland.
Jaruzelski was educated at the Infantry Officer’s School and Karol Swierczewski General Staff Academy in Warsaw and joined the Polish United Workers’ Party, also known as the Communist Party, in 1947.
Wojciech Jaruzelski (196 words)
Jaruzelski joined Poland's communist party, which later changed names to the Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP), after graduating from the Polish Higher Infantry School and the General Staff Academy.
During this time, Jaruzelski was also elected as the first secretary of the party on October 18, 1981 while the Solidarity movement was becoming popular.
Jaruzelski became President in July 1989 until 1990 when Lech Walesa was elected president.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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