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Encyclopedia > Wittenberg

Coordinates: 51°52′N 12°39′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically); large version (pdf) The geographic (earth-mapping) coordinate system expresses every horizontal position on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which is aligned with the spin axis of the Earth. ...

Wittenberg
Coat of arms of Wittenberg Location of Wittenberg in Germany
 
Federal state Saxony-Anhalt
Administrative region
District Wittenberg
Population 46,837 (30/06/2005)
Area 128.93 km²
Population density 364/km²
Elevation 67 m
Coordinates 51°52′ N 12°39′ E
Postal code 06886
Area code 03491
Licence plate code WB
Mayor Eckhard Naumann (SPD)
Website Stadt Wittenberg
Statue of Martin Luther in the main square
Enlarge
Statue of Martin Luther in the main square

Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59' E, 51° 51' N, on the Elbe river. It has a population of about 50,000. Image File history File links Wappen_Wittenberg. ... Image File history File links Karte_Wittenberg_in_Deutschland_grau. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (transliterated as Laender in English, singular Land). ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... A Regierungsbezirk is an government region of Germany, a subdivision of certain federal states (Bundesländer). ... There are 439 German districts, administrative units in Germany. ... Wittenberg is a district (Kreis) in the east of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ... German Postleitzahl map of the first two digits Postal codes in Germany, known as Postleitzahl (pl. ... see also Telephone numbering plan of Germany for further codes including service numbers, cell phones etc. ... German car number plates show the place where the car carrying them is registered. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ... SPD redirects here. ... This page as shown in the aol 9. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 74 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 74 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (transliterated as Laender in English, singular Land). ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... The River Elbe (Czech Labe , Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of Central Europe. ...


The importance of Wittenberg is due to its close connection with Martin Luther and the dawn of the Reformation: several of its buildings are associated with the events of that time. Part of the Augustinian monastery in which Luther dwelt, at first as a monk and in later life as owner with his wife and family, is preserved, and is now the world's premier Luther museum. It contains numerous priceless historical artifacts, and portraits and other paintings by the Cranachs. Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk, [1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer, whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Monastery of St. ... Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) Lucas Cranach the Younger (1515-1586) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


All Saints' Church, the Schlosskirche ("castle church"), to the doors of which Luther is said to have nailed his famous 95 theses in 1517, dates from 1439-1499. It was seriously damaged by fire in 1760 during a bombardment by the French during the Seven Years' War, was practically rebuilt, and was later (1885-1892) restored. The wooden doors, burnt in 1760, were replaced in 1858 by bronze doors, bearing the Latin text of the theses. Inside the church are the tombs of Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, and of the electors Frederick the Wise (by Peter Vischer the Elder, 1527) and John the Constant (by Hans Vischer), and portraits of the reformers by Lucas Cranach the younger. The 95 Theses. ... // 1517 Nothing Actuall 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 151== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517... Combatants Prussia, Great Britain, Hanover Austria, France, Russia, Sweden, Saxony The Seven Years War (1756–1763), some of whose theatres are called the Pomeranian War and the French and Indian War, was hailed by Winston Churchill as the first world war[1], as it was the first conflict in human... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Friedrich III (January 17, 1463 — May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ... Peter Vischer (the Elder) (~1455 - 1529) was a significant German northern Renaissance sculptor who was the father of Peter Vischer the Younger. ... John, Elector of Saxony, known as John the Steadfast or John the Constant (born 1468 at Schweinitz Castle - August 16, 1532) was Elector of Saxony from 1525 until 1532 (from the House of Wettin). ... Staghunt of Prince Johann Friedrich (detail) 1544 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Lucas Cranach the Younger (October 4, 1515 - January 25, 1586) was a German Renaissance painter. ...


St. Mary's Church, the parish church in which Luther often preached, was built in the 14th century, but has been much altered since Luther's time. It contains a magnificent painting by Lucas Cranach the elder, representing the Lord's Supper (with the faces of Luther and other reformers), Baptism and Confession, also a font by Hermann Vischer (1457). In addition, there are numerous historic paintings in the church. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... A self portrait Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472 – October 16, 1553) was a German painter. ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ...


The ancient electoral palace is another of the buildings that suffered severely in 1760; it now contains archives.


There are also Melanchthon's house and the house of Lucas Cranach the elder (1472-1553), who was mayor of Wittenberg.


Statues of Luther (by Schadow), Melanchthon and Bugenhagen embellish the town.


The spot outside the Elster Gate where Luther publicly burned the papal bull in 1520 is marked by an oak tree.

Contents


History

Market square. The ancient Rathaus, city hall, is to the left with a statue of Martin Luther in front of it, and the Stadtkirche can be see towering from behind the buildings at the right.
Market square. The ancient Rathaus, city hall, is to the left with a statue of Martin Luther in front of it, and the Stadtkirche can be see towering from behind the buildings at the right.
Back side of the Schlosskirche, All Saints Church, on whose door Luther is said to have nailed his 95 theses. It was the church for the Court and the University. View from the courtyard of the mostly-demolished palace.
Back side of the Schlosskirche, All Saints Church, on whose door Luther is said to have nailed his 95 theses. It was the church for the Court and the University. View from the courtyard of the mostly-demolished palace.
House of Philipp Melanchthon, professor of Greek and active defender of Luther's work.
House of Philipp Melanchthon, professor of Greek and active defender of Luther's work.

The settlement was first mentioned in 1180 as a small village founded by Flemish colonists. In 1293 the settlement was granted a town charter. Wittenberg soon developed into an important trade center during the following centuries due to its location. The city's importance reached one of its heydays at the end of the 15th century, when Friedrich III, Elector of Saxony (The Wise) took up residence in Wittenberg. Several parts of the city were extended in those days: the second bridge over the Elbe river was built from 1486 to 1490 and the Castle Church was built from 1490 to 1499, the same time the palace was rebuilt. It was the capital of the little duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, the rulers of which afterwards became electors of Saxony, and it continued to be a Saxon residence under the Ernestine electors. In 1502 the University was founded and gave a home to many important thinkers, among them Martin Luther (Professor of Theology from 1508) and Philipp Melanchthon (Professor of Greek from 1518). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 837 KB) Market suqare in Wittenberg own photograph 2005. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 837 KB) Market suqare in Wittenberg own photograph 2005. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Wittenberg_Schlosskirche. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Wittenberg_Schlosskirche. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 498 KB) Melanchtonhaus in Wittenberg own photograph 2005. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 498 KB) Melanchtonhaus in Wittenberg own photograph 2005. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Friedrich III (January 17, 1463 — May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ... A log bridge in the French Alps near Vallorcine. ... The River Elbe (Czech Labe , Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of Central Europe. ... The Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg is located in the German cities of Halle, Saxony-Anhalt and Wittenberg. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk, [1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer, whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ...


By tradition, on October 31, 1517, Luther nailed his 95 theses against the selling of indulgences to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in Germany. October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... // 1517 Nothing Actuall 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 151== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 ==== 1517 ==== 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517 1517... The 95 Theses. ... In Roman Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for sin. ... Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12°59 east, 51°51 north. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ...

Side view of the Stadtkirche, St. Marys Church, which was the parish church for Wittenberg.
Side view of the Stadtkirche, St. Marys Church, which was the parish church for Wittenberg.

The Anabaptist movement had one of its early homes in Wittenberg, when the Zwickau prophets moved there in late 1521, only to be suppressed by Luther when he returned from the Wartburg in spring 1522. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 984 KB) Stadtkirche in Wittenberg own photograph 2005. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 984 KB) Stadtkirche in Wittenberg own photograph 2005. ... Anabaptists (Greek ana+baptizo re-baptizers, German: Wiedertäufer) were Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... The Zwickau Prophets were early sixteenth century Anabaptists in Zwickau in Saxony. ...


The Capitulation of Wittenberg (1547) is the name given to the treaty by which John Frederick the Magnanimous was compelled to resign the electoral dignity and most of his territory to the Albertine branch of the Saxon family.


In 1760 the town was bombarded by the Austrians. It was occupied by the French in 1806, and refortified in 1813 by command of Napoleon. In 1814 it was stormed by the Prussians under Tauentzien, who received the title of "von Wittenberg" as a reward. In 1815 Wittenberg became part of Prussia. Wittenberg continued to be a fortress of the third class until the reorganization of German defences after the foundation of the new empire led to its being dismantled in 1873. 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa; Polish: ) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had a substantial influence on German and European history. ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calaber). ...


Wittenberg was spared destruction during World War II, a fate suffered by many other historic German cities at the end of World War II. The allies agreed not to bomb Wittenberg, though there was combat in Wittenberg, with bullet pock-marks visible on the statues of Luther and Melanchthon in the town square. At the end of World War II Wittenberg was occupied by Russian forces, and became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1949. By means of the peaceful revolution of 1989 the communist regime was brought down and the city has been governed democratically since 1990. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... GDR redirects here. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Coat of arms

Copy of Wittenberg's oldest arms
Enlarge
Copy of Wittenberg's oldest arms

Wittenberg's civic coat of arms conveys with its various heraldic elements something of the town's history. On 27 June 1293, Wittenberg was granted town rights by Duke Albrecht II. There then arose a mediaeval town whose highest governing body was its council. This council, known to have existed as early as 1317, was given the job of administering the town in its care through law and legislation, and of handling the town's revenue. For documentation, the administration used its own seal. Image File history File links Alt-Wappen-WB.jpg Nachzeichnung (1900) des ältesten Wappens von Wittenberg um 1300 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wittenberg ... Image File history File links Alt-Wappen-WB.jpg Nachzeichnung (1900) des ältesten Wappens von Wittenberg um 1300 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wittenberg ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ...


One version of what is believed to be the town's oldest town seal, which the council used, and which dated from the first half of the 14th century, set the pattern with its elements for various civic coats of arms down to the present day. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


The coat of arms symbolizes with its crenellated wall and the towers within and each side a town that was already strongly fortified by 1409.


The two shields in the centre form the coat of arms of the Electorate of Saxony with the Saxon arms on the right, whose gold and black stripes recall the Ascanian rulers' house colours with the Rautenkranz (literally "lozenge wreath", although it is no such thing, as can be seen at the Saxony article) across them symbolizing the town's founder Duke Albrecht II since 1262, when it appeared in his arms. The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ...


The shield on the left is the Wittenberg district's arms. In 1356, Emperor Charles IV bestowed upon the Duke of Saxony-Wittenberg the honour of Elector. Wittenberg became an Electoral residence. The shield with its crossed swords stands for the office of "Arch-Marshal of the Roman-German Empire" inextricably joined by the Electorate, brought to Wittenberg by Rudolf I. Both coats of arms continued to be used by the Wettins after the Ascanians died out. Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Wettin dynasty of German counts, dukes, Prince Electors (Kurfürsten) and kings ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding for a time the kingship of Poland. ...


The flowing water at the foot of the shield symbolizes Wittenberg's location on the river Elbe.


The fish is a salmon, which were once abundant in the Elbe. The fishermen, like all professions in town, got their own order in 1422, and the fish found its way onto their coat of arms. The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow up to 58 long and 125 pounds. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. ...


Town partnerships

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Bretten is a city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Baden-Württemberg is a federal state in south-western Germany to the east of the Upper Rhine. ... This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Springfield is the county seat of Clark County in the State of Ohio. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Békéscsaba (Romanian: Bichişciaba; Slovakian: Békéšska Čaba) is an urban county in Southeast Hungary, the capital of the county Békés. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Haderslev (German: Hadersleben) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in South Jutland County on the Jutland peninsula in south Denmark. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Commons logo
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Wittenberg
  • City map.
  • The town's own website (in English).
  • Castle Church.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wittenberg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1249 words)
Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59' E, 51° 51' N, on the Elbe river.
It was occupied by the French in 1806, and refortified in 1813 by command of Napoleon.
Wittenberg continued to be a fortress of the third class until the reorganization of German defences after the foundation of the new empire led to its being dismantled in 1873.
Wittenberg - definition of Wittenberg in Encyclopedia (808 words)
Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12°59' east, 51°51' north.
Wittenberg is interesting chiefly on account of its close connection with Martin Luther and the dawn of the Reformation; and several of its buildings are associated with the events of that time.
In the Wittenberg Concord (1536) the reformers agreed to a settlement of the eucharistic controversy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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