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Encyclopedia > Witchcraft

Witchcraft (from Old English wiccecræft "sorcery, necromancy"), in various historical, anthropological, religious and mythological contexts, is the use of certain kinds of supernatural or magical powers. Witch may refer to: Witchcraft W.I.T.C.H., a comic book W.I.T.C.H. (organisation), an American feminist organisation. ... Witchcraft (see main article) may also refer to: European witchcraft Witch-hunt Witchcraft (band), a Swedish band. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ...


A witch (from Old English masculine wicca, feminine wicce, see Witch (etymology)) is a practitioner of witchcraft. While mythological witches are often supernatural creatures, historically many people have been accused of witchcraft, or have claimed to be witches. Witchcraft still exists in a number of belief systems, and indeed there are many today who self-identify with the term "witch" (see below, under Neopaganism). The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic peoples. ... Magic Circle by John William Waterhouse // Main article: Witchcraft According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word witch dates back to Old English where the noun forms were wicca (masc. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ...


The majority of Europeans historically accused of witchcraft were women,[1][2] and in legends and popular culture the stereotype is female; however males were also often referred to as witches.[3]

Contents

Overview

Hans Baldung Grien: Witches. Woodcut 1508
Hans Baldung Grien: Witches. Woodcut 1508

Practices and beliefs that have been termed "witchcraft" do not constitute a single identifiable religion, since they are found in a wide variety of cultures, both present and historical; however these beliefs do generally involve religious elements dealing with spirits or deities, the afterlife, magic and ritual. Witchcraft is generally characterised by its use of magic. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1820x2618, 2621 KB) Hand Baldung Grien: Witches. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1820x2618, 2621 KB) Hand Baldung Grien: Witches. ... Three Ages of the Woman and the Death 1510 Oil on limewood,48 x 32,5 cm Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Hans Baldung or Hans Baldung Grien/Grün (c. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ...


Sometimes witchcraft is used to refer, broadly, to the practice of using magic , and has a connotation similar to shamanism. Depending on the values of the community, witchcraft in this sense may be regarded with varying degrees of respect or suspicion, or with ambivalence, being neither intrinsically good nor evil. Members of some religions have applied the term witchcraft in a pejorative sense to refer to all magical or ritual practices other than those sanctioned by their own doctrines – although this has become less common, at least in the Western world. According to some religious doctrines, all forms of magic are labelled witchcraft, and are either proscribed or treated as superstitious. Such religions consider their own ritual practices to be not at all magical, but rather simply variations of prayer. This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Occident redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ...


"Witchcraft" is also used to refer, narrowly, to the practice of magic in an exclusively inimical sense. If the community accepts magical practice in general, then there is typically a clear separation between witches (in this sense) and the terms used to describe legitimate practitioners. This use of the term is most often found in accusations against individuals who are suspected of causing harm in the community by way of supernatural means. Belief in witches of this sort has been common among most of the indigenous populations of the world, including Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas. On occasion such accusations have led to witch hunts. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... 1533 account of the execution of a witch charged with burning the town of Schiltach in 1531. ...


Under the monotheistic religions of the Levant (primarily Christianity, and Islam), witchcraft came to be associated with heresy, rising to a fever pitch among the Catholics, Protestants, and secular leadership of the European Late Medieval/Early Modern period and sometimes leading to witch hunts. Throughout this time, the concept of witchcraft came increasingly to be interpreted as a form of Devil worship. Accusations of witchcraft were frequently combined with other charges of heresy against such groups as the Cathars and Waldensians. For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ... Satanism is a religious or philosophical movement centered around Satan or another entity identified with Satan, or centered around the forces of nature, particularly human nature, represented by Satan as an archetype. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... The Waldensians, Waldenses or Vaudois are a Christian denomination believing in poverty and austerity, promoting true poverty, public preaching and the literal interpretation of the scriptures. ...


The Malleus Maleficarum, a witch-hunting manual used by both Roman Catholics and Protestants, outlines how to identify a witch, what makes a woman more likely to be a witch, how to put a witch to trial and how to punish a witch. The book defines a witch as evil and typically female. Cover of the seventh Cologne edition of the Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 (from the University of Sydney Library). ...


In the modern Western world, witchcraft accusations have often accompanied the Satanic Ritual Abuse hysteria. Such accusations are a counterpart to blood libel of various kinds, which may be found throughout history across the globe. Satanism Associated organizations The Church of Satan First Satanic Church Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Might is Right Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic Rituals | The Satanic Witch | The Devils Notebook... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ...


Practices considered to be witchcraft

Practices to which the witchcraft label have historically been applied are those which influence another person's mind, body or property against his or her will, or which are believed, by the person doing the labelling, to undermine the social or religious order. Some modern commentators consider the malefic nature of witchcraft to be a Christian projection. The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property against his or her will was clearly present in many cultures, as there are traditions in both folk magic and religious magic that have the purpose of countering malicious magic or identifying malicious magic users. Many examples can be found in ancient texts, such as those from Egypt and Babylonia. Where malicious magic is believed to have the power to influence the mind, body or possessions, malicious magic users can become a credible cause for disease, sickness in animals, bad luck, sudden death, impotence and other such misfortunes. Witchcraft of a more benign and socially acceptable sort may then be employed to turn the malevolence aside, or identify the supposed evil-doer so that punishment may be carried out. The folk magic used to identify or protect against malicious magic users is often indistinguishable from that used by the witches themselves. Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... This article is about fortune. ...


There has also existed in popular belief the concept of white witches and white witchcraft, which is strictly benevolent. Many neopagan witches strongly identify with this concept, and profess ethical codes that prevent them from performing magic on a person without their request. Jadis, the White Witch is the key villain of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, the first published book in C. S. Lewiss Chronicles of Narnia series, and the second chronologically. ... In the context of a code adopted by a profession or by a governmental or quasi-governmental organ to regulate that profession, an ethical code may be styled as a code of professional responsibility, which may dispense with difficult issues of what behavior is ethical. Some codes of ethics are...


Where belief in malicious magic practices exists, such practitioners are typically forbidden by law as well as hated and feared by the general populace, while beneficial magic is tolerated or even accepted wholesale by the people – even if the orthodox establishment objects to it.


Spellcasting

Main article: Magic (paranormal)

Probably the most obvious characteristic of a witch was the ability to cast a spell, a "spell" being the word used to signify the means employed to accomplish a magical action. A spell could consist of a set of words, a formula or verse, or a ritual action, or any combination of these.[4] Spells traditionally were cast by many methods, such as by the inscription of runes or sigils on an object to give it magical powers, by the immolation or binding of a wax or clay image (poppet) of a person to affect him or her magically, by the recitation of incantations, by the performance of physical rituals, by the employment of magical herbs as amulets or potions, by gazing at mirrors, swords or other specula (scrying) for purposes of divination, and by many other means.[5] Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... Look up Spell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For spelling in linguistics, see orthography. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... An excerpt from Sefer Raziel HaMalakh, featuring various magical sigils (or סגולות, seguloth, in Hebrew). ... A Poppet is a Maiden or Mother Goddess doll. ... An incantation is the words spoken during a ritual. ... Rituals was an American soap opera that ran in syndication from September 1984 to September 1985 in 260 25 minutes episodes. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... The Crystal Ball by John William Waterhouse (1902, oil on canvas) Scrying (also called crystal gazing, crystal seeing, seeing, or peeping) is a magic practice that involves seeing things supernaturally in a medium, usually for purposes of divination or fortune-telling. ...


Conjuring the dead

Strictly speaking, "necromancy" is the practice of conjuring the spirits of the dead for divination or prophecy - although the term has also been applied to raising the dead for other purposes. The Biblical Witch of Endor is supposed to have performed it (1 Sam. 28), and it is among the witchcraft practices condemned by Ælfric of Eynsham: Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... The Witch of Endor: from the frontispiece to Sadducismus Triumphatus by Joseph Glanvill In the Hebrew Bible, the Witch of Endor of the First book of Samuel, chapter 28:4–25, was a witch, a woman who possesses a talisman, through which she called up the ghost of the recently... Wikisource has original works written by or about: Ælfric of Eynsham Ælfric of Eynsham (the Grammarian) (c. ...


"Yet fares witches to where roads meet, and to heathen burials with their phantom craft and call to them the devil, and he comes to them in the dead man's likeness, as if he from death arises, but she cannot cause that to happen, the dead to arise through her wizardry."


By location

Europe

Main article: European witchcraft
During the Christianisation of Norway, King Olaf Trygvasson had male völvas (shamans) tied up and left on a skerry at ebb.
During the Christianisation of Norway, King Olaf Trygvasson had male völvas (shamans) tied up and left on a skerry at ebb.
Persecution of witches.
Persecution of witches.

The familiar witch of folklore and popular superstition is a combination of numerous influences. The characterisation of the witch as an evil magic user developed over time. Hans Baldung Griens Three Witches, circa 1514. ... Halvdan Egedius (1877-1899) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Halvdan Egedius (1877-1899) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Olav Tryggvason (969 - September 9, 1000) was a great-grandson of Harald Hairfair He began his meteoric career in exile as his ancestors fled from the executions of the royal family by Eric Bloodaxe. ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... Look up skerry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... Image File history File links Persecution_of_witches. ... Image File history File links Persecution_of_witches. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ...


Early converts to Christianity looked to Christian clergy to work magic more effectively than the old methods under Roman paganism, and Christianity provided a methodology involving saints and relics, similar to the gods and amulets of the Pagan world. As Christianity became the dominant religion in Europe its concern with magic lessened.[6]


The Protestant Christian explanation for witchcraft, such as those typified in the confessions of the Pendle Witches, commonly involve a diabolical pact or at least an appeal to the intervention of the spirits of evil. The witches or wizards addicted to such practices were alleged to reject Jesus and the sacraments, observe "the witches' sabbath" (performing infernal rites which often parodied the Mass or other sacraments of the Church), pay Divine honour to the Prince of Darkness, and, in return, receive from him preternatural powers. Witches were most often characterized as women. Witches disrupted the societal institutions, and more specifically, marriage. It was believed that a witch often joined a pact with the devil to gain powers to deal with infertility, immense fear for her children's well-being, or revenge against a lover. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... According to Christian tradition on witchcraft the diabolical pact is a pact between a person and Satan or any other demon (or demons) in which the person offers (or sells) his/her soul in exchange for favours. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Francisco Goyas Los Caprichos: Linda maestra! (Nice mistress!) - witches heading to a Sabbath In Christian folklore, the Sabbath (also known as Witchs Sabbath) was a gathering supposed to have been celebrated by Satanists, witches and warlocks to honor the Devil, offend God, Jesus, the sacraments, the cross, and... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... The preternatural or praeternatural are phenomenon which appear outside (Latin praeter) the realm of nature as currently explained by science. ...


The Church and European society was not always obsessed with hunting witches and blaming them for bad occurrences. Saint Boniface declared in the 8th century that belief in the existence of witches was un-Christian. The emperor Charlemagne decreed that the burning of supposed witches was a pagan custom that would be punished by the death penalty. In 820 the Bishop of Lyon and others repudiated the belief that witches could make bad weather, fly in the night, and change their shape. This denial was accepted into Canon law until it was reversed in later centuries as the witch-hunt gained force. Other rulers such as King Coloman of Hungary declared that witch-hunts should cease because witches (more specifically, strigas) do not exist. For the Roman general of this name, see Bonifacius. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... Hes an archbishop of Lyon. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ... Coloman (Hungarian: Könyves Kálmán, Slovak and Croatian: Koloman) (1070 – February 3, 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 to 1116. ... Striga is: A legendary Roman vampiric creature; see strix (mythology) A parasitic weed; see Striga (plant) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


The Church did not invent the idea of witchcraft as a potentially harmful force whose practitioners should be put to death. This idea is commonplace in pre-Christian religions and is a logical consequence of belief in magic. According to the scholar Max Dashu, the concept of medieval witchcraft contained many of its elements even before the emergence of Christianity. These can be found in Bacchanalias, especially in the time when they were led by priestess Paculla Annia (188-186). The Bacchanalia were wild and mystic festivals of the Roman god Bacchus. ... Paculla Ania was a southern priestess from Campania. ...


However, even at a later date, not all witches were assumed to be harmful practicers of the craft. In England, the provision of this curative magic was the job of a witch doctor, also known as a cunning man, white witch, or wiseman. The term "witch doctor" was in use in England before it came to be associated with Africa. Toad doctors were also credited with the ability to undo evil witchcraft. (Other folk magicians had their own purviews. Girdle-measurers specialised in diagnosing ailments caused by fairies, while magical cures for more mundane ailments, such as burns or toothache, could be had from charmers.) For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A witch doctor (in southern Africa known as a Sangoma) often refers to exotic healers that believe that maladies are caused by magic and are therefore best cured by it, as opposed to science or developed medicine. ... In English history, the cunning man or cunning woman is a professional or semi-professional folk magic user up until the twentieth century. ... Jadis, the White Witch is the key villain of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, the first published book in C. S. Lewiss Chronicles of Narnia series, and the second chronologically. ... Wiseman can refer to: People Adele Wiseman, Canadian writer Clarence Wiseman, the 10th General of The Salvation Army Debbie Wiseman, film and television composer Ernest Wiseman Frederick Wiseman, film director Jay Wiseman, BDSM author Joseph Wiseman Len Wiseman Mac Wiseman Nicholas Cardinal Wiseman, Archbishop of Westminster Scott Wiseman Thomas A... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Toad doctors were practitioners of a specific tradition of medicinal folk magic, operating in Western England until the end of the 19th Century. ... Girdle-measurers were practitioners of a specific type of curative English folk magic. ... Charmers were English practitioners of a specific kind of folk magic, specialising in supernatural healing. ...

"In the north of England, the superstition lingers to an almost inconceivable extent. Lancashire abounds with witch-doctors, a set of quacks, who pretend to cure diseases inflicted by the devil... The witch-doctor alluded to is better known by the name of the cunning man, and has a large practice in the counties of Lincoln and Nottingham."[7]
Francisco Goya's Los Caprichos: ¡Linda maestra! ("The Spoils: Beautiful Teacher!") - witches heading to a Sabbath
Francisco Goya's Los Caprichos: ¡Linda maestra! ("The Spoils: Beautiful Teacher!") - witches heading to a Sabbath

Such "cunning-folk" did not refer to themselves as witches and objected to the accusation that they were such. Records from the Middle Ages, however, make it appear that it was, quite often, not entirely clear to the populace whether a given practitioner of magic was a witch or one of the cunning-folk. In addition, it appears that much of the populace was willing to approach either of these groups for healing magic and divination. When a person was known to be a witch, the populace would still seek to employ their healing skills; however, as was not the case with cunning-folk, members of the general population would also hire witches to curse their enemies. The important distinction is that there are records of the populace reporting alleged witches to the authorities as such, whereas cunning-folk were not so incriminated; they were more commonly prosecuted for accusing the innocent or defrauding people of money. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (669x984, 167 KB) Los Caprichos is a set of 80 aquatint prints created by Francisco Goya for release in 1799. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (669x984, 167 KB) Los Caprichos is a set of 80 aquatint prints created by Francisco Goya for release in 1799. ... Goya redirects here. ... Los Caprichos are a set of aquatint prints created by the Spanish master-painter Francisco Goya during the 1790s. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The long-term result of this amalgamation of distinct types of magic-worker into one is the considerable present-day confusion as to what witches actually did, whether they harmed or healed, what role (if any) they had in the community, whether they can be identified with the "witches" of other cultures and even whether they existed as anything other than a projection. Present-day beliefs about the witches of history attribute to them elements of the folklore witch, the charmer, the cunning man or wise woman, the diviner and the astrologer. Charmers were English practitioners of a specific kind of folk magic, specialising in supernatural healing. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ...


Powers typically attributed to European witches include turning food poisonous or inedible, flying on broomsticks or pitchforks, casting spells, cursing people, making livestock ill and crops fail, and creating fear and local chaos.


See also:

Cover of the seventh Cologne edition of the Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 (from the University of Sydney Library). ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ... Flying ointment, also known as witches flying ointment, green ointment, magic salve and lycanthropic ointment, is a hallucinogenic ointment said to be used by witches in the Early Modern period. ... Ways of the Strega published in 1994, described Raven Grimassis view of Stregheria and popularized Italian-based witchcraft. ... Sorginak (singular sorgin) are the assistants of the goddess Mari in Basque mythology They are likened to witches or pagan priestesses. ...

Asia

Main article: Asian witchcraft

This article is in need of attention. ...

Ancient Near East

The belief in witchcraft and its practice seem to have been widespread in the past. Both in ancient Egypt and in Babylonia it played a conspicuous part, as existing records plainly show. It will be sufficient to quote a short section from the Code of Hammurabi (about 2000 B.C.). It is there prescribed, Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ...

If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river; into the holy river shall he plunge. If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house. If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death. He that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him.[8]

Hebrew Bible

In the Hebrew Bible references to witchcraft are frequent, and the strong condemnations of such practices found there do not seem to be based so much upon the supposition of fraud as upon the "abomination" of the magic in itself. This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Look up abomination in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Verses such as Deuteronomy 18:11-12 and Exodus 22:18 "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live" provided scriptural justification for Christian witch hunters in the early Modern Age (see Christian views on witchcraft). The word "witch" is a translation of the Hebrew kashaph, "sorceress". The Bible provides some evidence that these commandments were enforced under the Hebrew kings: Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... 1533 account of the execution of a witch charged with burning the town of Schiltach in 1531. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Christian views on witchcraft arise from scriptural, theological, and historical considerations. ...

"And Saul disguised himself, and put on other raiment, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray thee, divine unto me by the familiar spirit, and bring me him up, whom I shall name unto thee. And the woman said unto him, Behold, thou knowest what Saul hath done, how he hath cut off those that have familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land: wherefore then layest thou a snare for my life, to cause me to die?"[9] (The Hebrew verb "Hichrit" (הכרית) translated in the King James as "cut off", can also be translated as "kill wholesale" or "exterminate") “Familiar” redirects here. ... // Authorized King James Version King James Version (disambiguation) James I of England (1566-1625) James II of England (1633-1701) King James can also refer to two Aragonese monarchs: James I of Aragon (1208–1276), surnamed the Conqueror, was the king of Aragon, count of Barcelona and Lord of Montpellier...

New Testament

See also: Christian views on witchcraft

The New Testament condemns the practice as an abomination, just as the Old Testament had (Galatians 5:20, compared with Revelation 21:8; 22:15; and Acts 8:9; 13:6). The word in most New Testament translations is "sorcerer"/"sorcery" rather than "witch"/"witchcraft". Christian views on witchcraft arise from scriptural, theological, and historical considerations. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Magic (also called magick to distinguish it from stage magic) is a supposed way of influencing the world through supernatural, mystical, or paranormal means. ...


Judaism

Jewish law views the practice of witchcraft as being laden with idolatry and/or necromancy; both being serious theological and practical offenses in Judaism. According to Traditional Judaism, it is acknowledged that while magic exists, it is forbidden to practice it on the basis that it usually involves the worship of other gods. Rabbis of the Talmud also condemned magic when it produced something other than illusion, giving the example of two men who use magic to pick cucumbers (Sanhedrin 67a). The one who creates the illusion of picking cucumbers should not be condemned, only the one who actually picks the cucumbers through magic. However, some of the Rabbis practiced "magic" themselves. For instance, Rabbah created a person and sent him to Rabbi Zera, and Rabbi Hanina and Rabbi Oshaia studied every Sabbath evening together and created a small calf to eat (Sanhedrin 65b). In these cases, the "magic" was seen more as divine miracles (i.e., coming from God rather than pagan gods) than as witchcraft. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ... Conservadox is the term sometimes used to describe Jews whose beliefs and practices place them on the religious continuum somewhere between Conservative Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Judaism also makes clear that witchcraft while always forbidden to Jews, may be performed by Gentiles outside the holy land (i.e. Israel).[citation needed] Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ...


Islam

Divination and Magic in Islam encompass a wide range of practices, including black magic, warding off the evil eye, the production of amulets and other magical equipment, conjuring, casting lots, astrology and physiognomy. Muslims do commonly believe in magic (Sihr) and explicitly forbid its practice. Sihr translates from Arabic as sorcery or black magic. The best known reference to magic in Islam is the Surah Al-Falaq (meaning dawn or daybreak), which is a prayer to ward off black magic. Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... For other uses, see Black magic (disambiguation). ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... Surat Al-Falaq (Dawn, Daybreak) is the 113th Sura of the Quran. ...

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn From the mischief of created things; From the mischief of Darkness as it overspreads; From the mischief of those who practise secret arts; And from the mischief of the envious one as he practises envy. (Quran 113:1-5, translation by YusufAli)

Many Muslims believe that the devils taught sorcery to mankind:

And they follow that which the devils falsely related against the kingdom of Solomon. Solomon disbelieved not; but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind sorcery and that which was revealed to the two angels in Babel, Harut and Marut.... And surely they do know that he who trafficketh therein will have no (happy) portion in the Hereafter; and surely evil is the price for which they sell their souls, if they but knew. (al-Qur'an 2:102) This article is about the Biblical jhhhhnn . ...

However, whereas performing miracles in Islamic thought and belief is reserved for only Messengers and Prophets; supernatural acts are also believed to be performed by Awliyaa - the spiritually accomplished. Disbelief in the miracles of the Prophets is considered an act of disbelief; belief in the miracles of any given pious individual is not. Neither are regarded as magic, but as signs of Allah at the hands of those close to Him that occur by His will and His alone.


Muslim practitioners commonly seek the help of the Jinn (singular--jinni) in magic. It is a common belief that jinn can possess a human, thus requiring Exorcism. (The belief in jinn is part of the Muslim faith. Imam Muslim narrated the Prophet said: "Allah created the angels from light, created the jinn from the pure flame of fire, and Adam from that which was described to you (i.e., the clay.)") To cast off the jinn from the body of the possessed, the "ruqya," which is from the prophet'ssunnah is used. The ruqya contains verses of the Qur'an as well as prayers which are specifically targeted against demons. The knowledge of which verses of the Qur'an to use in what way is what is considered "magic knowledge". For other uses, see Genie (disambiguation). ... Saint Francis exorcised demons in Arezzo, fresco of Giotto Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure, correctly pronounced exercism) is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed (taken control of). ... Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيسابوري) (born 204 A.H. - 261 (or 268?) A.H/ 875), Muslim Author of the second most widely recognized collection of Hadith in Sunni Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Students of the history of religion have linked several magical practises in Islam with pre-islamic Turkish and East African customs. Most notable of these customs is the Zar Ceremony.[10][11] Mazaher is an ensemble in which women play a leading role. ...


In 2006 Fawza Falih Muhammad Ali, a citizen of Saudi Arabia, was condemned to death for practicing witchcraft.[12]


Africa

Africans have a wide range of views of traditional religions. African Christians typically accept Christian dogma as do their counterparts in Latin America and Asia. The term witch doctor, often attributed to Zulu inyanga, has been misconstrued to mean "a healer who uses witchcraft" rather than its original meaning of "one who diagnoses and cures maladies caused by witches". Combining Roman Catholic beliefs and practices and traditional West African religious beliefs and practices are several syncretic religions in the Americas, including Vodou, Obeah, Candomblé, Quimbanda and Santería. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A witch doctor (in southern Africa known as a Sangoma) often refers to exotic healers that believe that maladies are caused by magic and are therefore best cured by it, as opposed to science or developed medicine. ... Inyanga is the Zulu word for traditional healers. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... This article is about the West African religion. ... Obeah is a term used in the West Indies to refer to folk magic or sorcery. ... Ilê Axé Iya Nassô Oká - Terreiro da Casa Branca Candomblé is an African-inspired or Afro-Brazilian religion or cult, practiced chiefly in Brazil. ... Quimbanda is an Afro-American traditional religion found in Brazil. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ...


In Southern African traditions, there are three classifications of somebody who uses magic. The thakathi is usually improperly translated into English as "witch", and is a spiteful person who operates in secret to harm others. The sangoma is a diviner, somewhere on a par with a fortune teller, and is employed in detecting illness, predicting a person's future (or advising them on which path to take), or identifying the guilty party in a crime. She also practices some degree of medicine. The inyanga is often translated as "witch doctor" (though many Southern Africans resent this implication, as it perpetuates the mistaken belief that a "witch doctor" is in some sense a practitioner of malicious magic). The inyanga's job is to heal illness and injury and provide customers with magical items for everyday use. Of these three categories the thakatha is almost exclusively female, the sangoma is usually female, and the inyanga is almost exclusively male. Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Translated into English as witch, and is a spiteful person who operates in secret to harm others. ... A sangoma is a practitioner of herbal medicine, divination and counselling in traditional Nguni (Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele and Swazi) societies of Southern Africa (effectively an African shaman). ... Categories: Stub ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...


In some Central African areas, malicious magic users are believed by locals to be the source of terminal illness such as AIDS and cancer. In such cases, various methods are used to rid the person from the bewitching spirit, occasionally Physical abuse and Psychological abuse. Children may be accused of being witches, for example a young niece may be blamed for the illness of a relative. Most of these cases of abuse go unreported since the members of the society that witness such abuse are too afraid of being accused of being accomplices. It is also believed that witchcraft can be transmitted to children by feeding. Parents discourage their children from interacting with people believed to be witches. This article is about incurable disease. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause pain, injury, or other physical suffering or harm. ... Psychological abuse refers to the humiliation or intimidation of another person, but is also used to refer to the long-term effects of emotional shock. ...


Russia

Russia, and its surrounding area for example, have, much like other cultures, their own witchcraft and superstitious tales. And again, much like other societies, these tales clash with those of the church and traditional religious thoughts. However, today, acceptance of healing practices in contemporary Russian folklore are common. By looking at the different types of superstitions then understanding their purposes we can comprehend their impact on the people and the church and can better understand the culture of Russia and its folklore.


Casual encounters are ones of surprise and unexpectedness and puts the character at the mercy of the supernatural being. The ritual encounter however, is a more planned event, where the individual is the subject and he or she knows beforehand the kind of experience they will take part in. The Russian word for witch, ведьма (ved'ma), shows exactly that (the literal translation means "The one who knows"). Russia, as well as many other cultures, produces tales with both encounters. These parts of folklore including omens, guardian spirits, and fate – all have little to do with the eastern orthodox religion yet seem to appear in much of the folklore of the 19th century. Visual omens, often in dreams, are well-known, including a gloved man indicating death, fish predicting marital luck, and children’s games foretelling marital life, fertility and even wars. Passed down are tales of how other indicators, include the crying of a baby that is not within sight, the hammering of nails off in the distance, and also ringing of the ears, can foretell different things.[13] The theology of the Eastern Orthodox Church is particular to that Christian communion. ...


Further references

  • Lindquest, Galina. Conjuring Hope: Healing and Magic in Contemporary Russia. Vol. 1. New York: Berghahn Books, 2006.
  • Pentikainen, Juha. "Marnina Takalo as an Individual." C. Jstor. 26 Feb. 2007.
  • Pentikainen, Juha. "The Supernatural Experience." F. Jstor. 26 Feb. 2007.
  • Moore, Henrietta L. and Todd Sanders 2001. Magical Interpretations, Material Realities: Modernity, Witchcraft and the Occult in Postcolonial Africa. London: Routledge.
  • Worobec, Caroline. "Witchcraft Beliefs and Practices in Prerevolutionary Russia and Ukrainian Villages." Jstor. 27 Feb. 2007.

Neopaganism

Modern practices identified by their practitioners as "witchcraft" have arisen in the twentieth century which may be broadly subsumed under the heading of Neopaganism. However, as forms of Neopaganism can be quite different and have very different origins, these representations can vary considerably despite the shared name.


Wicca

Main article: Wicca

During the 20th century interest in witchcraft in English-speaking and European countries began to increase, inspired particularly by Margaret Murray's theory of a pan-European witch-cult originally published in 1921, since discredited by further careful historical research.[14] Interest was intensified, however, by Gerald Gardner's claim in 1954 in Witchcraft Today that a form of witchcraft still existed in England. The truth of Gardner's claim is now disputed too, with different historians offering evidence for[15][16] or against[17][18] the religion's existence prior to Gardner. For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The Wicca that Gardner initially taught was a witchcraft religion having a lot in common with Margaret Murray's hypothetically posited cult of the 1920s.[19] Indeed Murray wrote an introduction to Gardner's Witchcraft Today, in effect putting her stamp of approval on it. Wicca is now practised as a religion of an initiatory secret society nature with positive ethical principles, organised into autonomous covens and led by a High Priesthood. There is also a large "Eclectic Wiccan" movement of individuals and groups who share key Wiccan beliefs but have no initiatory connection or affiliation with traditional Wicca. Wiccan writings and ritual show borrowings from a number of sources including 19th and 20th century ceremonial magic, the medieval grimoire known as the Key of Solomon, Aleister Crowley's Ordo Templi Orientis and pre-Christian religions.[20][21][22] Both men and women are equally termed "witches." They practice a form of duotheistic universalism. For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ... For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ... Coven or covan was originally a late medieval Scots word (c1500) meaning a gathering of any kind, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Key of Solomon is a grimoire or book on magic attributed to King Solomon (as several others were). ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and mystic. ... Lamen of the Ordo Templi Orientis Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.) (Order of the Temple of the East, or the Order of Oriental Templars) is an international fraternal and religious organization founded at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article is about Universalism in religion and theology. ...


Since Gardner's death in 1964 the Wicca that he claimed he was initiated into has attracted many initiates, becoming the largest of the various witchcraft traditions in the Western world, and has influenced various occult movements and groups. In particular it has inspired a large movement of "sole practitioners", who are not initiated into the original lineage but live according to practices and beliefs that are in keeping with the original tenets of the religion, most notably the "Three Laws".


Judeo-Paganism

Some Neopagans study and practice forms of magery based on a syncretism between classical Jewish mysticism and modern witchcraft. (See "The Witches Qabalah", in the list of references below.) These practitioners tend to identify with Judeo-Paganism (also known as Jewish Paganism), and/or practice Jewitchery, or Jewish Witchcraft. These individuals and groups either borrow from existing Jewish magical traditions or reconstruct rituals based on Judaism and NeoPaganism. Several references on these subjects include Ellen Cannon Reed's book "The Witches Qabala: The Pagan Path and the Tree of Life" and "The Hebrew Goddess", by Raphael Patai. Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The late Ellen Cannon Reed was the most widely known priestess of the Isian Tradition of Witchcraft. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Reconstructive

The basis of various historical forms of witchcraft find their roots in pre-Christian cultural practices. There has been a strong movement to recreate pre-Christian traditions where the old forms have been lost for various reasons, including practices such as Divination, Seid and various forms of Shamanism. There have been a number of pagan practitioners such as Paul Huson[23] claiming inheritance to non-Gardnerian traditions as well.[24] Romuva Spring Jorė festival in Kulionys, Lithuania in 2006. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Seid or seiðr is an Old Norse term for a type of sorcery or witchcraft which was practiced by the pre-Christian Norse. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Paul Huson is a British-born artist and author currently living in the United States. ...


Contemporary Witchcraft

Main article:Contemporary Witchcraft


Contemporary witchcraft in Western cultures is a spiritual and magical practice, which may have strong religious elements to it. Many modern witches see themselves as reviving ancient practices, mostly of European and British origin. The religious beliefs of witches can vary; many are strongly influenced by Wicca and Neopaganism, while others hold Abrahamic or other religious views, or none at all. Contemporary witchcraft often involves the use of divination, magic, and working with the classical elements and unseen forces such as spirits and the forces of nature. The practice of natural medicine, folk medicine, and spiritual healing is also common, as are alternative medical and New Age healing practices. Some schools of modern witchcraft, such as traditional forms of Wicca, are secretive and operate as initiatory secret societies. For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... Several ancient Classical Element Greek version of these ideas persisted throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, deeply influencing European thought and culture. ... A traditional healer in Côte dIvoire Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ... For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ...


Witches in popular culture

Especially in media aimed at children (such as fairy tales), witches are often depicted as wicked old women with wrinkled skin and pointy hats, clothed in black or purple, with warts on their noses and sometimes long claw-like fingernails. Like the Three Witches from Macbeth, they are often portrayed as concocting potions in large cauldrons. Witches typically ride through the air on a broomstick as in the Harry Potter universe or in more modern spoof versions, a vacuum cleaner as in the Hocus Pocus universe. They are often accompanied by black cats. One of the most famous recent depictions is the Wicked Witch of the West, from L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... The tigrakhauda (Orthocorybantians) relief of eastern stairs of the Apadana of Persepolis. ... For the Nintendo character, see Wart (Nintendo). ... Cat claw A claw is a curved pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger or, in arthropods, of the tarsus. ... This article is about Shakespeares play. ... A broom is a cleaning tool consisting of stiff fibres attached to, and roughly parallel to, a cylindrical handle, the broomstick. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Regular canister vacuum cleaner for home use. ... Hocus Pocus is a childrens Halloween-themed film released by Disney. ... National Security Guards (NSG) is a counter terrorism unit of the Indian Army, raised by the Cabinet Secretariat under the National Security Guard Act of 1985. ... The Wicked Witch, as portrayed by Margaret Hamilton in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz The Wicked Witch of the West (or simply The Wicked Witch) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his childrens books. ... Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 – May 6, 1919) was an American author, actor, and independent filmmaker best known as the creator, along with illustrator W. W. Denslow, of one of the most popular books in American childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, better known today as simply... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a childrens novel written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ...


Witches may also be depicted as essentially good, as in Bewitched, or Terry Pratchett's Discworld novels, as well as in the television show Charmed, where the main characters are witches and they must protect the innocents from demons and other malevolent creatures. This article is about an American television sitcom. ... Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948) is a British fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. ... This article is about the novels. ... For other uses, see Charm. ...


Following the movie The Craft, popular fictional depictions of witchcraft have increasingly drawn from Wiccan practices, and portrayed witchcraft as having a religious basis. The Craft is a 1996 movie directed by Andrew Fleming and starring Robin Tunney, Rachel True, Fairuza Balk and Neve Campbell. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ...


Though now in modern culture witches can be depicted as just normal looking humans such as Harry Potter and the line between "good and evil" is becoming less distinct. This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ...


See also

Yaga can refer to: Yajna (Hindu mythology) Baba Yaga (Russian mythology) Yaga (clothing company) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Balthasar Bekker (1634 - 1698), Dutch divine, was born in Friesland, and educated at Groningen, under Jacob Alting, and at Franeker. ... In Catalan popular culture, there are a large number of myths and legends about witches (Catalan bruixes). In the popular imagination, a witch is a woman who, by means of a pact with the Devil, has acquired supernatural power, which she uses for her own benefit and for evil purposes. ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ... A dakini (Sanskrit: sky dancer; Chinese language: 空行女) is a Tantric priestess of ancient India who carried the souls of the dead to the sky. This Buddhist figure is particularly upheld in Tibetan Buddhism. ... Kalku or Calcu, in Chilean folklore and the Mapuche mythology, is a witch or shaman, usually an evil one, but not necessarily. ... . ... . ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Madonna Oriente or Signora Oriente - The Lady of the Orient, also known as La Signora del Gioco or the Lady of the Game, was the name of the Moon goddess that was worshipped in a cult that developed in Milan towards the end of the 14th century. ... The Enchanted Garden of Messer Ansaldo by Marie Spartali Stillman: a magician makes his garden bear fruit and flowers in winter. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Osculum infame is the name of a witch’s supposed ritual greeting upon meeting with the Devil. ... A Poppet is a Maiden or Mother Goddess doll. ... The Witch of Endor: from the frontispiece to Sadducismus Triumphatus by Joseph Glanvill Sadducismus triumphatus: or, Full and plain evidence concerning witches and apparitions. ... Look up séance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A typical Ouija board Ouija (pronounced wee-juh or wee-jee) refers to the belief that one can receive messages during a séance by the use of a Ouija board (also called a talking board or spirit board) and planchette. ... Walpurgis Night in Sweden. ... Warlocks are, among historic Christian traditions, said to be the male equivalent of witches (usually in the pejorative sense of Europes Middle Ages), and were said to ride pitchforks instead of broomsticks. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Gibbons, Jenny (1998) "Recent Developments in the Study of the Great European Witch Hunt" in The Pomegranate #5, Lammas 1998.
  2. ^ Barstow, Anne Llewellyn (1994) Witchcraze: A New History of the European Witch Hunts San Francisco:Pandora. p. 23
  3. ^ For a book-length treatment, see Lara Apps and Andrew Gow, Male Witches in Early Modern Europe, Manchester University Press (2003), ISBN 0719057094. Conversely, for repeated use of the term "warlock" to refer to a male witch see Chambers, Robert, Domestic Annals of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1861; and Sinclair, George, Satan's Invisible World Discovered,Edinburgh, 1871.
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, the Compact Edition, Oxford University Press, p. 2955, 1971
  5. ^ for instance, see Luck, Georg, Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds; a Collection of Ancient Texts, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1985, 2006; also Kittredge, G. L., Witchcraft in Old and New England, New York: Russell & Russell, 1929, 1957, 1958; and Davies, Owen, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, 1736-1951, Manchester University Press, 1999
  6. ^ Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. (2000) "The Emergence of the Christian Witch" in History Today, Nov, 2000
  7. ^ Mackay, C., Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds
  8. ^ International Standard Bible Encyclopedia article on Witchcraft, last accessed 31 March 2006. There is some discrepancy between translations; compare with that given in the Catholic Encyclopedia article on Witchcraft (accessed 31 March 2006), and the L. W. King translation (accessed 31 March 2006)
  9. ^ I Samuel 28
  10. ^ Geister, Magier und Muslime. Dämonenwelt und Geisteraustreibung im Islam. Kornelius Hentschel, Diederichs 1997, Germany
  11. ^ Magic and Divination in Early Islam (The Formation of the Classical Islamic World) by Emilie Savage-Smith (Ed.), Ashgate Publishing 2004
  12. ^ BBC News, "Pleas for condemned Saudi 'witch'", 14th February 2008[1]
  13. ^ See also Ryan, W.F. The Bathhouse at Midnight: An Historical Survey of Magic and Divination in Russia, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999
  14. ^ Rose, Elliot, A Razor for a Goat, University of Toronto Press, 1962. Hutton, Ronald, The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles, Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1993. Hutton, Ronald, The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft, Oxford University Press, 1999
  15. ^ Heselton, Philip. Wiccan Roots. 
  16. ^ Heselton, Philip. Gerald Gardner and the Cauldron of Inspiration. 
  17. ^ Kelly, Aidan, "Crafting the Art of Magic," Llewellyn Publications, 1991
  18. ^ Hutton, Ronald, "Triumph of the Moon," Oxford University Press, 1999.
  19. ^ Murray, Margaret A., The Witch-Cult in Western Europe,Oxford University Press, 1921
  20. ^ Hutton, R.,The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft, Oxford University Press, pp. 205-252, 1999
  21. ^ Kelly, A.A., Crafting the Art of Magic, Book I: a History of Modern Witchcraft, 1939-1964, Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications, 1991
  22. ^ Valiente, D., The Rebirth of Witchcraft, London: Robert Hale, pp. 35-62, 1989
  23. ^ Huson, Paul Mastering Witchcraft: a Practical Guide for Witches, Warlocks, and Covens, New York: G.P.Putnams Sons, 1970.
  24. ^ Clifton, Chas S., Her Hidden Children: The Rise of Wicca and Paganism in America, Lanham, MD: Altamira, 2006, ISBN 0759102023

Charles Mackay (1814 – 1889) was a British poet, journalist, and song writer. ... Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds is a popular history of popular folly by Charles Mackay, first published in 1841. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Toronto Press is a publishing house and a division of the University of Toronto that engages in academic publishing. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Philip Heselton (1946 —) is a retired British Conservation Officer, a Wiccan initiate, and a writer on the subjects of Wicca, Paganism and ley lines. ... Philip Heselton (1946 —) is a retired British Conservation Officer, a Wiccan initiate, and a writer on the subjects of Wicca, Paganism and ley lines. ... Llewellyn Worldwide (formerly Llewellyn Publications) is a New Age publisher, currently based in Woodbury, Minnesota, a suburb of St. ... Paul Huson is a British-born artist and author currently living in the United States. ... Mastering Witchcraft: A Practical Guide for Witches, Warlocks and Covens In print for over thirty years now, Mastering Witchcraft by Paul Huson was published in 1970 by G.P. Putnams, the first mainstream publisher to produce a do-it-yourself manual for the would-be witch or warlock. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Witches

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

Magic (also called magick to distinguish it from stage magic) is a supposed way of influencing the world through supernatural, mystical, or paranormal means. ... For other uses, see Witchcraft (disambiguation). ... Witch smellers (isinyanga or abangoma), almost always women, were important and powerful people amongst the Zulu and other Bantu tribes of Southern Africa, responsible for rooting out evil witches in the tribe, and sometimes responsible for considerable bloodshed themselves. ... The term Voodoo (Vodun in Benin; also Vodou or other phonetically equivalent spellings in Haiti; Vudu in the Dominican Republic) is applied to the branches of a West African ancestor-based religious tradition with primary roots among the Fon-Ewe peoples of West Africa, in the country now known as... This article is in need of attention. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hans Baldung Griens Three Witches, circa 1514. ... The Benandanti were an agrarian fertility cult in Northern Italy in the 16th century. ... Brujería is Spanish witchcraft or witchery. ... In English history, the cunning man or cunning woman is a professional or semi-professional folk magic user up until the twentieth century. ... Seid or seiðr is an Old Norse term for a type of sorcery or witchcraft which was practiced by the pre-Christian Norse. ... Jadis, the White Witch is the key villain of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, the first published book in C. S. Lewiss Chronicles of Narnia series, and the second chronologically. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... woogie boards ... Hoodoo is a form of predominantly African American, Christian, traditional folk magic. ... Huna is a Hawaiian word first used by Max Freedom Long (1890-1971) in 1936 to describe what he called “the secret science behind the miracles” that ancient Hawaiian kahuna (experts) performed. ... Pow-wow is a system of American folk religion and magic associated with the Pennsylvania Dutch. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... Louisiana Voodoo, also known as New Orleans Voodoo is a term that is used for a form of the Voodoo spirituality which historically developed within the French- and Louisiana Creole French-speaking African-American population of the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... You need to search for umbanda which is I believe an african terminology that influenced the creation of wichcraft religion in brazil and has spread over south and central america. ... In Polynesian mythology, Makutu is a difficult type of witchcraft which requires three tests to become proficient in. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Hedge Witch is a variety of magical practicioner who claims to be a witch, but not part of a coven or any other organisation. ... Ways of the Strega published in 1994, described Raven Grimassis view of Stregheria and popularized Italian-based witchcraft. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Coven or covan was originally a late medieval Scots word (c1500) meaning a gathering of any kind, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... A familiar animal, in folklore, is an animal believed to be possessed of magic powers such as the ability to change its shape. ... “Familiar” redirects here. ... Flying ointment, also known as witches flying ointment, green ointment, magic salve and lycanthropic ointment, is a hallucinogenic ointment said to be used by witches in the Early Modern period. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Look up magic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... A Poppet is a Maiden or Mother Goddess doll. ... A potion (from Latin potio, meaning beverage, potion, poison) is a drinkable medicine or poison. ... Peter H. Gilmore, High Priest of the Church of Satan. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... This article is about the religion. ... An excerpt from Sefer Raziel HaMalakh, featuring various magical sigils (or סגולות, seguloth, in Hebrew). ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Witch Ball: A hollow sphere of plain or striated glass hung in cottage windows in the 18th century to ward off evil spirits, but later often posted on top of a vase or suspended by a cord (as from the mantelpiece or rafters) for a decorative effect. ... Witchs Ladder: Knotted cords or hair are an ancient and powerful magickal tool. ... Agamede (c. ... In the neopagan religions of Stregheria and Wicca, Aradia was the daughter of Diana and Lucifer. ... Aradia di Toscano, or Aradia de Toscano, is the name given by Raven Grimassi for the founder of Stregheria, which he describes as the Old Religion of Italy. ... Yaga can refer to: Yajna (Hindu mythology) Baba Yaga (Russian mythology) Yaga (clothing company) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Old women with awls in their elbows in the Ojibwa story of Ayasa, Filcher-of-Meat. Blinded by cooking smoke, the sisters killed each other in trying to kill him for their meal. ... For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ... Huld was a völva in Scandinavian mythology. ... Kalku or Calcu, in Chilean folklore and the Mapuche mythology, is a witch or shaman, usually an evil one, but not necessarily. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... The Witch of Endor: from the frontispiece to Sadducismus Triumphatus by Joseph Glanvill In the Hebrew Bible, the Witch of Endor of the First book of Samuel, chapter 28:4–25, was a witch, a woman who possesses a talisman, through which she called up the ghost of the recently... The Weird Sisters, (sometimes Wyrd Sisters or Three Weird Sisters), is the Germanic mythological group name given to the Nordic fates, or Norns. ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... The Craft is a 1996 movie directed by Andrew Fleming and starring Robin Tunney, Rachel True, Fairuza Balk and Neve Campbell. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Halloween III: Season of the Witch is a horror film released in 1982. ... Hocus Pocus is a childrens Halloween-themed film released by Disney. ... The Wicked Witch, as portrayed by Margaret Hamilton in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz The Wicked Witch of the West (or simply The Wicked Witch) is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum in his childrens books. ...

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Witchcraft - World of witches, wicca and spells (578 words)
Witchcraft is a religion that respects Mother Nature and She is neither completely positive or completely negative, this is the same for witches.
In witchcraft, spells may also be changed or adapted to suit a Wiccan’s personality or specific wishes in casting the spell.
Witchcraft is ruled by the Threefold Law, which is the belief that any action taken by any witch that affects another person, will come back to the witch threefold, whether it be harm or good.
Witchcraft - LoveToKnow 1911 (2861 words)
Witchcraft and possession are found in close relation in the psychical epidemics of the middle ages, but are otherwise unrelated.
This intrusion of the incubus in the domain of witchcraft was probably due to the attitude of the church towards magic.
In the first half of this second period, witchcraft was still superstition for the canon law, a civil wrong for the secular law; later, although these ideas still persisted, all magic was held to be heresy; its reality and heretical nature was expressly maintained by Thomas Aquinas.
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