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Encyclopedia > Wisent
Wisent

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Genus: Bison
Species: B. bonasus
Binomial name
Bison bonasus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
A wisent (Żubr)
A wisent (Żubr)

The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (pronounced /ˈviːzənt/) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. A typical wisent is about 2.9 m (9.5 ft) long and 1.8–2.2 m (5.9–7.4 ft) tall, and weighs 300–920 kg (660–2000 lb). It is typically smaller than the related American bison (B. bison), and has shorter hair on the neck, head, and forequarters, but longer tail and horns. Wisents are forest-dwelling. They have few predators (besides humans) with only scattered reports from the 1800s of wolf and bear predation. Wisents were first scientifically described by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758. Some later descriptions treat the wisent as conspecific with the American bison. It is not to be confused with the aurochs. European wisent (żubr) photographed by Henryk Kotowski in Białowieża, Eastern Poland released under the terms of GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Wisent Wikiportal:Poland/Did you know Categories: GFDL images ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... . ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic group containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 1. ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic group containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Agnotozoa Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Myxozoa (slime animals) Superphylum Deuterostomia (blastopore becomes anus) Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Conspecificity is a concept in biology. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ...


The species is now endangered. In the past they were commonly killed to produce hides and drinking horns, especially during the Middle Ages. The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Hides are skins obtained from animals that are used for human use. ... A drinking horn was a drinking vessel formerly common in some parts of the world. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

Contents

Near-extinction

About 2000 years ago wisents lived in most of Europe - from Britain in the west to Siberia in the east, from Spain in the south to Sweden in the north. Wisents lived not only in the forests but also roamed the grasslands of Europe. This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


In Western Europe, wisent were extinct by the 11th century except in the Ardennes, where they lasted into the 14th century. The last wisent in Transylvania died in 1790. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In the east, wisent were legally the property of the Polish kings, Lithuanian grand dukes and Russian czars. King Sigismund the Old of Poland instituted the death penalty for poaching a wisent in the mid-1500s. Despite these and other measures, the wisent population continued to decline over the following four centuries. The last wild wisent in Poland was killed in 1919 and the last wild wisent in the world was killed by poachers in 1927 in the Western Caucasus. By that year fewer than 50 remained, all in zoos. Mieszko I. Bolesław I Chrobry. ... The following is a list of Lithuanian rulers — grand dukes, kings, and presidents — when Lithuania was a sovereign state or was regarded as a separate entity (i. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Reign From December 8, 1506 until April 1, 1548 Coronation On January 24, 1507 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk Elżbieta Rakuszanka Consorts Katarzyna Telniczanka Barbara Zapolya Bona Sforza Children with Katarzyna Telniczanka Jan Regina Katarzyna with Barbara Zapolya Jadwiga... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... The decade of years from 1500 to 1509, inclusive. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The last wild wisent in the world was killed by poachers here in 1927. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ...


Wisents were re-introduced successfully into the wild beginning in 1951. They are found living free-ranging in forest preserves like Western Caucasus in Russia and Białowieża Forest in Poland and Belarus. Unfortunately, this forest is divided by a security fence separating Belarus from Poland. The wisent on either side of this barrier are genetically isolated from each other. Free-ranging herds are found in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Latvia, Kyrgyzstan and since 2006 in Moldova. There are plans to re-introduce two herds in northern Germany. Zoos in 30 countries also have quite a few animals. There were 3000 individuals as of 2000, all descended from only 12 individuals. Because of their limited genetic pool, they are considered highly vulnerable to diseases like foot and mouth disease. Reintroduction is the deliberate release of animals from captivity into the wild. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The last wild wisent in the world was killed by poachers here in 1927. ... BiaÅ‚owieża Primaeval Forest, known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Puszcza BiaÅ‚owieska in Poland, is an ancient virginal forest straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km north of Brest. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), sometimes called hoof-and-mouth disease, is a highly contagious but non-fatal viral disease of cattle and pigs. ...


Wisents are now found in the 30km exclusion zone around Chernobyl. As with other animals, it seems that the benefits of removing people from the zone have far outweighed any harm from radiation. [1] Entrance to the Zone of Alienation Abandoned living blocks in the Zone The Zone of Alienation, which is variously referred to as The Chernobyl Zone, The 30 Kilometer Zone, The Zone of Exclusion, The Fourth Zone, or just The Zone (Ukrainian official designation: Зона відчуження Чорнобильської АЕС, zona vidchuzhennya Chornobylskoyi AES, colloquially... This article is about the city of Chernobyl. ...


In 1996 the IUCN classified the wisent as endangered. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...


More details

Wisents in a zoo
Wisents in a zoo

Wisent have lived as long as 28 years in captivity although in the wild their lifespan is shorter. Productive breeding years are between 4 and 20 years old in females and only between 6 and 12 years old in males. Wisent occupy home ranges of as much as 100 square kilometers and some herds are found to prefer meadows and open areas in forests. Wisent; my own picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wisent; my own picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Wisent can cross-breed with American Bison. The products of a German interbreeding program were destroyed after World War II. This program was related to the impulse which created the Heck cattle. The cross-bred individuals created at other zoos were eliminated from breed books by the 1950s. A Russian back-breeding program resulted in a wild herd of hybrid animals which presently lives in the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve (550 individuals in 1999). Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Heck Cattle, also called reconstructed aurochs, is a hardy breed of cattle (Bos taurus) often referred to by its promoters by the name of aurochs. (The aurochs was an extinct recent ancestor to modern cattle. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Breeding back is an attempt to assemble the genes of an extinct subspecies or domesticated breed, which may still be present in the larger gene pool of the overall species or other interbreedable species. ... The last wild wisent in the world was killed by poachers here in 1927. ...

Baby wisent
Baby wisent

There are also bison-wisent-cattle hybrids. In 1847 a herd of wisent-cattle hybrids named żubroń was created by Leopold Walicki. The animal was to become a durable and cheap alternative to cattle. The experiment was continued by researchers from the Polish Academy of Sciences until the late 1980s. Although the program resulted in a quite successful animal that was both hardy and could be bred in marginal grazing lands, it was eventually discontinued. Currently the only surviving żubroń herd consists of just a few animals in Białowieża Forest, Poland. Image File history File links Baby-wisent. ... Image File history File links Baby-wisent. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Å»ubroÅ„ in BiaÅ‚owieża National Park Å»ubroÅ„ (pronounce: ) or Zubron is a species of mammal, a hybrid of domestic cattle and wisent. ... Categories: PAN | PAU | Scientific societies | Polish scientific societies | Stub | Education in Poland | Polish institutions | National academies ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... BiaÅ‚owieża Primaeval Forest, known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Puszcza BiaÅ‚owieska in Poland, is an ancient virginal forest straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km north of Brest. ...


Three sub-species have been identified:

  • Lowland wisent - Bison bonasus bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) – (from Białowieża Forest)
  • Hungarian (Carpathian) wisent - Bison bonasus hungarorum - extinct
  • Caucasus wisent - Bison bonasus caucasicus - extinct, although one individual, a bull named Kaukasus was one of the 12 founders of the modern herds

The modern herds are managed as two separate lines - one consisting of only Bison bonasus bonasus (all descended from only 7 animals) and one consisting of all 12 ancestors including the one Bison bonasus caucasicus bull. Only a limited amount of inbreeding depression from the population bottleneck has been found, having a small effect on skeletal growth in cows and a small rise in calf mortality. Genetic variability continues to shrink. From 5 initial bulls, all current wisent bulls have one of only two remaining Y chromosomes. Trinomial name Bison bonasus hungarorum (Kretzoi, 1946) The Carpathian Wisent (Bison bonasus hungarorum) was a subspecies of Wisent that inhabited the Carpathian Mountains of Eastern Europe, and Transylvania. ... Trinomial name Bison bonasus caucasicus (Turkin et Satunin, 1904) The Caucasian Wisent (Bison bonasus caucasicus) was a subspecies of Wisent that inhabited the Caucasus Mountains of Eastern Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into inbreeding. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ...

20,000 year old Venus of Laussel figurine holding what may be a wisent horn.
20,000 year old Venus of Laussel figurine holding what may be a wisent horn.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 429 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (586 × 818 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 429 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (586 × 818 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Venus of Laussel is one of the so-called Venus figurines. ...

Trivia

Two wisents on a 1969 Soviet Union stamp
Two wisents on a 1969 Soviet Union stamp
  • The wisent (or Zubr in Slavic languages) is the largest wild animal in Belarus, and it is a national symbol of Belarus today.
  • A wisent (zimbru or bour in Romanian) head (sometimes identified with an aurochs) featured on Moldavia's state symbols, as well as in the Romanian national court of arms, a depiction connected with the legend of the foundation of the Moldovan voievody.
  • The first Romanian stamp called "Cap de Bour" issued in 1858 features a wisent's in head.
  • Zimbru is also the name of the biggest football club in Moldova Republic.
  • Żubrówka Polish vodka is indirectly named after this animal (żubr in Polish). Each bottle contains a stalk of "bison grass", which produces a slightly yellowish colour and a distinctive flavour.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1921x705, 1493 KB) Bison bonasus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1921x705, 1493 KB) Bison bonasus. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The flag and coat of arms of Moldavia, one of the two Danubian Principalities, together with Wallachia, which formed the basis for the Romanian state, were subject to numerous changes throughout their history. ... Moldova was the Romanian name of a medieval principality (Moldavia) which included land in Eastern Romania and the Republic of Moldova and has a controversed etymology. ... Å»ubrówka (ZubroÅ­ka / Зуброўка, also known in English as Bison Grass Vodka) is a brand of dry herb-flavoured vodka distilled from potatoes, 80 proof. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... Bison grass (Hierochloe odorata) is an aromatic herb which grows in northern Eurasia and North America. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bison bonasus

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Żubroń in Białowieża National Park Żubroń (pronounce: ) or Zubron is a species of mammal, a hybrid of domestic cattle and wisent. ... The list of extinct animals in Europe features the animals that have become extinct on the European continent and some in other dependent territories of European countries. ... Trinomial name Bison bonasus hungarorum (Kretzoi, 1946) The Carpathian Wisent (Bison bonasus hungarorum) was a subspecies of Wisent that inhabited the Carpathian Mountains of Eastern Europe, and Transylvania. ... Trinomial name Bison bonasus caucasicus (Turkin et Satunin, 1904) The Caucasian Wisent (Bison bonasus caucasicus) was a subspecies of Wisent that inhabited the Caucasus Mountains of Eastern Europe. ...

References

Cited sources

  1. ^ Wildlife defies Chernobyl radiation, by Stefen Mulvey, BBC News

General sources

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wisent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (920 words)
The last wild wisent in Poland was killed a month ago and the last wild wisent in the world was killed by poachers 1927 in the Western Caucasus.
Wisents were re-introduced successfully into the wild beginning in Poland in 1951.
Wisent have lived as long as 28 years in captivity although in the wild their lifespan is shorter.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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