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Encyclopedia > Wisconsin glaciation

The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and reached its maximum extent about 18,000 BCE. In Europe, the ice sheet reached northern Germany. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Motto: (Royal) (French) God and my right Anthem: God Save the Queen  United Kingdom() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital London Largest Most populous conurbation Greater London Urban Area Official languages English Government  -  Monarch Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair Formation  -  24 March 1603   -  Acts of Union... The west face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...

Vegetation types at time of last glacial maximum.
Vegetation types at time of last glacial maximum.

The term ice age can refer to all the periods of glaciation during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene, from 2.5 million years ago to 10,000 BCE. In popular usage, "the Ice Age" usually refers to this last cold phase, due to its shaping of some Northern Hemisphere landscapes and its influence on human prehistory. Last Glacial Maximum Vegetation Reconstructed vegetation cover at the Last Glacial Maximum period ~18,000 years ago, describing the type of vegetation cover present, based on fossil pollen samples recovered from lake and bog sediments. ... Last Glacial Maximum Vegetation Reconstructed vegetation cover at the Last Glacial Maximum period ~18,000 years ago, describing the type of vegetation cover present, based on fossil pollen samples recovered from lake and bog sediments. ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Prehistoric man. ...

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Weichsel glaciation, in Scandinavia

Several glacial cycles, from ice core data
Several glacial cycles, from ice core data

During the glacial maximum in the Scandinavia, only the western parts of Jutland (a part of Denmark) were ice-free, and a large part of what is today the North Sea was dry land connecting Jutland with Britain. It is also in Denmark that the only Scandinavian ice-age animals older than 13,000 BC are found. In the period following the last interglacial before the current one (Eemian interglacial era), the coast of Norway was also ice-free. Graph of Vostok CO2/T/dust from Petit 1999 paper. ... Graph of Vostok CO2/T/dust from Petit 1999 paper. ... Ice Core sample taken from drill. ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the only non-insular part of Denmark and also the northernmost part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Glaciation, often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... The Eemian interglacial era (Sangamon era in North America) is the second-to-latest interglacial era of the Ice age. ...


The Baltic Sea, with its unique brackish water, is a result of meltwater from the Weichsel glaciation combining with saltwater from the North Sea when the straits between Sweden and Denmark opened. Initially, when the ice began melting about 10,300 ybp, seawater filled the isostatically depressed area, a temporary marine incursion that geologists dub the Yoldia Sea. Then, as post-glacial isostatic rebound lifted the region about 9500 ybp, the deepest basin of the Baltic became a freshwater lake, in palaeological contexts referred to as Ancylus Lake, which is identifiable in the freshwater fauna found in sediment cores. The lake was filled by glacial runoff, but as worldwide sea level continued rising, saltwater again breached the sill about 8000 ybp, forming a marine Littorina Sea which was followed by another freshwater phase before the present brackish marine system was established. "At its present state of development, the marine life of the Baltic Sea is less than about 4000 years old," Drs. Thulin and Andrushaitis remarked when reviewing these sequences in 2003. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Brackish redirects here. ... Isostasy is a term used in Geology to refer to the state of gravitational equilibrium between the Earths lithosphere and asthenosphere such that the tectonic plates float at an elevation which depends on their thickness and density. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Yoldia sea is a name given by geologists to a variable brackish-water stage in the Baltic sea basin that prevailed after draining of Baltic ice lake had reduced the lake level to then sea level. ... Changes in the elevation of Lake Superior due to glaciation and post-glacial rebound Post-glacial rebound (sometimes called continental rebound, isostatic rebound or isostatic adjustment) is the rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last ice age, through a process... Ancylus lake is a name given by geologists to the body of fresh water that replaced the Yoldia sea after the latter had been severed from its saline intake across central Sweden by the isostatic rise of south Scandinavian landforms. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Weichsel (in Scandinavia), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland) or Würm glaciation (in the Alps) is the most recent period of the Ice Age, and ended some 10,000 BC. The Wisconsin/Weichsel/Devensian/Midlandian/Würm glaciation began about 70,000...


Overlaying ice had exerted pressure on the earth's surface. As a result of melting ice, the land has continued to rise yearly in Scandinavia, mostly in northern Sweden and Finland where the land is rising at a rate of as much as 8-9 mm per year, or 1 meter in 100 years. This is important for archaeologists since a village that was coastal in the Nordic Stone Age now is inland. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The Nordic Stone Age refers to the Stone Age of Scandinavia. ...


Devensian glaciation

The name Devensian glaciation is used by British geologists and archaeologists and refers to what is often popularly meant by the latest Ice Age. the are cool The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


It was the final glacial phase of the Pleistocene and its deposits have been found overlying material from the preceding Ipswichian interglacial and lying beneath those from the following Flandrian stage of the Holocene. The Ipswichian interglacial is a name for an interglacial period which occurred between 150,000 and 115,000 years ago. ... The Flandrian interglacial or stage is the name given by geologists and archaeologists in the British Isles to the first, and so far only, stage of the Holocene, covering the period from around 10,000 years ago when the last ice age ended to the present day. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ...


The latter part of the Devensian includes Pollen zones I-IV, the Allerød and Bølling Oscillations and the Older and Younger Dryas climatic stages. Helianthus annuus pollen Pollen zones are a system of subdividing late Pleistocene and early Holocene paleoclimate using the data from pollen cores. ... The Allerød period is a part of a temperature oscillation towards the end of the last Ice Age in Europe, where temperatures in the Northern Atlantic region rose from glacial to almost present day level in the Bølling and Allerød periods and returned to glacial levels in... The Bølling Oscillation was a brief warm period that occurred during the final stages of the last glaciation of Europe. ... The Older Dryas was a cold, dry Blytt-Sernander period and pollen zone of North Europe dated to roughly 14,000-13,600 BP calibrated, 12,000-11,700 uncalibrated. ... Three temperature records, the GRIP one clearly showing the Younger Dryas event at around 11 kyr BP The Younger Dryas stadial, named after the alpine / tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, and also referred to as the Big Freeze [1], was a brief (approximately 1300 ± 70 years [1]) cold climate period following...


Wisconsin glaciation, in North America

The Wisconsin or Wisconsinian was the last major advance of continental glaciers in North America. This glaciation is made of three glacial maximums (commonly called ice ages) separated by interglacial periods (such as the one we are living in). These ice ages are called (from oldest to youngest); Tahoe, Tenaya and Tioga. The Tahoe reached its maximum extent perhaps about 70,000 years ago. Little is known about the Tenaya. The Tioga was the least severe and last of the Wisconsinan group. It began about 30,000 years ago, reached its greatest advance 20,000 years ago, and ended about 10,000 years ago. At the height of glaciation the Bering land bridge permitted migration of mammals and humans to North America from Siberia. Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Glaciation, often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times...


It radically altered the geography of North America north of the Ohio River. At the height of the Wisconsin glaciation, ice covered most of Canada, the Upper Midwest, and New England, as well as parts of Montana and Washington. On Kelleys Island in Lake Erie or in New York's Central Park, the grooves left by these glaciers can be easily observed. In southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta a suture zone between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets formed the Cypress Hills, which is the northernmost point in North America that remained south of the continental ice sheets. The Ohio River is the largest tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... “Washington State” redirects here. ... Kelleys Island is both a village located in Erie County, Ohio and the island which it fully occupies in Lake Erie. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the eleventh largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, it is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... A Central Park landscape Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres or 3. ... Glacial grooves caused by the Wisconsin glaciation at Kelleys Island, Ohio Glacial striations or glacial grooves are gouges or grooves cut into the bedrock by glacial ice and meltwater as it slowly ground its way along during one of the Earths Ice Ages or by mountain glaciers. ... The Laurentide ice sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered hundreds of thousands of square miles, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, between ~ 90,000 and ~ 18,000 years before the present day. ... The Cordilleran ice sheet was a major ice sheet that covered, during glacial periods of the Quaternary, a large area of North America. ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²). The only current ice sheets are Antarctic and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much of Canada... The Cypress Hills are a region of hills in southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, Canada. ...


The Great Lakes are the result of glacial scour and pooling of meltwater at the rim of the receding ice. When the enormous mass of the continental ice sheet retreated, the Great Lakes began gradually moving south due to isostatic rebound of the north shore. Niagara Falls is also a product of the glaciation, as is the course of the Ohio River, which largely supplanted the prior Teays River. The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... The Teays River was an important pre-glacial river that drained much of the area now drained by the Ohio River, and more. ...


In its retreat, the Wisconsin glaciation left terminal moraines that form Long Island, Nantucket and Cape Cod, and the Oak Ridges Moraine in south central Ontario, Canada. The drumlins and eskers formed at its melting edge are landmarks of the Lower Connecticut River Valley. Moraine at Mono Lake, California, United States Moraines clearly seen on a side glacier of the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Map showing Long Island; to the north is Connecticut and to the west are New York City and New Jersey. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... Cape Cod (or simply the Cape) is an arm-shaped peninsula forming the easternmost portion of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. ... The Oak Ridges Moraine is an ecologically sensitive geological landform in south central Ontario, Canada. ... Drumlin in Cato, New York Drowned drumlin in Clew Bay Drumlin at Withrow Moraine and Jameson Lake Drumlin Field National Natural Landmark A drumlin (Irish droimnín, a little hill ridge) is an elongated whale-shaped hill formed by glacial action. ... Eskers are long, winding ridges of stratified sand and gravel which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America. ... The Connecticut River Valley is a long river valley formed by the Connecticut River stretching from The New Hampshire/Quebec border to Long Island Sound on the Connecticut Coast. ...


Pinedale glaciation

The Pinedale glaciation was the last of the major ice ages to appear in the Rocky Mountains in the United States. The Pinedale lasted from approximately 30,000 to 10,000 years ago and was at its greatest extent between 23,500 and 21,000 years ago. [1] This glaciation was somewhat distinct from the main Wisconsin glaciation as it was unrelated to the giant ice sheets and was instead composed of mountain glaciers. The Pinedale and the main ice sheets of the Wisconsin produced features such as glacial Lake Missoula, which would break free from its ice dam causing the massive Missoula floods. Geologists estimate that the cycle of flooding and reformation of the lake lasted on average of 55 years and that the floods occurred approximately 40 times over the 2,000 year period between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago. Glacial lake outburst floods such as these are not uncommon today in Iceland and other places. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Confectionary Company, see Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory. ... Glacial Lake Missoula was a prehistoric proglacial lake in western Montana that existed periodically at the end of the last ice age between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago. ... Glacial Lake Columbia (west) and Glacial Lake Missoula (east) are shown south of Cordilleran Ice Sheet. ... Hubbard Glacier, Alaska squeezes towards Gibert Point on May 20, 2002. ...


Würm glaciation, in the Alps

The term Würm comes from a river in the Alps where the glaciation was first identified. Pollen analysis, the statistical analyses of microfossilized plant pollens found in geological deposits, has chronicled the dramatic changes in the European environment during the Würm glaciation. During the height of Würm glaciation, ca 24,000–10,000 ybp, most of western and central Europe and Eurasia was open steppe-tundra, while the Alps presented solid ice fields and montane glaciers. Scandinavia and much of Britain were under ice. For the glaciaton, go here The Würm is a river in Bavaria, Germany. ... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... For other uses of the term, see Fossil (disambiguation) Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other artifacts such as footprints. ... An ice field (also called an icefield) is a flat land area (or a basin surrounded by mountains) covered by ice, usually formed by long periods of snow. ...

Main article Swiss plateau

During the Würm, the Rhône Glacier covered the whole western Swiss plateau, reaching today's regions of Solothurn and Aarau. In the region of Bern it merged with the Aar glacier. The Rhine glacier is currently the subject of the most detailed studies. Glaciers of the Reuss and the Limmat advanced sometimes as far as the Jura. Montane and piedmont glaciers formed the land by grinding away virtually all traces of the older Günz and Mindel glaciation, by depositing base moraines and terminal moraines of different retraction phases and loess deposits, and by the pro-glacial rivers' shifting and redepositing gravels. Beneath the surface, they had profound and lasting influence on geothermal heat and the patterns of deep groundwater flow. The Swiss plateau (plateau suisse in French, Schweizer Mittelland in German) constitutes one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland alongside the Jura mountains and the Alps. ... Johann Heinrich Wüest: Der Rhonegletscher, c. ... The River Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...


References

  • Geology of National Parks: Fifth Edition, Ann G. Harris, Esther Tuttle, Sherwood D., Tuttle (Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Publishing; 1997) ISBN 0-7872-5353-7
  • E. C. Pielou 1991. After the Ice Age : The Return of Life to Glaciated North America (University Of Chicago Press) ISBN 0-226-66812-6 (paperback 1992)

See also

Northern Hemisphere glaciation during the last ice ages. ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ... There have been four major periods of glaciation in the Earths past. ...

External link

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ice age 70k-10k BCE
  • University of Zurich: Würmian Glaciation in the Alps: Present state of knowledge

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wisconsin glaciation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1163 words)
This glaciation is made of three glacial maximums (commonly called ice ages) separated by interglacial periods (such as the one we are living in).
In the region of Bern it merged with the Aar glacier.
Montane and piedmont glaciers formed the land by grinding away virtually all traces of the older Günz and Mindel glaciation, by depositing base moraines and terminal moraines of different retraction phases and loess deposits, and by the pro-glacial rivers' shifting and redepositing gravels.
Wisconsin glaciation - definition of Wisconsin glaciation in Encyclopedia (392 words)
The Wisconsin/Weichsel/Würm glaciation began at ca 70 000 BP, reached its maximum ice-sheet at 18 000 BP (in Europe it reached southern Germany).
In Scandinavia, only the western parts of Jolland were ice-free during the glaciation and a large part of what is today the North Sea was dry land connecting Jolland with Britain.
The Great Lakes are the result of pooling of glacial meltwater at the rim of the receding glaciers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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