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Encyclopedia > Wireless LAN
The notebook is connected to the wireless access point using a PC card wireless card.
54 MBit/s WLAN PCI Card (802.11g)
54 MBit/s WLAN PCI Card (802.11g)
See also: Virtual LAN

A wireless LAN or WLAN is a wireless local area network, which is the linking of two or more computers without using wires. WLAN utilizes spread-spectrum or OFDM (802.11a) modulation technology based on radio waves to enable communication between devices in a limited area, also known as the basic service set. This gives users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network. The notebook is connected by a PCMCIA wireless card to the wireless access point. ... The notebook is connected by a PCMCIA wireless card to the wireless access point. ... The PCMCIA is the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an industry trade association that creates standards for notebook computer peripheral devices. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 558 KB) Modified by Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) 2007. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 558 KB) Modified by Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) 2007. ... A virtual LAN, commonly known as a vLAN or as a VLAN, is a method of creating independent logical networks within a physical network. ... Lan can stand for several things: A local area network Lan (airline) formerly LanChile Lan Peru Län, a kind of administrative division used in Sweden Lan Mandragoran, a fictional character in the Wheel of Time fantasy series by Robert Jordan. ... For the use of the term in networking, see Wireless networking. ... Local area network scheme A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings. ... Spread-spectrum telecommunications is a technique in which a signal is transmitted in a bandwidth considerably greater than the frequency content of the original information. ... Orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM, also called orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) is a technique for the modulation of digital information onto an analog carrier electromagnetic (e. ... Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. ...


For the home user, wireless has become popular due to ease of installation, and location freedom with the gaining popularity of laptops. Public businesses such as coffee shops or malls have begun to offer wireless access to their customers; some are even provided as a free service. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities. Google is even providing a free service to Mountain View, California[1] and has entered a bid to do the same for San Francisco.[2] New York City has also begun a pilot program to cover all five boroughs of the city with wireless Internet access. For the band, see Laptop (band). ... This article is about the corporation. ... Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, in the U.S. state of California. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

Contents

History

In 1970 University of Hawaii, under the leadership of Norman Abramson, developed the world’s first computer communication network using low-cost ham-like radios, named ALOHAnet. The bi-directional star topology of the system included seven computers deployed over four islands to communicate with the central computer on the Oahu Island without using phone lines.[3] This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... . ... ALOHAnet, also known as ALOHA, was a pioneering computer networking system developed at the University of Hawaii. ...


"In 1979, F.R. Gfeller and U. Bapst published a paper in the IEEE Proceedings reporting an experimental wireless local area network using diffused infrared communications. Shortly thereafter, in 1980, P. Ferrert reported on an experimental application of a single code spread spectrum radio for wireless terminal communications in the IEEE National Telecommunications Conference. In 1984, a comparison between Infrared and CDMA spread spectrum communications for wireless office information networks was published by [ Kaveh Pahlavan ] in IEEE Computer Networking Symposium which appeared later in the IEEE Communication Society Magazine. In May 1985, the efforts of Marcus led the FCC to announce experimental ISM bands for commercial application of spread spectrum technology. Later on, M. Kavehrad reported on an experimental wireless PBX system using code division multiple access. These efforts prompted significant industrial activities in the development of a new generation of wireless local area networks and it updated several old discussions in the portable and mobile radio industry. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Spread-spectrum telecommunications is a technique in which a signal is transmitted in a bandwidth considerably greater than the frequency content of the original information. ... Kaveh Pahlavan is an Iranian-American scientist and professor and director of the Center for Wireless Information Network Studies, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States. ...


The first generation of wireless data modems was developed in the early 1980's by amateur communication groups. They added a voice band data communication modem, with data rates below 9600 bit/s, to an existing short distance radio system such as a walkie talkie. The second generation of wireless modems was developed immediately after the FCC announcement in the experimental bands for non-military use of the spread spectrum technology. These modems provided data rates on the order of hundreds of kbit/s. The third generation of wireless modem [then] aimed at compatibility with the existing LANs with data rates on the order of Mbit/s. Several companies [developed] the third generation products with data rates above 1 Mbit/s and a couple of products [had] already been announced [by the time of the first IEEE Workshop on Wireless LANs]."[4]


"The first of the IEEE Workshops on Wireless LAN was held in 1991. At that time early wireless LAN products had just appeared in the market and the IEEE 802.11 committee had just started its activities to develop a standard for wireless LANs. The focus of that first workshop was evaluation of the alternative technologies. [By 1996], the technology [was] relatively mature, a variety of applications [had] been identified and addressed and technologies that enable these applications [were] well understood. Chip sets aimed at wireless LAN implementations and applications, a key enabling technology for rapid market growth, [were] emerging in the market. Wireless LANs [were being] used in hospitals, stock exchanges, and other in building and campus settings for nomadic access, point-to-point LAN bridges, ad-hoc networking, and even larger applications through internetworking. The IEEE 802.11 standard and variants and alternatives, such as the wireless LAN interoperability forum and the European HIPERLAN specification [had] made rapid progress, and the unlicensed PCS [ Unlicensed Personal Communications Services ] and the proposed SUPERNet [,later on renamed as UNII, ] bands also presented new opportunities." [5] In May 1991, the first IEEE workshop on Wireless LANs was held at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA. The workshop was scheduled in coordination with a meeting of the IEEE 802. ... IEEE 802. ... A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links—the union of which form an arbitrary topology. ... HIPERLAN (HIgh PErformance Radio LAN) is a Wireless LAN standard. ... Unlicensed Personal Communications Services operate in the 1910-1930 MHz and 2390-2400 MHz frequency bands and are used for short range applications. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


On July 21, 1999, AirPort debuted at the Macworld Expo in New York City with Steve Jobs picking up an iBook supposedly to give the cameraman a better shot as he surfed the Web. Applause quickly built as people realized there were no wires. This was the first time Wireless LAN became publicly available at consumer pricing and easily available for home use. Before the release of the Airport, Wireless LAN was too expensive for consumer use and used exclusively in large corporate settings. is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Produced by Boston-based IDG World Expo, Macworld Conference & Expo is a trade show dedicated to the Apple Macintosh platform with conference tracks occurring twice a year in the United States. ... Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the co-founder and CEO of Apple and was the CEO of Pixar until its acquisition by Disney. ... The original Blueberry iBook Clamshell The iBook is a now discontinued line of laptop computers that was developed and sold by Apple Inc. ...


Originally WLAN hardware was so expensive that it was only used as an alternative to cabled LAN in places where cabling was difficult or impossible. Early development included industry-specific solutions and proprietary protocols, but at the end of the 1990s these were replaced by standards, primarily the various versions of IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi). An alternative ATM-like 5 GHz standardized technology, HIPERLAN, has so far not succeeded in the market, and with the release of the faster 54 Mbit/s 802.11a (5 GHz) and 802.11g (2.4 GHz) standards, almost certainly never will. Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... HIPERLAN (HIgh PErformance Radio LAN) is a Wireless LAN standard. ... IEEE 802. ... IEEE 802. ...


In November 2006, the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) won a legal battle in the US federal court of Texas against Buffalo Technology which found the US manufacturer had failed to pay royalties on a US WLAN patent CSIRO had filed in 1996. CSIRO are currently engaged in legal cases with computer companies including Microsoft, Intel, Dell, Hewlett-Packard and Netgear which argue that the patent is invalid and should negate any royalties paid to CSIRO for WLAN-based products.[6] The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. ... Buffalo Technology is the wireless networking brand of the Melco Group. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... This article is about the corporation Dell, Inc. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... NETGEAR, founded in 1996, is a manufacturer of computer networking equipment and other computer hardware. ...


Benefits

The popularity of wireless LANs is a testament primarily to their convenience, cost efficiency, and ease of integration with other networks and network components. The majority of computers sold to consumers today come pre-equipped with all necessary wireless LAN technology.


The benefits of wireless LANs include:

  • Convenience: The wireless nature of such networks allows users to access network resources from nearly any convenient location within their primary networking environment (home or office). With the increasing saturation of laptop-style computers, this is particularly relevant.
  • Mobility: With the emergence of public wireless networks, users can access the internet even outside their normal work environment. Most chain coffee shops, for example, offer their customers a wireless connection to the internet at little or no cost.
  • Productivity: Users connected to a wireless network can maintain a nearly constant affiliation with their desired network as they move from place to place. For a business, this implies that an employee can potentially be more productive as his or her work can be accomplished from any convenient location.
  • Deployment: Initial setup of an infrastructure-based wireless network requires little more than a single access point. Wired networks, on the other hand, have the additional cost and complexity of actual physical cables being run to numerous locations (which can even be impossible for hard-to-reach locations within a building).
  • Expandability: Wireless networks can serve a suddenly-increased number of clients with the existing equipment. In a wired network, additional clients would require additional wiring.
  • Cost: Wireless networking hardware is at worst a modest increase from wired counterparts. This potentially increased cost is almost always more than outweighed by the savings in cost and labor associated to running physical cables.

Planet WAP-4000 Wireless Access Point In computer networking, a wireless access point (WAP or AP) is a device that connects wireless communication devices together to form a wireless network. ...

Disadvantages

Wireless LAN technology, while replete with the conveniences and advantages described above, has its share of downfalls. For a given networking situation, wireless LANs may not be desirable for a number of reasons. Most of these have to do with the inherent limitations of the technology.

  • Security: Wireless LAN transceivers are designed to serve computers throughout a structure with uninterrupted service using radio frequencies. Because of space and cost, the antennas typically present on wireless networking cards in the end computers are generally relatively poor. In order to properly receive signals using such limited antennas throughout even a modest area, the wireless LAN transceiver utilizes a fairly considerable amount of power. What this means is that not only can the wireless packets be intercepted by a nearby adversary's poorly-equipped computer, but more importantly, a user willing to spend a small amount of money on a good quality antenna can pick up packets at a remarkable distance; perhaps hundreds of times the radius as the typical user. In fact, there are even computer users dedicated to locating and sometimes even cracking into wireless networks, known as wardrivers. On a wired network, any adversary would first have to overcome the physical limitation of tapping into the actual wires, but this is not an issue with wireless packets. To combat this consideration, wireless networks users usually choose to utilize various encryption technologies available such as Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA). Some of the older encryption methods, such as WEP are known to have weaknesses that a dedicated adversary can compromise. (See main article: Wireless security.)
  • Range: The typical range of a common 802.11g network with standard equipment is on the order of tens of meters. While sufficient for a typical home, it will be insufficient in a larger structure. To obtain additional range, repeaters or additional access points will have to be purchased. Costs for these items can add up quickly. Other technologies are in the development phase, however, which feature increased range, hoping to render this disadvantage irrelevant. (See WiMAX)
  • Reliability: Like any radio frequency transmission, wireless networking signals are subject to a wide variety of interference, as well as complex propagation effects (such as multipath, or especially in this case Rician fading) that are beyond the control of the network administrator. In the case of typical networks, modulation is achieved by complicated forms of phase-shift keying (PSK) or quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), making interference and propagation effects all the more disturbing. As a result, important network resources such as servers are rarely connected wirelessly.
  • Speed: The speed on most wireless networks (typically 1-108 Mbit/s) is reasonably slow compared to the slowest common wired networks (100 Mbit/s up to several Gbit/s). There are also performance issues caused by TCP and its built-in congestion avoidance. For most users, however, this observation is irrelevant since the speed bottleneck is not in the wireless routing but rather in the outside network connectivity itself. For example, the maximum ADSL throughput (usually 8 Mbit/s or less) offered by telecommunications companies to general-purpose customers is already far slower than the slowest wireless network to which it is typically connected. That is to say, in most environments, a wireless network running at its slowest speed is still faster than the internet connection serving it in the first place. However, in specialized environments, the throughput of a wired network might be necessary. Newer standards such as 802.11n are addressing this limitation and will support peak throughputs in the range of 100-200 Mbit/s.

A free public Wi-Fi access point Wardriving is the act of searching for Wi-Fi wireless networks by a person in a moving vehicle using a Wi-Fi-equipped computer, such as a laptop or a PDA. It is similar to using a radio scanner, or to the ham... Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) is a class of systems to secure wireless (Wi-Fi) computer networks. ... Wireless networks are very common, both for organizations and individuals. ... A repeater is an electronic device that receives a weak or low-level signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. ... WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... In communications and especially in telecommunications, an interference is anything which alters, modifies, or disrupts a message as it travels along a channel between a source and a receiver. ... PRIMERGY MultiPath PRIMERGY MultiPath supports redundant Fiber Channel paths, the configured connections between server and subsystem that are such an important component of disaster-tolerant servers and clusters. ... In telecommunication, multipath is the propagation phenomenon that results in radio signals reaching the receiving antenna by two or more paths. ... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing, or modulating, the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). ... “QAM” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... Network congestion avoidance is a process used in computer networks to avoid congestion. ... Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide. ...

Architecture

Stations

All components that can connect into a wireless medium in a network are referred to as stations. All stations are equipped with wireless network interface cards (WNICs). Wireless stations fall into one of two categories: access points and clients. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A transitional network card with both BNC Thinnet (left) and Twisted pair (right) connectors. ... Planet WAP-4000 Wireless Access Point In computer networking, a wireless access point (WAP or AP) is a device that connects wireless communication devices together to form a wireless network. ...

  • Access points
Access points (APs) are base stations for the wireless network. They transmit and receive radio frequencies for wireless enabled devices to communicate with.
  • Clients
Wireless clients can be mobile devices such as laptops, personal digital assistants, IP phones, or fixed devices such as desktops and workstations that are equipped with a wireless network interface.

User with PDA Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. ... how VoIP works A typical analog telephone adapter for connecting an ordinary phone to a VoIP network Ciscos implementation of VoIP - IP Phone Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP, IP Telephony, Internet telephony, Broadband telephony, Broadband Phone and Voice over Broadband is the routing of voice conversations over... Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a computer made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such as laptops or PDAs. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ...

Basic service set

The basic service set (BSS) is a set of all stations that can communicate with each other. There are two types of BSS: independent BSS and infrastructure BSS. Every BSS has an identification (ID) called the BSSID, which is the MAC address of the access point servicing the BSS. In computer networking a Media Access Control address (MAC address) or hardware address or adapter address is a quasi-unique identifier attached to most network adapters (NICs). ...

  • Independent basic service set
An independent BSS is an ad-hoc network that contains no access points, which means they can not connect to any other basic service set.
  • Infrastructure basic service set
An infrastructure BSS can communicate with other stations not in the same basic service set by communicating through access points.

A wireless ad-hoc network, also known as IBSS - Independent Basic Service Set, is a computer network in which the communication links are wireless. ...

Extended service set

An extended service set (ESS) is a set of connected BSSes. Access points in an ESS are connected by a distribution system. Each ESS has an ID called the SSID which is a 32-byte (maximum) character string. For example, "linksys" is the default SSID for Linksys routers.


Distribution system

A distribution system connects access points in an extended service setup.


Types of wireless LANs

Peer-to-peer

Peer-to-Peer or ad-hoc wireless LAN
Peer-to-Peer or ad-hoc wireless LAN

A peer-to-peer (P2P) allows wireless devices to directly communicate with each other. Wireless devices within range of each other can discover and communicate directly without involving central access points. This method is typically used by two computers so that they can connect to each other to form a network. Image File history File links Wlan_adhoc. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ...


If a signal strength meter is used in this situation, it may not read the strength accurately and can be misleading, because it registers the strength of the strongest signal, which may be the closest computer.


802.11 specs define the physical layer (PHY) and MAC (Media Access Control) layers. However, unlike most other IEEE specs, 802.11 includes three alternative PHY standards: diffuse infrared operating at 1 Mbit/s in; frequency-hopping spread spectrum operating at 1 Mbit/s or 2 Mbit/s; and direct-sequence spread spectrum operating at 1 Mbit/s or 2 Mbit/s. A single 802.11 MAC standard is based on CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance). The 802.11 specification includes provisions designed to minimize collisions. Because two mobile units may both be in range of a common access point, but not in range of each other. The 802.11 has two basic modes of operation: Ad hoc mode enables peer-to-peer transmission between mobile units. Infrastructure mode in which mobile units communicate through an access point that serves as a bridge to a wired network infrastructure is the more common wireless LAN application the one being covered. Since wireless communication uses a more open medium for communication in comparison to wired LANs, the 802.11 designers also included a shared-key encryption mechanism, called wired equivalent privacy (WEP), or Wi-Fi Protected Access, (WPA, WPA2) to secure wireless computer networks. Wired Equivalent Privacy or Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP) is a scheme to secure IEEE 802. ... Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) is a class of systems to secure wireless (Wi-Fi) computer networks. ...


Bridge

A bridge can be used to connect networks, typically of different types. A wireless Ethernet bridge allows the connection of devices on a wired Ethernet network to a wireless network. The bridge acts as the connection point to the Wireless LAN. Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ...


Wireless distribution system

When it is difficult to connect all of the access points in a network by wires, it is also possible to put up access points as repeaters. A Wireless Distribution System is a system that enables the interconnection of access points wirelessly. ...


See also

Local area network scheme A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings. ... While the term wireless network may technically be used to refer to any type of network that is wireless, the term is most commonly used to refer to a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires, such as a computer network (which is a... In wireless networks, the exposed node problem occurs when a node is prevented from sending packets to other nodes due to a neighboring transmitter. ... In computer networking, the hidden node problem occurs when a node is visible from a wireless hub, but not from other nodes communicating with said hub. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... There are many Wireless Lan (WLAN)Clients available for use. ... (Also known as ‘traditional’ or ‘best effort’ mesh) A shared mesh is a wireless mesh network that uses a single radio to communicate via mesh backhaul links to all the neighboring nodes in the mesh. ... (Also known as ‘high performance’ mesh) A switched mesh is a wireless mesh network that uses multiple radios to communicate via dedicated mesh backhaul links to each neighboring node in the mesh. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... In May 1991, the first IEEE workshop on Wireless LANs was held at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA. The workshop was scheduled in coordination with a meeting of the IEEE 802. ...

References

  1. ^ Ingersoll, Minnie (2005-11-17). Wi-Fi in Mountain View. Official Google Blog. Google. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  2. ^ Kopytoff,, Verne, Ryan Kim. "Google offers S.F. Wi-Fi -- for free", San Francisco Chronicle, 2005-10-01, p. A-1. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 
  3. ^ History of Wireless. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  4. ^ The First IEEE Workshop on Wireless LANs. Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts, May 9-10, 1991..
  5. ^ The Second IEEE Workshop on Wireless LANs. Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts, October 24-25, 1996..
  6. ^ Mitchell, Selina. "CSIRO hits back on wireless", Australian IT, 2006-09-26. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 

Que. “Comparing 802.11 a, b, and g: Channels and Interference.” Quepublishing. September 9, 2005. <http://www.quepublishing.com/articles/article.asp?p=413459> Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... This article is about the corporation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) is a private university located in Worcester, Massachusetts, in the United States. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) is a private university located in Worcester, Massachusetts, in the United States. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kissane, Simon. “Global System for Mobile Communications.” Wikipedia. 6 February 2007. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_System_for_Mobile_Communications>


“How does satellite Internet operate?” How Stuff Works. <http://computer.howstuffworks.com/question606.htm>


“PC card.” Wikipedia. 9 February 2007. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC_card> is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Webopedia. “Wireless Networking Standards.” Webopedia. September 02, 2005. <http://www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/WLANStandards.asp> By Giriz - VesterDFG September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Petrick, Al and Bob O'Hara. "The IEEE 802.11 Handbook: A Designer's Companion". IEEE. March 2005. <http://www.amazon.com/IEEE-802-11-Handbook-Designers-Companion/dp/0738144495>


WLAN Phishing using SSIDs <http://romanceculture.com/blog/2007/05/thoughts-on-how-to-hack-your-moms-wlan.html>


Lecture on Wireless Lan Hacks at Wright State Uni. <http://www.cs.wright.edu/~pmateti/InternetSecurity/Lectures/WirelessHacks/>


Community and Amateur WLAN "not for proft community internet access" <http://www.wlan.org.uk/>


External links


 
 

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