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Encyclopedia > Wireless

The term wireless is normally used to refer to any type of electrical or electronic operation which is accomplished without the use of a "hard wired" connection. Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires".[1] The distances involved may be short (a few meters as in television remote control) or very long (thousands or even millions of kilometers for radio communications). When the context is clear the term is often simply shortened to "wireless". Wireless communications is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications. The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, elongated strand of drawn metal. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ...


It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless computer mice and keyboards, satellite television and cordless telephones. A two-way radio is simply a radio that can both transmit and receive (a transceiver). ... Cell phone redirects here. ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... While the term wireless network may technically be used to refer to any type of computer network that is wireless, the term is most commonly used to refer to a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires, such as a computer network (which is... GPS redirects here. ... A garage door opener is a motorized device that opens and closes garage doors. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Introduction to Wireless

Handheld wireless radios such as this Maritime VHF radio transceiver use electromagnetic waves to implement a form of wireless communications technology.
Handheld wireless radios such as this Maritime VHF radio transceiver use electromagnetic waves to implement a form of wireless communications technology.

Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g., radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light, visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires.[2] Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 217 × 289 pixelsFull resolution (217 × 289 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/png) Resized image at http://upload. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 217 × 289 pixelsFull resolution (217 × 289 pixel, file size: 89 KB, MIME type: image/png) Resized image at http://upload. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ...


Wireless communication

The term "wireless" has become a generic and all-encompassing word used to describe communications in which electromagnetic waves or RF (rather than some form of wire) carry a signal over part or the entire communication path. Common examples of wireless equipment in use today include: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

  • Professional LMR (Land Mobile Radio) and SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio) typically used by business, industrial and Public Safety entities
  • Consumer Two Way Radio including FRS (Family Radio Service), GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) and Citizens band ("CB") radios
  • The Amateur Radio Service (Ham radio)
  • Consumer and professional Marine VHF radios
  • Cellular telphones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both personal and business.
  • Global Positioning System (GPS): allows drivers of cars and trucks, captains of boats and ships, and pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth.
  • Cordless computer peripherals: the cordless mouse is a common example; keyboards and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless.
  • Cordless telephone sets: these are limited-range devices, not to be confused with cell phones.
  • Satellite television: allows viewers in almost any location to select from hundreds of channels.

Wireless networking (i.e. the various flavors of unlicensed 2.4 GHz WiFi devices) is used to meet a variety of needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from location to location. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via satellite. A wireless transmission method is a logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change locations. The following situations justify the use of wireless technology:

  • To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling,
  • To avoid obstacles such as physical structures, EMI, or RFI,
  • To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure,
  • To link portable or temporary workstations,
  • To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or
  • To remotely connect mobile users or networks.


Wireless communication may be via:

  • radio frequency communication,
  • microwave communication, for example long-range line-of-sight via highly directional antennas, or short-range communication, or
  • infrared (IR) short-range communication, for example from remote controls or via IRDA,

Applications may involve point-to-point communication, point-to-multipoint communication, broadcasting , cellular networks and other wireless networks. This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Remote control (disambiguation). ... The initials IRDA can refer to various things: In Information Technology and Communications, IrDA refers to Infrared Data Association, a standard for communication between devices (such as computers, PDAs and mobile phones) over short distances using infrared signals. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... While the term wireless network may technically be used to refer to any type of computer network that is wireless, the term is most commonly used to refer to a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires, such as a computer network (which is...


The term "wireless" should not be confused with the term "cordless", which is generally used to refer to powered electrical or electronic devices that are able to operate from a portable power source (e.g., a battery pack) without any cable or cord to limit the mobility of the cordless device through a connection to the mains power supply. Some cordless devices, such as cordless telephones, are also wireless in the sense that information is transferred from the cordless telephone to the telephone's base unit via some type of wireless communications link. This has caused some disparity in the usage of the term "cordless", for example in Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications. The term cordless literally means without a cord and is generally used to refer to powered electrical or electronic devices that are able to operate from a portable power source (e. ... In telecommunications a link is the communications channel that connects two or more communicating devices. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the last 50 years, wireless communications industry experienced drastic changes driven by many technology innovations.


History

Further information: History of radio

The term "Wireless" came into public use to refer to a radio receiver or transceiver (a dual purpose receiver and transmitter device), establishing its usage in the field of wireless telegraphy early on; now the term is used to describe modern wireless connections such as in cellular networks and wireless broadband Internet. It is also used in a general sense to refer to any type of operation that is implemented without the use of wires, such as "wireless remote control", "wireless energy transfer", etc. regardless of the specific technology (e.g., radio, infrared, ultrasonic, etc.) that is used to accomplish the operation. For the controversy about who invented radio, see Invention of radio. ... A transceiver is a device that has both a transmitter and a receiver which are combined in to one. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, approximately 20 kilohertz. ...


Early wireless work

David E. Hughes, eight years before Hertz's experiments, induced electromagnetic waves in a signaling system. Hughes transmitted Morse code by an induction apparatus. In 1878, Hughes's induction transmission method utilized a "clockwork transmitter" to transmit signals. In 1885, T. A. Edison uses a vibrator magnet for induction transmission. In 1888, Edison deploys a system of signaling on the Lehigh Valley Railroad. In 1891, Edison attains the wireless patent for this method using inductance (U.S. Patent 465,971 ). David E. Hughes David Edward Hughes (16 May 1831 – 22 January 1900) was an accomplished musician and a professor of music as well as chair of natural philosophy at a ladies seminary in Bardstown, Kentucky. ... For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ...


In the history of wireless technology, the demonstration of the theory of electromagnetic waves by Heinrich Rudolf Hertz in 1888 was important.[3][4] The theory of electromagnetic waves were predicted from the research of James Clerk Maxwell and Michael Faraday. Hertz demonstrated that electromagnetic waves could be transmitted and caused to travel through space at straight lines and that they were able to be received by an experimental apparatus.[3][4] The experiments were not followed up by Hertz and the practical applications of the wireless communication and remote control technology would be implemented by Nikola Tesla. Electromagnetic radiation is a propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894) was the German physicist and mechanician for whom the hertz, an SI unit, is named. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... In telecommunications, transmission is the act of transmitting electrical messages (and the associated phenomena of radiant energy that passes through media). ... In radio terminology, a receiver is an electronic circuit that receives a radio signal from an antenna and decodes the signal for use as sound, pictures, navigational-position information, etc. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ...


The electromagnetic spectrum

Light, colours, AM and FM radio, and electronic devices make use of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the US the frequencies that are available for use for communication are treated as a public resource and are regulated by the Federal Communications Commission. This determines which frequency ranges can be used for what purpose and by whom. In the absence of such control or alternative arrangements such as a privatized electromagnetic spectrum, chaos might result if, for example, airlines didn't have specific frequencies to work under and an amateur radio operator was interfering with the pilot's ability to land an airplane. Wireless communication spans the spectrum from 9 kHz to 300 GHz. (Also see Spectrum management) FCC redirects here. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... The spectrum is a conceptual tool used to organize and map the physical phenomena of electromagnetic waves. ...


Applications of wireless technology

Security systems

Wireless technology may supplement or replace hard wired implementations in security systems for homes or office buildings

Television remote control

Modern televisions use wireless (generally infrared) remote control units. Now we also use radio waves.


Cellular telephones

Perhaps the best known example of wireless technology is the cellular telephone. These instruments use radio waves to enable the operator to make phone calls from many locations world-wide. They can be used anywhere that there is a cellular telephone site to house the equipment that is required to transmit and receive the signal that is used to transfer both voice and data to and from these instruments.

Environmental concerns and health hazards

Recently there have been concerns risen and research conducted concerning usage of wireless communications and its possible relation to poor concentration, memory loss, nausea, premature senility and even cancer.[5][6][7] For mobile phones see Mobile phone radiation and health With the focus on health concerns of mobile phones, people are also beginning to question the health risks of other wireless devices now being increasingly used at work and in the home, such as wireless local area networks, wireless phones, Bluetooth...


On the PBS show Nature there was a show dedicated to Colony Collapse Disorder where there was mention of some blame on the phenomenon of missing bees particularly due to the wide use of cellphones as the cause of the collapse.[8] However, one interviewed person asserted that the cellphones were not the cause due to misinterpreted report.[9] Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Nature is a long-running wildlife television program produced by Thirteen/WNET New York. ... Honey bees entering a beehive. ...


On the basis of current evidence, the HPA does not consider there to be a problem with the safety of WLAN. If an explicit statement that exposures are within the ICNIRP guidelines is required, this would have to be obtained from the manufacturers; however, it could be argued that this is implicit in the CE marking.


Categories of wireless implementations, devices and standards

Look up Wireless in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... A modern GE cordless telephone, model 26930 A cordless telephone or portable telephone is a telephone with a wireless handset which communicates via radio waves with a base station connected to a fixed telephone line (POTS) and can only be operated near (typically less than 100 meters) its base station... See http://en. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... 0G refers to pre-cellular mobile telephony technology. ... 1G (or 1-G) is short for first-generation wireless telephone technology, cellphones. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, superseding 2G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the International Mobile Telecommunications programme, IMT-2000. // Main article: IMT-2000 International Telecommunications Union (ITU): IMT-2000 consists of six radio interfaces W-CDMA... This article is about the mobile phone standard. ... 5G is short for fifth-generation communication system, and is envisioned as the REAL wireless world [1]. 5G should make an important difference and add more services and benefit to the world over 4G → 5G should be a more intelligent technology that interconnects the entire world without limits. ... A wireless microphone, as the name implies, is a microphone without a physical cable connecting it directly to the sound recording or amplifying equipment with which it is associated. ... For other uses, see Remote control (disambiguation). ... This article is about an Infrared communications protocol. ... An EPC RFID tag used for Wal-Mart Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. ... Wireless USB is a short-range, high-bandwidth wireless extension to USB that combines the speed and ease-of-use of USB 2. ... DSRC or Dedicated Short Range Communications is a short to medium range wireless protocol specifically designed for automotive use. ... EnOcean GmbH is a spin-off company of Siemens AG founded in 2001. ... An NFC mobile phone interacting with a smart poster Near Field Communication or NFC, is a short-range wireless technology which enables the communication between devices over a short distance (hands width). ... “WSN” redirects here. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... EnOcean GmbH is a spin-off company of Siemens AG founded in 2001. ... A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person. ... Bluetooth logo This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald Bluetooth Gormson. ... Ultra-wideband (also UWB, and ultra-wide-band, ultra-wide band, etc. ... The WiMedia Alliance is a not-for-profit open industry association that promotes and enables the rapid adoption, regulation, standardization and multi-vendor interoperability of ultra-wideband (UWB) worldwide. ... Wireless networks are telephone or computer networks that use radio as their carrier or physical layer. ... The notebook is connected to the wireless access point using a PCMCIA wireless card. ... IEEE 802. ... Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ... HIPERLAN (HIgh PErformance Radio LAN) is a Wireless LAN standard. ... Local Multipoint Distribution Service is a broadband wireless access technology, operating between the 26GHz and 29GHz bands. ... Official WiMax logo WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... HIPERMAN stands for High Performance Radio Metropolitan Area Network and is a standard created by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN) group to provide a wireless network communication in the 2 - 11 GHz bands across Europe and other countries which follow the ETSI standard. ...

See also

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Look up Mobile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the controversy about who invented radio, see Invention of radio. ... The timeline of radio lists within the history of radio, the technology and events that produced instruments that use radio waves and activies that people undertook. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Radio resource management (RRM) is the system level control of radio transmission characteristics in wireless communication systems, for example cellular networks, wireless networks and broadcasting systems. ... Wireless telegraphy is the practice of remote writing (see telegraphy) without the wires normally involved in an electrical telegraph. ... Hotspots are locations where you can have access from mobile computers (such as a laptop or a PDA) without connection cables to networked services such as the internet. ... An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ... True wireless refers to WWAN connectivity. ... Wireless networks are very common, both for organizations and individuals. ... A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person. ... The following is a comparison of various wireless data access standards and their performance by several different measures. ... This is a list of emerging technologies. ...

References

  1. ^ Wireless Communication. sintef.no. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  2. ^ ATIS Telecom Glossary 2007. atis.org. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  3. ^ a b Story, Alfred Thomas (1904). A story of wireless telegraphy. New York, D. Appleton and Co.. 
  4. ^ a b Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. chem.ch.huji.ac.il. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
  5. ^ "Electromagnetic fields". World Health Organization. Last retrieved September 24, 2007.
  6. ^ "Consensus Statement on Electromagnetic Radiation (Draft)". Collaborative on Health and the Environment. October 10, 2006.
  7. ^ United Kingdom National Physics Laboratory report.
  8. ^ Bees Vanish, and Scientists Race for Reasons. New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  9. ^ FYI: What's Happening To The Bees?. CBS. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Wikia has a wiki on this subject: wireless
  • Wireless Glossary
  • U.S. Patent 1,642,420 , S. Loewe, "Wireless Receiving Apparatus"
  • U.S. Patent 1,754,875 , E. E. Clement, "Radiophone desk set"
Wikia (no official pronunciation[2]; originally Wikicities) is a selective wiki hosting service (or wiki farm) operated by Wikia, Inc. ...

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