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Encyclopedia > Wire rope
Steel wire rope (right hand lay)
Steel wire rope (right hand lay)

Wire rope consists of several strands laid (or 'twisted') together like a helix. Each strand is likewise made of metal wires laid together like a helix. Initially wrought iron wires were used, but today steel is the main material used for wire ropes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1366x1708, 2319 KB) Description: Steel Wire rope of the the German colliery Zeche Zollern headgear Source: Taken with an OLYMPUS C2500L Date: 16. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1366x1708, 2319 KB) Description: Steel Wire rope of the the German colliery Zeche Zollern headgear Source: Taken with an OLYMPUS C2500L Date: 16. ... A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, elongated strand of drawn metal. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is an alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ...

Contents

History & materials

Modern wire rope was invented by the German mining engineer Wilhelm Albert in the years between 1831 and 1834 for use in mining in the Harz Mountains in Clausthal, Lower Saxony, Germany. It was quickly accepted because it proved superior to ropes made of hemp or to metal chains, such as had been used before. This article is about mineral extraction. ... Wilhelm August Julius Albert (January 24, 1787 - July 4, 1846) was a German mining adminstrator, best remembered as the first person to record observations of metal fatigue. ... The Harz is a mountain range in northern Germany. ... Clausthal-Zellerfeld is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Look up chain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Wilhelm Albert's first ropes consisted of wires twisted about a hemp rope core, six such strands then being twisted around another hemp rope core in alternating directions for extra stability. Earlier forms of wire rope had been made by covering a bundle of wires with hemp. U.S. Marijuana production permit, from the film Hemp for Victory. ...


In America wire rope was later manufactured by John A. Roebling, forming the basis for his success in suspension bridge building. Roebling introduced a number of innovations in the design, materials and manufacture of wire rope. John Augustus Roebling (born Johann August Röbling, June 12, 1806 in Mühlhausen - July 22, 1869) was a German-born civil engineer famous for his wire rope suspension bridge designs, in particular, the design of the Brooklyn Bridge. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been made since ancient times as early as CE 100. ...


Manufacturing a wire rope is similar to making one from natural fibres. The individual wires are first twisted into a strand, then six or so such strands again twisted around a core. This core may consist of steel, but also of natural fibres such as sisal, manila, henequen, jute, or hemp. This is used to cushion off stress forces when bending the rope. Binomial name Agave sisalana Perrine Sisal or sisal hemp is an agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff fiber used in making rope. ... Manila hemp, also known as manilla, is a type of fiber obtained from the leaves of the abaca (Musa textilis), a relative of the banana. ... Binomial name Agave fourcroydes Lem. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ...


This flexibility is particularly vital in ropes used in machinery such as cranes or elevators as well as ropes used in transportation modes such as cable cars, cable railways, funiculars and aerial lifts. It is not quite so essential in suspension bridges and similar uses. A tower crane with a pivoted main boom Cranes on the Sheksna River, Cherepovets, Russia A worker telecommanding a crane from the ground A crane is a machine equipped with hoists, wire ropes and sheaves that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. ... A set of lifts (elevators) in the lower level of a London Underground station. ... Cable Car in San Francisco A San Francisco cable car A cable car or cable railway is a mass transit system using rail cars that are propelled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed. ... Cable railways are railways with very steep gradients and use stationary engines to haul the wagons up and down the hills. ... Angels Flight, Los Angeles, California with gantlet track configuration Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania with full length parallel tracks The Gütschbahn in Lucerne, Switzerland – from an 1893 guidebook A funicular, also called funicular railway, inclined railway, inclined plane, or, in the United Kingdom, a cliff railway, is a system of... An aerial lift is a means of transport in which gondolas or open chairs are hauled above the ground by means of a cable. ...


Lay of wire rope

Left-hand ordinary lay (LHOL)wire rope
Left-hand ordinary lay (LHOL)wire rope
Right-hand Lang's lay (RHLL)wire rope
Right-hand Lang's lay (RHLL)wire rope

The lay of a wire rope describes the manner in which either the wires in a strand, or the strands in the rope, are laid in a helix. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1469x777, 330 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wire rope ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1469x777, 330 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wire rope ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1850x978, 439 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wire rope ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1850x978, 439 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wire rope ...


Left & right hand lay

Left hand lay or right hand lay describe the manner in which the strands are laid to form the rope. To determine the lay of strains in the rope, look at the rope as it points away from you. If the strands appear to turn in a clockwise direction, or like a right-hand thread, as the strands get further away from you, then the rope is a right hand lay. The picture of steel wire rope on this page shows a rope with right hand lay. If the strands appear to turn in an anti-clockwise direction, or like a left-hand thread, as the strands get further away from you, then the rope is a left hand lay.


Ordinary, Lang's & alternate lay

Ordinary and Lang's lay describe the manner in which the wires are laid to form a strand of the wire rope. To determine which has been used first identify if left or right hand lay has been used to make the rope. Then identify if a right or left hand lay has been used to twist the wires in each strand.

Ordinary lay The lay of wires in each strand is in the opposite direction to the lay of the strands that form the wire.
Lang's lay The lay of wires in each strand is in the same direction as the lay of the strands that form the wire.
Alternate lay The lay of wires in the strands alternate around the rope between being in the opposite and same direction to the lay of the strands that form the wire rope.
Regular lay Alternate term for ordinary lay.
Albert's lay Archaic term for Lang's lay.
Reverse lay Alternate term for Alternate lay.
Spring lay This is not a term used to classify a lay as defined in this section. It refers to a specific construction type of wire rope.

Construction & specification

Wire rope construction
Wire rope construction
This image of a fraying wire rope shows some individual wires.
This image of a fraying wire rope shows some individual wires.

The specification of a wire rope type, including the number of wires per strand, the number of strands, and the lay of the rope, are is documented using a commonly accepted coding system, consisting of a number of abbreviations. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (595x776, 60 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wire rope ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (595x776, 60 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wire rope ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x1067, 190 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wire rope Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x1067, 190 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wire rope Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to...


This is easily demonstrated with a simple example. The rope shown in the figure "Wire rope contruction" is designated:

6x19 FC RH OL FSWR

6 Number of strands that make up the rope
19 Number of wires that make up each strand
FC Fibre core
RH Right hand lay
OL Ordinary lay
FSWR Flexible steel wire rope

Each of the sections of the wire rope designation described above is variable. There are therefore a large number of combinations of wire rope that can be specified in this manner. The following abbreviations are commonly used to specify a wire rope.

Abbr. Description
FC Fibre core
FSWR Flexible steel wire rope
FW Filler wire
IWR Independent wire rope
IWRC Independent wire rope core
J Jute (fibre)
LH Left hand lay
LL Lang's lay
NR Non-rotating
OL Ordinary lay
RH Right hand lay
S Seale
SF Seale filler wire
SW Seale Warrington
SWL Safe working load
TS Triangular strand
W Warrington
WF Warriflex
WLL Working load limit
WS Warrington Seale

Terminations

RHOL wire rope terminated in a loop with a thimble and ferrule
RHOL wire rope terminated in a loop with a thimble and ferrule

The end of a wire rope tends to fray readily, and cannot be easily connected to plant and equipment. A number of different mechanisms exist to secure the ends of wire ropes to make them more useful. The most common and useful type of end fitting for a wire rope is when the end is turned back to form a loop. The loose end is then fixed by any number of methods back to the wire rope. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1557x462, 190 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wire rope ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1557x462, 190 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wire rope ...


Thimbles

When the wire rope is terminated with a loop, there is a risk that the wire rope can bend too tightly, especially when the loop is connected to a device that spreads the load over a relatively small area. A thimble can be installed inside the loop to preserve the natural shape of the loop, and protect the cable from pinching and abrasion on the inside of the loop. The use of thimbles in loops is industry best practice.

 thimble prevents the load to come into direct contact with wires. 

Wire Rope Clamps (or Wire Rope Clips)

A wire rope clamp is used to fix the loose end of the loop back to the wire rope. It usually consists of a u-shaped bolt, a forged saddle and two nuts. The two layers of wire rope are placed in the u-bolt. The saddle is then fitted over the ropes on to the bolt (the saddle includes two holes to fit to the saddle). The nuts secure the arrangement in place. Three or more clamps are usually used to terminate a wire rope.


Swaged Terminations

Swaging is a method of wire rope termination that refers to the installation technique. A metal sleeve is fitted over the two wire rope ends, and a mechanical or hydraulic tool compresses and deforms the fitting, creating a permanent joint. Swaging is a metal forming technique in which the metal is plastically deformed to its final shape using high pressures. ...


A ferrule is a type of swaged joint.


Sockets

A socket termination is useful when the fitting needs to be replaced frequently. For example, if the end of a wire rope is in a high-wear region, the rope may be periodically trimmed, requiring the termination hardware to be removed and reapplied. An example of this is on the ends of the drag ropes on a dragline. The end loop of the wire rope enters a tapered opening in the socket, wrapped around a separate component called the wedge. The arrangment is knocked in place, and load gradually eased onto the rope. As the load increases on the wire rope, the wedge become more secure, gripping the rope tighter. Dragline excavation systems are heavy equipment used in civil engineering and surface mining. ...


Eyesplice

An eyesplice may be used to terminate the loose end of a wire rope when forming a loop. The strands of the end of a wire rope are unwound a certain distance, and plaited back into the wire rope, forming the loop, or an eye, called an Eye splice. The eye splice is the best method of creating a permanent loop in the end of three stranded rope by means of rope splicing. ...


Codes & standards

Australia

The following Australian Standards apply to wire rope:

  • AS 1138-1992 Thimbles for wire rope
  • AS 1394-2001 Round steel wire for ropes
  • AS 1666.1-1995 Wire-rope slings - Product specification
  • AS 1666.2-1995 Wire-rope slings - Care and use
  • AS 2076-1996 Wire-rope grips for non-lifting applications
  • AS 2759-2004 Steel wire rope - Use, operation and maintenance
  • AS 3569-1989 Steel wire ropes
  • AS/NZS 4812-2003 Non-destructive examination and discard criteria for wire ropes in mine winding systems

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wire rope. - 1919.79 (143 words)
Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same construction as originally furnished by the equipment manufacturer or contemplated in the design, unless otherwise recommended by the equipment or the wire rope manufacturer due to actual working condition requirements.
In the absence of specific requirements as noted, wire rope shall be of a size and construction suitable for the purpose, and a safety factor of 4 shall be adhered to, and verified by wire rope test certificate.
Wire rope in use on equipment previously constructed and prior to initial certification of said equipment shall not be required to be tested, but shall be subject to thorough examination at the time of initial certification of the equipment.
Wire rope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (304 words)
Modern wire rope was invented by the German mining engineer Wilhelm Albert in the years between 1831 and 1834 for use in mining in the Harz Mountains in Clausthal, Lower Saxony, Germany.
In America wire rope was later manufactured by John Roebling, forming the basis for his success in suspension bridge building.
This flexibility is particularly vital in ropes used in machinery such as cranes or elevators as well as ropes used in transportation modes such as cable cars, cable railways, funiculars and aerial lifts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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