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Encyclopedia > Wire
Wires

A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, elongated string of drawn metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads and to carry electricity and telecommunications signals. Standard sizes are determined by various wire gauges. The term wire is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in 'multistranded wire', which is more correctly termed a cable. Wire may mean: Wire, a strand of drawn metal used especially in electrical conductors (see also Electrical wiring) The Wire (television), an American television show The Wire (magazine), a British music magazine Wire (band), a British post-punk band Wire (album), by the band Third Day WIRE-CA, a TV... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 461 KB)Author: Augusto Starita File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 461 KB)Author: Augusto Starita File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... Drawing is a manufacturing process for producing a wire, bar or tube by pulling on a material until it increases in length. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Load may mean: Look up Load in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... “Standard” redirects here. ... Look up size in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wire gauge is a measurement of how large a wire is, either in diameter or cross-sectional area. ... For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

In antiquity, jewelery often contains, in the form of chains and applied decoration, large amounts of wire that is accurately made and which must have been produced by some efficient, if not technically advanced, means. In some cases, strips cut from metal sheet were made by pulling them through perforations in stone beads. This causes the strips to fold round on themselves to form thin tubes. This strip drawing technique was in use in Egypt by the 2nd Dynasty. From the middle of the 2nd millennium BC most of the gold wires in jewelery are characterized by seam lines that follow a spiral path along the wire. Such twisted strips can be converted into solid round wires by rolling them between flat surfaces or the strip wire drawing method. Strip and block twist wire manufacturing methods were still in use in Europe in the 7th century AD, but by this time there seems to be some evidence of wires produced by true drawing. “Ancient” redirects here. ... Jewellery (spelled jewelry in American English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... History of Ancient Egypt Second Dynasty The names of the actual rulers of the Second Dynasty are in dispute. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (6th century - 7th century - 8th century _ other centuries) Events The religion of Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is revealed, and Arabs spread Islam into Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia. ... Draw plate front Draw plate back Draw plate top edge Draw plates are used to draw wire to make it thinner. ...


Square and hexagonal wires were possibly made using a swaging technique. In this method a metal rod was struck between grooved metal blocks, or between a grooved punch and a grooved metal anvil. Swaging is of great antiquity, possibly dating to the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC in Egypt and in the Bronze and Iron Ages in Europe for torches and fibulae. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... This article is about portable open fires. ... Aquamarine, platinum, and diamond brooch/pendant worn by Mrs. ...


Twisted square section wires are a very common filigree decoration in early Etruscan jewelery. Filigree (formerly written filigrann or filigrane) is a jewel work of a delicate kind made with twisted threads usually of gold and silver. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ...


In about the middle of the 2nd millennium BC a new category of decorative wires was introduced which imitated a line of granules. Perhaps the earliest such wire is the notched wire which first occurs from the late 3rd, early 2nd millennium BC in Anatolia and occasionally later. The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


Wire was drawn in England from the medieval period. The wire was used to make wool cards and pins, manufactured goods whose import was prohibited by Edward IV in 1463.[1] The first wire mill in Great Britain was established at Tintern in about 1568 by the founders of the Company of Mineral and Battery Works, who had a monopoly on this.[2] Apart from their second wire mill at nearby Whitebrook,[3] there were no other wire mills before the second half of the 17th century. Despite the existence of mills, the drawing of wire down to fine sizes continued to be done manually. Draw plate front Draw plate back Draw plate top edge Draw plates are used to draw wire to make it thinner. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... The River Wye viewed from a former railway bridge with Tintern village in the background Tintern is a village on the River Wye in Monmouthshire, Wales, close to the border with England, at Grid reference SO530000. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... The Company of Mineral and Battery Works was (with the Society of Mines Royal) one of two mining monopolies created by Queen Elizabeth I in the mid 1560s. ... This article is about the economic term. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Wire is usually drawn of cylindrical form; but it may be made of any desired section by varying the outline of the holes in the draw-plate through which it is passed in the process of manufacture. The draw-plate or die is a piece of hard cast-iron or hard steel, or for fine work it may be a diamond or a ruby. The object of utilizing precious stones is to enable the dies to be used for a considerable period without losing their size, and so producing wire of incorrect diameter. Diamond dies must be rebored when they have lost their original diameter of hole, but the metal dies are brought down to size again by hammering up the hole and then drifting it out to correct diameter with a punch. Draw plate front Draw plate back Draw plate top edge Draw plates are used to draw wire to make it thinner. ... Look up die in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the mineral. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


Uses

Wire has many uses. It forms the raw material of many important manufacturers, such as the wire-net industry, wire-cloth making and wire-rope spinning, in which it occupies a place analogous to a textile fiber. Wire-cloth of all degrees of strength and fineness of mesh is used for sifting and screening machinery, for draining paper pulp, for window screens, and for many other purposes. Vast quantities of aluminum, copper, nickel and steel wire are employed for telephone and data wires and cables, and as conductors in electric power transmission, and heating. It is in no less demand for fencing, and much is consumed in the construction of suspension bridges, and cages, etc. In the manufacture of stringed musical instruments and scientific instruments wire is again largely used. Among its other sources of consumption it is sufficient to mention pin and hair-pin making, the needle and fish-hook industries, nail, peg and rivet making, and carding machinery; indeed there are few industries into which it does not enter. Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Power line redirects here. ...


Not all metals and metallic alloys possess the physical properties necessary to make useful wire. The metals must in the first place be ductile and strong in tension, the quality on which the utility of wire principally depends. The metals suitable for wire, possessing almost equal ductility, are platinum, silver, iron, copper, aluminum and gold; and it is only from these and certain of their alloys with other metals, principally brass and bronze, that wire is prepared. By careful treatment extremely thin wire can be produced. Special purpose wire is however made from other metals (e.g. tungsten wire for light bulb and vacuum tube filaments, because of its high melting temperature). An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Ductility is the physical property of being capable of sustaining large plastic deformations without fracture (in metals, such as being drawn into a wire). ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Brazen redirects here. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...


Production

Main article: wire drawing
Wire mill, 1913. National Archives of Canada
Wire mill, 1913. National Archives of Canada

Wire is often reduced to the desired diameter and properties by repeated drawing through progressively smaller dies, or traditionally holes in draw plates. The wire may be heated to red heat in an inert atmosphere to soften it, and then cooled, in a process called annealing. An inert atmosphere is used to prevent oxidation, although some scaling always occurs and must be removed by 'pickling' before the wire is redrawn. Draw plate front Draw plate back Draw plate top edge Draw plates are used to draw wire to make it thinner. ... Draw plate front Draw plate back Draw plate top edge Draw plates are used to draw wire to make it thinner. ... For other uses, see Annealing. ...


An important point in wire-drawing is that of lubrication to facilitate the operation and to lessen the wear on the dies. Various lubricants, such as oil, are employed. Another lubrication method is to immerse the wire in a copper (II) sulfate solution, such that a film of copper is deposited which forms a kind of lubricant; this eases the wire-drawing considerably. In some classes of wire the copper is left after the final drawing to serve as a preventive of rust or to allow easy soldering. Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... Copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4) is the most common copper salt, made by the action of sulfuric acid on the base copper oxide. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ...


The wire-drawing machines include means for holding the dies accurately in position and for drawing the wire steadily through the holes. The usual design consists of a cast-iron bench or table having a bracket standing up to hold the die, and a vertical drum which rotates and by coiling the wire around its surface pulls it through the die, the coil of wire being stored upon another drum or "swift" which lies behind the die and reels off the wire as fast as required. The wire drum or "block" is provided with means for rapidly coupling or uncoupling it to its vertical shaft, so that the motion of the wire may be stopped or started instantly. The block is also tapered, so that the coil of wire may be easily slipped off upwards when finished. Before the wire can be attached to the block, a sufficient length of it must be pulled through the die; this is effected by a pair of gripping pincers on the end of a chain which is wound around a revolving drum, so drawing the pincers along, and with them the wire, until enough is through the die to be coiled two or three times on the block, where the end is secured by a small screw clamp or vice ready for the drawing operation. Wire has to be pointed or made smaller in diameter at the end before it can be passed through the die; the pointing is done by hammering, filing, rolling or swaging in dies, which effect a reduction in diameter. When the wire is on the block the latter is set in motion and the wire is drawn steadily through the die; it is very important that the block shall rotate evenly and that it shall run true and pull the wire in an even manner, otherwise the "snatching" which occurs will break the wire, or at least weaken it in spots.


Continuous wire-drawing machines differ from the single-block machines in having a series of dies through which the wire passes in a continuous manner. The difficulty of feeding between each die is solved by introducing a block between each, so that as the wire issues it coils around the block and is so helped on to the next die. The speeds of the blocks are increased successively, so that the elongation due to drawing is taken up and slip compensated for. The operation of threading the wire first through all the dies and around the blocks is termed "stringing-up." The arrangements for lubrication include a pump which floods the dies, and in many cases also the bottom portions of the blocks run in lubricant. The speeds at which the wire travels vary greatly, according to the material and the amount of reduction effected.


Finishing, jacketing, and insulating

Electrical wires are covered with various insulating materials, such as plastic or rubber-like polymers. Two or more insulated wires are wrapped concentrically and further protected with substances like paraffin, some kind of preservative compound, bitumen or lead sheathing or steel taping. Stranding or covering machines wind material onto the wire, which passes through quickly. Some of the smallest machines for cotton covering have a large drum, which grips the wire and moves it through toothed gears; the wire passes through the centre of disks mounted above a long bed, and the disks carry each a number of bobbins varying from six to twelve or more in different machines. A supply of covering material is wound on each bobbin, and the end is led on to the wire, which occupies a central position relatively to the bobbins; the latter being revolved at a suitable speed bodily with their disks, the cotton is consequently served on to the wire, winding in spiral fashion so as to overlap. If a large number of strands are required the disks are duplicated, so that as many as sixty spools may be carried, the second set of strands being laid over the first.

Coaxial Cable, one example of a jacketed and insulated wire.
Coaxial Cable, one example of a jacketed and insulated wire.

For the heavier cables, used for electric light and power, and submarine cables, the machines are somewhat different in construction. The wire is still carried through a hollow shaft, but the bobbins or spools of covering material are set with their spindles at right angles to the axis of the wire, and they lie in a circular cage which rotates on rollers below. The various strands coming from the spools at various parts of the circumference of the cage all lead to a disk at the end of the hollow shaft. This disk has perforations through which each of the strands pass, thence being immediately wrapped on the cable, which slides through a bearing at this point. Toothed gears having certain definite ratios are used to cause the winding drum for the cable and the cage for the spools to rotate at suitable relative speeds which do not vary. The cages are multiplied for stranding with a large number of tapes or strands, so that a machine may have six bobbins on one cage and twelve on the other. Photo of RG-59 cable, taken and annotated by Heron 20:15, 6 Oct 2004 (UTC). ... Photo of RG-59 cable, taken and annotated by Heron 20:15, 6 Oct 2004 (UTC). ... Coaxial Cable For the weapon, see coaxial weapon. ... Most of the industrialized world is lit by electric lights, which are used both at night and to provide additional light during the daytime. ...


Insulating and jacketing of wires and cables is done by passing them through an extruder. Since the mid-1960s, the insulation has been plastic or polymers exhibiting properties similar to rubber. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ...


Types of wire

Solid

Solid wire or solid-core wire consists of one piece of metal wire. Solid single strand wire is cheaper to manufacture than stranded wire and is used where there is no need for flexibility in the wire. Solid wire also provides strength and protection against the environment.


Stranded

Stranded copper wire
Stranded copper wire

Stranded wire is composed of a bundle of small-gauge wires to make a larger conductor, which may optionally be insulated. Stranded wire is more flexible than a solid strand of the same total gauge. Stranded conductors are commonly used for electrical applications carrying small signals, such as computer mouse cables, and for power cables between a movable appliance and its power source; for example, sweepers, table lamps, powered hand tools, welding electrode cables, mining machines and trailing machine cables. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 597 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (661 × 664 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Image:Stripped wire. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 597 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (661 × 664 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Image:Stripped wire. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...


At high frequencies, current travels near the surface of the wire because of the skin effect, resulting in increased power loss in the wire. Stranded wire might seem to reduce this effect, since the total surface area of the strands is greater than the surface area of the equivalent solid wire, but in fact a simple stranded wire will in fact have worse skin effect than a solid wire, because of its increased average resistivity, due to inclusion of air gaps within the wire. The skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to distribute itself within a conductor so that the current density near the surface of the conductor is greater than that at its core. ...


However, for many high-frequency applications, proximity effect is more severe than skin effect, and in some limited cases, simple stranded wire can reduce proximity effect. For better performance at high frequencies, litz wire, which has the individual strands insulated and twisted in special patterns, can be used. A changing magnetic field will influence the distribution of an electric current flowing within an electrical conductor. ... The skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to distribute itself within a conductor so that the current density near the surface of the conductor is greater than that at its core. ... Litz wire is a special type of wire used in electronics. ...


See also

Look up Wire in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation). ... Chicken wire Chicken wire, or poultry netting, is a mesh of wire, generally used for making fences. ... Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity, and associated devices. ... Litz wire is a special type of wire used in electronics. ... Image:Scheermes-prikkeldraad. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Wire gauge is a measurement of how large a wire is, either in diameter or cross-sectional area. ... A chain link fence. ... Steel wire rope (right hand lay) Wire rope consists of several strands laid (or twisted) together like a helix. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  1. ^ H. R. Schubert, 'The wiredrawers of Bristol' Journal Iron & Steel Inst. 159 (1948), 16-22.
  2. ^ M. B. Donald, Elizabethan Monopolies: Company of Mineral and Battery Works (Olver & Boyd, Edinburgh 1961), 95-141.
  3. ^ D. G. Tucker, 'The seventeenth century wireworks at Whitebrook, Monmouthshire' Bull. Hist. Metall. Gp 7(1) (1973), 28-35.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Wire Gauge to Diameter—Diameter to Wire Gauge Converter - Online calculator converts gauge to diameter or diameter to gauge for any wire size.

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Another method is to immerse the wire in a copper (II) sulfate solution, so that a film of copper is deposited which forms a kind of lubricant, easing the drawing considerably; in some classes of wire the copper is left after the final drawing to serve as a preventive of rust.
Wires and cables for electrical purposes are covered with various insulating materials, such as cotton, rubber, or plastic, wrapped in concentric fashion and further protected with, substances such as paraffin, some kind of preservative compound, bitumen or lead sheathing or steel taping.
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