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Encyclopedia > Winter Solstice
Winter Solstice

Fire kept burning through the longest night of the year
Also called Midwinter, DōngZhì, Yule, Şabe Cele/Yalda, Soyal, Teḳufat Ṭebet, Şeva Zistanê, Solar New Year, Longest Night
Observed by Various cultures, ancient and modern
Type Cultural, Seasonal, Astronomical
Significance Astronomically marks the beginning of shortening nights and lengthening days, interpretation varies from culture to culture, but most hold a recognition of rebirth
Date The Solstice of Winter
December 21 or December 22 (NH)
June 21 or June 22 (SH)
2007 date December 22 (UTC North)
June 21 (UTC South)
2008 date December 21 (UTC North)
June 20 (UTC South)
2009 date December 21 (UTC North)
June 21 (UTC South)
Celebrations Festivals, spending time with loved ones, feasting, singing, dancing, fire in the hearth
Related to Winter Festivals and the Solstice
UTC Date and Time of
Solstice
[1]
year Solstice
June
Solstice
Dec
day time day time
2007 21 18:06 22 06:08
2008 20 23:59 21 12:04
2009 21 05:45 21 17:47
2010 21 11:28 21 23:38
2011 21 17:16 22 05:30
2012 20 23:09 21 11:11
2013 21 05:04 21 17:11
2014 21 10:51 21 23:03

The winter solstice occurs at the instant when the Sun's position in the sky is at its greatest angular distance on the other side of the equatorial plane from the observer. Depending on the shift of the calendar, the event of the winter solstice occurs some time between December 20 and December 23 each year in the northern hemisphere, and between June 20 and June 23 in the southern hemisphere, during either the shortest day or the longest night of the year, which is not to be confused with the darkest day or night or the day with the earliest sunset or latest sunrise. Though the Winter Solstice lasts an instant, the term is also used to refer to the full 24-hour period. Winter solstice may refer to: Winter solstice Winter Solstice (band) Winter Solstice: North (album) Winter Solstice (film) Winter Solstice Part 1, an Avatar: The Last Airbender episode Winter Solstice Part 2, an Avatar: The Last Airbender episode Midwinter (disambiguation) Category: ... Midwinter may refer to: Winter solstice Midwinter (video game) Midwinter Pottery Billy Midwinter Brian Midwinter, a Manitoba judge Eric Midwinter California Midwinter International Exposition of 1894 Winter solstice (disambiguation) Category: ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 299 KB) Feu de cheminée Chimney Fire File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Portal:Holidays/Selected article Winter solstice celebration Portal:Holidays/Selected article/10... The Dōngzhì Festival or Winter Solstice Festival (Chinese: 冬至; Pinyin: dōng zhì; The Extreme of Winter) is one of the most important festivals celebrated by the Chinese and other East Asians during the Dongzhi solar term on or around December 21 when sunshine is weakest and daylight shortest; , on... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... A variety of foodstuff that are consumed on Yalda Yaldā also known as Shab-e Cheleh is celebrated on the eve of the first day of the winter (December 21) in the Iranian calendar, which falls on the Winter Solstice. ... Soyal is the winter solstice ceremony of the Hopitu Shinumu, The Peaceful Ones, also known as the Hopi Indians. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... This is an incomplete list of festivals and holidays that take place during the winter in the northern hemisphere, especially those commemorating the season. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... ... Sol redirects here. ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...


Worldwide, interpretation of the event has varied from culture to culture, but most cultures have held a recognition of rebirth, involving holidays, festivals, gatherings, rituals or other celebrations around that time.[2] In the United States, a holiday is a day set aside by a nation or culture (in some cases, multiple nations and cultures) typically for celebration but sometimes for some other kind of special culture-wide (or national) observation or activity. ... A festival or fest is an event, usually staged by a local community, which centers on some theme, sometimes on some unique aspect of the community. ... Rituals was an American soap opera that ran in syndication from September 1984 to September 1985 in 260 25 minutes episodes. ... Tin of Celebrations with individual chocolates. ...


The seasonal significance of the Winter Solstice is varied, since it is sometimes said to astronomically mark either the beginning or middle of a hemisphere's Winter. Winter is a subjective term, so there is no scientifically established beginning or middle of winter but the Winter Solstice itself is clearly defined within a second. For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ...


The word solstice derives from Latin sol (sun) and sistere (to stand still), Winter Solstice meaning Sun standstill in winter. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Date

Diagram of the Earth's seasons as seen from the north. Far right: December solstice
Diagram of the Earth's seasons as seen from the north. Far right: December solstice

Calendrically, in most countries the time of the winter solstice is considered as midwinter. This is evident in calendars as far back as Ancient Egypt, whose system of seasons was gauged according to the flooding of the Nile. For Celtic countries, such as Ireland, the calendarical winter season has traditionally begun November 1 on All Hallows or Samhain. Winter ends and spring begins on Imbolc or Candlemas, which is February 1 or 2. This calendar system of seasons may be based on the length of days exclusively. Most East Asian cultures define the seasons by solar terms, with Dong zhi at the winter solstice as the middle or "extreme" of winter. This system is based on the sun's tilt. Some midwinter festivals have occurred according to lunar calendars and so took place on the night of Hōku (Hawaiian, the full moon closest to the winter solstice). And many European solar calendar midwinter celebrations still centre upon the night of December 24 leading into the December 25 in the north, which was considered to be the winter solstice upon the establishment of the Julian calendar. In Jewish culture, Teḳufat Tevet, the day of the winter solstice, is historically known as the first day of the "stripping time" or winter season. Persian cultures also recognize it as the beginning of winter. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1100, 213 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Equinox Season ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1100, 213 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Equinox Season ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian holiday. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Imbolc is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring. ... Candlemas (Russian: Sretenie, Spanish: Candelaria) is a Christian feast commemorating the purification of the Virgin Mary and the presentation of the infant Jesus in the Temple. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms (節氣). Dōngzhì (pÄ«nyÄ«n) or Tōji (rōmaji) (Chinese and Japanese: 冬至; Korean: ; Vietnamese: ; literally: winter solstice) is 22nd solar term. ... A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. ... Hawaiian could refer to the Hawaiian language the native Hawaiian people within Hawaii. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Tekufot (singular: tekufah, Hebrew: תקופות) are the four seasons of the year recognized by the Talmudical writers. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Since 45 BCE, when the 25th was established in the Julian calendar as the winter solstice of Europe, the difference between the calendar year (365.2500 days) and the tropical year (365.2422 days) moved the day associated with the actual astronomical solstice forward approximately three days every four centuries until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII changed the calendar bringing the northern winter solstice to around December 21. Yearly, in the Gregorian calendar the solstice still moves around a bit, but in the longterm, only about one day per 3000 years.

The figures above show the differences between the Gregorian calendar (Figure 1: using 1 leap year per 4 years) and Persian Jalāli calendar (Figure 2: using the 33-year arithmetic approximation) in reference to the actual yearly time of the winter solstice of the northern hemisphere, the December solstice. The Y axis is "days error" and the X axis is Gregorian calendar years. Each point represents a single date on a given year. The error shifts by about 1/4 day per year, and is corrected by a leap year every 4th year regularly, and in the case of the Persian calendar also one 5 year leap period to complete a 33-year cycle, keeping the Persian winter solstice holiday on the same day every year. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Gregory XIII (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... Seasonal error of Gregorian calendar Originally created by Tom Ruen, 2003, using MSExcel graph, labeled with MSPaint Converted from Image:Gregoriancalendarleap. ... Jalaali calendar error Originally created by Tom Ruen, 2003, using MSExcel graph, labeled with MSPaint File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ), also known as Persian calendar or (mistakenly) the Jalāli Calendar is an astronomical solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan as the main official calendar. ...


History and cultural significance

An altar dating to 1800 BCE within an astronomically aligned Monte Alto complex in Guatemala.
An altar dating to 1800 BCE within an astronomically aligned Monte Alto complex in Guatemala.

Astronomical events, which during ancient times allowed for the scheduling of mating, sowing of crops and metering of winter reserves between harvests, show how various cultural mythologies and traditions have arisen. On the night of winter solstice, as seen from a northern sky, the three stars in Orion's belt align with the brightest star in the eastern sky Sirius to show where the Sun will rise in the morning after winter solstice. Until this time, the Sun has exhibited since summer solstice a decreasing arc across the Southern sky. On winter solstice, the Sun ceases to decline in the sky and the length of daylight reaches its minimum for three days, during which the sun does not move on the horizon. After such a time, the Sun begins its ascent into the northern sky and days grow longer. Thus the interpretation by many cultures of a sun reborn and a return to light. This return to light is again celebrated at the vernal equinox, when the length of day equals that of night. (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766 BC -- Shang conquest of... Monte Alto is a municipality/county in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. ... Look up Orion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the brightest star in the night sky of Earth. ... Illumination of Earth by the sun on the northern hemisphere summer solstice The summer solstice is an astronomical term regarding the position of the sun in relation to the celestial equator. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ...


The solstice itself may have remained a special moment of the annual cycle of the year since neolithic times. This is attested by physical remains in the layouts of late Neolithic and Bronze Age archaeological sites like Stonehenge in Britain and Brú na Bóinne (New Grange) in Ireland. The primary axes of both of these monuments seem to have been carefully aligned on a sight-line framing the winter solstice sunrise (New Grange) and the winter solstice sunset (Stonehenge). The winter solstice may have been immensely important because communities were not assured to live through the winter, and had to be prepared during the previous nine months. Starvation was common in winter between January to April, also known as the famine months. In temperate climates, the midwinter festival was the last feast celebration, before deep winter began. Most cattle were slaughtered so they would not have to be fed during the winter, so it was nearly the only time of year when a supply of fresh meat was available. The majority of wine and beer made during the year was finally fermented and ready for drinking at this time. The concentration of the observances were not always on the day commencing at midnight or at dawn, but the beginning of the pre-Romanized day, which falls on the previous eve.[3] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... Newgrange, Ireland Larger Version Newgrange (Irish Brú na Bóinne), located in County Meath is the most famous of all Irish prehistoric sites. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... The word celebration has several meanings: See celebration for a joyous event or party. ... Look up Slaughter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... For other uses, see Midnight (disambiguation) Midnight, literally the middle of the night, is a time arbitrarily designated to determine the end of a day and the beginning of the next in some, mainly Western, cultures. ... Dawn in Peng Chau, Hong Kong. ... Informally, the evening is the period in which the daylight is decreasing, between the late afternoon and night; it extends from the latter portion of the daylight (before sunset) until dark (after sunset). ...


Explanations for parallel traditions

Symbolic

Since the event is observed as the reversal of the Sun's ebbing presence in the sky, concepts of the birth or rebirth of sun gods have been common and, in cultures using winter solstitially based cyclic calendars, the year as reborn has been celebrated with regard to life-death-rebirth deities or new beginnings such as Hogmanay's redding, a New Years cleaning tradition. Also reversal is another usual theme as in Saturnalia's slave and master reversals. Sol redirects here. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ... The category life-death-rebirth deity also known as a dying-and-rising god is a convenient means of classifying the many divinities in world mythology who are born, suffer death or an eclipse or other death-like experience, pass a phase in the underworld among the dead, and are... Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. ... The New Year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next. ... For other uses, see Saturnalia (disambiguation). ...


Migration and appropriation

Many outside traditions are often adopted by neighboring or invading cultures. Some historians will often assert that many traditions are directly derived from previous ones rooting all the way back to those begun in the cradle of civilization or beyond, much in a way that correlates to speculations on the origins of languages. This article is about society beginnings. ... The origin of language (glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history. ...


Therapeutic

Even in modern cultures these gatherings are still valued for emotional comfort, having something to look forward to at the darkest time of the year. This is especially the case for populations in the near polar regions of the hemisphere. The depressive psychological effects of winter on individuals and societies are for the most part tied to coldness, tiredness, malaise, and inactivity. Winter weather, plus being indoors causes negative ion deficiency which decreases serotonin levels resulting in depression and tiredness.[4] For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... A society is a group of people living or working together. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... For other uses, see Depression. ...


Also, insufficient sunlight in the short winter days increases the secretion of melatonin in the body, off balancing the circadian rhythm with longer sleep. Exercise, light therapy, increased negative ion exposure (which can be attained from plants and well ventilated flames, burning wood or beeswax) can reinvigorate the body from its seasonal lull and relieve winter blues by decreasing melatonin secretions, increasing serotonin and temporarily creating a more even sleeping pattern. Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ... Bright light therapy is a common treatment for seasonal affective disorder. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ...


Midwinter festivals and celebrations occurring on the longest night of the year, often calling for evergreens, bright illumination, large ongoing fires, feasting, communion with close ones, and evening physical exertion by dancing and singing are examples of cultural winter therapies that have evolved as traditions since the beginnings of civilization. Such traditions can stir the wit, stave off malaise, reset the internal clock and rekindle the human spirit. [5] A Silver Fir shoot showing three successive years of retained leaves In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that retains its leaves all year round, with each leaf persisting for more than 12 months. ... The Holocene Epoch is a geologic period that extends from the present back about 10,000 radiocarbon years. ... Look up Wit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ...


Observances

The following is an alphabetical list of observances believed to be directly linked to the winter solstice. For other Winter observances see List of winter festivals.: This is an incomplete list of festivals and holidays that take place during the winter in the northern hemisphere, especially those commemorating the season. ...

Japanese Sun Goddess Amaterasu emerging from a cave.
Japanese Sun Goddess Amaterasu emerging from a cave.

Amaterasu celebration, Requiem of the Dead (7th century Japan)

Main article: Amaterasu

In late seventh century Japan, festivities were held to celebrate the reemergence of Amaterasu or Amateras, the sun goddess of Japanese mythology, from her seclusion in a cave. Tricked by the other gods with a loud celebration, she peeks out to look and finds the image of herself in a mirror and is convinced by the other gods to return, bringing sunlight back to the universe. Requiems for the dead were held and Manzai and Shishimai were performed throughout the night, awaiting the sunrise. Aspects of this tradition have continued to this day on New Years.[6] The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... ( 6th century - 7th century - 8th century - other centuries) Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Arabs subjugate Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia to Islam. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ... Japanese mythology is a very complex system of beliefs that embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculture-based folk religion. ... The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in... Manzai (漫才) is a style of stand-up comedy in Japan, which usually involves two performers—a straight man (tsukkomi) and a funny man (boke)—trading jokes at great speed. ...


Beiwe Festival (Sámi of Northern Fennoscandia)

See also: Beiwe

The Saami, indigenous people of Finland, Sweden and Norway, worship Beiwe, the sun-goddess of fertility and sanity. She travels through the sky in a structure made of reindeer bones with her daughter, Beiwe-Neia, to herald back the greenery on which the reindeer feed. On the winter solstice, her worshipers sacrifice white female animals, and with the meat, thread and sticks, bed into rings with ribbons. They also cover their doorposts with butter so Beiwe can eat it and begin her journey once again.[7] The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area - Population  - Sami  - Non-Sami - (Year) - (Year) Independence None¹ Time zone UTC +1 to +3 ¹/ Integrated parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia respectively, but with varying degrees of autonomy for the Sami population. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Beiwe is the spring and sun goddess worshipped by the Sami, the indigenous people of Finland. ... Saami or SAAMI can stand for: Sami peoples Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Choimus, Chaomos (Kalash of Pakistan)

In the ancient traditions of the Kalash people of Pakistan, during winter solstice, a demigod returns to collect prayers and deliver them to Dezao, the supreme being. "During this celebrations women and girls are purified by taking ritual baths. The men pour water over their heads while they hold up bread. Then the men and boys are purified with water and must not sit on chairs until evening when goat's blood is sprinkled on their faces. Following this purification, a great festival begins, with singing, dancing, bonfires, and feasting on goat tripe and other delicacies".[8] For other uses, see Kalash (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kalash (disambiguation). ... The term demigod, meaning half-god, is a modern distinction, often misapplied in Greek mythology. ...


Christmas, Natalis Domini (4th century Rome, 11th century England, Christian)

Folktale of Father Christmas riding a yule goat.
Main article: Christmas

Christmas or Christ's Mass is one of the most popular Christian celebrations as well as one of the most globally recognized midwinter celebrations. Christmas is the celebration of the birth of the God Incarnate or Messiah, Yeshua of Nazareth, later known as Jesus Christ. The birth is observed on December 25, which was the winter solstice upon establishment of the Julian Calendar. Banned by the Catholic Church in its infancy as a pagan practice stemming out of the Sol Invictus celebrations,[9] Christians revitalized its recognition as an authentic Christian festival in various cultures within the past several hundred years, preserving much of the folklore and traditions of local pagan festivals. So today, the old festivals such as Jul, Коледа and Karácsony, are still celebrated in many parts of Europe, but the Christian Nativity is now often representational of the meaning. This is why Yule and Christmas are considered interchangeable in Anglo-Christendom. Universal activities include feasting, midnight masses and singing Christmas carols about the Nativity. Good deeds and gift giving in the tradition of St. Nicholas by not admitting to being the actual gift giver is also observed by some countries. Many observe the holiday for twelve days leading up to the Epiphany. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Santaandgoat. ... Image File history File links Santaandgoat. ... Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas... A Yule Goat from Uppland, Sweden. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , Aramaic/Syriac: , ; Arabic: ‎, ) Literally, Messiah means The Anointed (One), typically someone anointed with holy anointing oil. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, December 24, the day before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas festivities. ... This page is about carols in general; for the short story by Charles Dickens, see A Christmas Carol. ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... This article is about the religious period from Christmas to Epiphany. ... Adoration of the Magi by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, 17th century (Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio). ...


Deuorius Riuri (Gaul)

Deuorius Riuri was the annual great divine winter feast, observed by the Coligny Calendar. The lunisolar Coligney Midwinter returned to solar alignment every two and a half years.[10] Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... overview of the re-assembled tablet detail of Mid Samonios The Gaulish Coligny Calendar was found in Coligny, Ain, France (46°23′N 5°21′E) near Lyons in 1897, along with the head of a bronze statue of a youthful male figure. ...


Deygān (Zoroastrian)

The last day of the Persian month Azar is the longest night of the year, when the forces of Ahriman are assumed to be at the peak of their strength. The next day, the first day of the month Dey, known as khoram ruz or khore ruz (the day of sun) belongs to God (Ahura Mazda). Since the days are getting longer and the nights shorter, this day marks the victory of Sun over the darkness. The occasion was celebrated in the ancient Persian Deygan Festival dedicated to Ahura Mazda, and Mithra on the first day of the month Dey. [11] Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Angra Mainyu or Ahriman was the evil spirit in the dualistic strain of Zoroastrianism. ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ...


DōngZhì Festival, Tōji Festival (East Asia, Vietnam, and Buddhist)

Families eat pink and white tangyuan, symbolizing family unity and prosperity.
Families eat pink and white tangyuan, symbolizing family unity and prosperity.
Main article: Dōngzhì Festival

The Winter Solstice Festival or The Extreme of Winter (Chinese and Japanese: 冬至; Korean: 동지; Vietnamese: Đông chí) (Pinyin: Dōng zhì), (Rōmaji: Tōji) is one of the most important festivals celebrated by the Chinese and other East Asians during the dongzhi solar term on or around December 21 when sunshine is weakest and daylight shortest; i.e., on the first day of the dongzhi solar term. The origins of this festival can be traced back to the yin and yang philosophy of balance and harmony in the cosmos. After this celebration, there will be days with longer daylight hours and therefore an increase in positive energy flowing in. The philosophical significance of this is symbolized by the I Ching hexagram (復, "Returning"). Traditionally, the Dongzhi Festival is also a time for the family to get together. One activity that occurs during these get togethers (especially in the southern parts of China and in Chinese communities overseas) is the making and eating of Tangyuan (湯圓, as pronounced in Cantonese; Mandarin Pinyin: Tāng Yuán) or balls of glutinous rice, which symbolize reunion. This article is about the geographical region. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 元宵,汤圆 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 元宵,汤圆 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Tangyuan (Simplified: 汤圆; Traditional: 湯圓; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a Chinese food made from glutinous rice flour. ... The Dōngzhì Festival or Winter Solstice Festival (Chinese: 冬至; Pinyin: dōng zhì; The Extreme of Winter) is one of the most important festivals celebrated by the Chinese and other East Asians during the Dongzhi solar term on or around December 21 when sunshine is weakest and daylight shortest; , on... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The romanization of Japanese is the use of the Latin alphabet (called rōmaji )   in Japanese) to write the Japanese language, which is normally written in logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern hemisphere winter solstice Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the southern hemisphere winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is... A Solar term is one of 24 days in the traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars that match a particular astronomical events or signify some natural phenomenon. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... A hexagram is any of the sixty-four sets of solid and broken lines used in the Chinese classic text I Ching. ... I Ching hexagram 24, depicted |::::: is named 復 (fù), Returning. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Tangyuan (Simplified: 汤圆; Traditional: 湯圓; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a Chinese food made from glutinous rice flour. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Goru (Dogon of Mali)

Goru is the (December) winter solstice ceremony of the Pays Dogon of Mali. It is the last harvest ritual and celebrates the arrival of humanity from the sky god, Amma, via Nommo inside the Aduno Koro, or the "Ark of the World".[12] The Dogon village of Banani. ... The Dogon village of Banani. ... Amma has several meanings: Girls who are born on a Saturday from Ghana in West Africa are named Amma (sometimes spelt Ama); the name does not mean Saturday but means ‘Saturday born’. This naming tradition has been in existence for hundreds years maybe even longer. ... The Nommo are ancestral spirits (sometimes referred to as deities) worshipped by the Dogon tribe of Mali, Africa. ...


Hogmanay (Scotland)

Main article: Hogmanay

The New Years Eve celebration of Scotland is called Hogmanay. The name derives from the old Scots name for Yule gifts of the Middle Ages. The early Hogmanay celebrations were originally brought to Scotland by the invading and occupying Norse who celebrated a solstitial new year (England celebrated the new year on March 25). In 1600, with the Scottish application of the January 1st New year and the churches persistent suppression of the solstice celebrations, the holiday traditions moved to December 31. The festival is still referred to as the Yules by the Scots of the Shetland Islands who start the festival on December 18th and hold the last tradition (a Troll chasing ritual) on January 18th. The most widespread Scottish custom is the practice of first-footing which starts immediately after midnight on New Years. This involves being the first person (usually tall and dark haired) to cross the threshold of a friend or neighbor and often involves the giving of symbolic gifts such as salt (less common today), coal, shortbread, whisky, and black bun (a fruit pudding) intended to bring different kinds of luck to the householder. Food and drink (as the gifts, and often Flies cemetery) are then given to the guests. [13] This article is about the country. ... Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. ... New Years Eve is a celebration held the day before New Years Day, on December 31, the final day of the year. ... Norse is an adjective relating things to Denmark, Norway, Iceland and Sweden. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... Scots may refer to: people from Scotland (i. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Troll (disambiguation). ... First-Foot, in British folklore, especially that of the north and Scotland, the first person who crosses the threshold on Christmas or New Years Eve. ... Shortbread rounds before being baked Shortbread is a type of biscuit (cookie) which is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts plain white flour, although other ingredients like ground rice or cornflour are sometimes added to alter the texture. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... Flies cemetery, available with or without sugar icing topping. ...


Inti Raymi (Inca, Peru)

Inti Raimi
Inti Raimi
Main article: Inti Raymi

The Inti Raymi or Festival of the Sun was a religious ceremony of the Inca Empire in honor of the sun god Inti. It also marked the winter solstice and a new year in the Andes of the Southern Hemisphere. One ceremony performed by the Inca priests was the tying of the sun. In Machu Picchu there is still a large column of stone called an Intihuatana, meaning "hitching post of the sun" or literally for tying the sun. The ceremony to tie the sun to the stone was to prevent the sun from escaping. The Spanish conquest, never finding Machu Picchu, destroyed all the other intihuatana, extinguishing the sun tying practice. The Catholic Church managed to suppress all Inti festivals and ceremonies by 1572. Since 1944 a theatrical representation of the Inti Raymi has been taking place at Sacsayhuamán (two km. from Cusco) on June 24 of each year, attracting thousands of local visitors and tourists. The Monte Alto culture may have also had a similar tradition. [14] [15] For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Inti Raymi (Festival of the Sun) was a religious ceremony of the Inca Empire in honor of the god Inti. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... Inti or Sun of May of the flag of Argentina, 1818 In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: , Old mountain) is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,400 meters (7,875 ft) above sea level[1]. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 km (50 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ruins of Sacsayhuamán with view of the city of Cusco in the background Sacsayhuamán (also known as Saksaq Waman) is a walled complex near the old city of Cusco. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Monte Alto is an ancient site in what is now Guatemala. ...


Junkanoo, Jonkonnu, John Canoe (West Africa, Bahamas, Jamaica, 19th-century North Carolina)

Main article: Jonkonnu parades

Junkanoo, in the Bahamas, Junkunno or Jonkanoo, in Jamaica, is a fantastic masquerade, parade and street festival, believed to be of West African origin. It is traditionally performed through the streets towards the end of December, and involves participants dressed in a variety of fanciful costumes, such as the Cow Head, the Hobby Horse, the Wild Indian, and the Devil. The parades are accompanied by bands usually consisting of fifes, drums, and coconut graters used as scrapers, and Jonkanoo songs are also sung. A similar practice was once common in coastal North Carolina, where it was called John Canoe, John Koonah, or John Kooner. John Canoe was likened to the wassailing tradition of medieval Britain. Both John Canoe and wassailing bear strong resemblance to the social inversion rituals that marked the ancient Roman celebration of Saturnalia.  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... [--168. ... During the 19th century, the Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, and Ottoman empires began to crumble and the Holy Roman and Mughal empires ceased. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... The term costume can refer to wardrobe and dress in general, or to the distinctive style of dress of a particular people, class, or period. ... A hobby horse (or hobbyhorse) can be several things: A toy horse, consisting of a model of a horses head, usually wooden, attached to a stick. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... A typical cheese grater. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Mediæval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th centurys withdrawal of Roman forces and Germanic invasions until the 16th century Reformations in Scotland and England. ... For other uses, see Saturnalia (disambiguation). ...


Karachun (Ancient Western Slavic)

Main article: Karachun

Karachun, Korochun or Kračún was a Slavic holiday similar to Halloween as a day when the Black God and other evil spirits were most potent. It was celebrated by Slavs on the longest night of the year. On this night, Hors, symbolising the old sun, becomes smaller as the days become shorter in the Northern Hemisphere, and dies on December 22nd, the December solstice. He is said to be defeated by the dark and evil powers of the Black God. In honour of Hors, the Slavs danced a ritual chain-dance which was called the horo. Traditional chain-dancing in Bulgaria is still called horo. In Russia and Ukraine, it is known as khorovod. On December 23rd Hors is resurrected and becomes the new sun, Koleda. On this day, Western Slavs burned fires at cemeteries to keep their departed loved ones warm, organized dinings in the honor of the dead so as they would not suffer from hunger and lit wooden logs at local crossroads. Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... Karachun, Korochun or Kračún is a Slavic version of Halloween as a day when the Black God and other evil spirits are most potent. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... This article is about the holiday. ... Crnobog (The Black God) or Pya is the god of night and darkness in Slavic mythology, and the waning year in opposition to Belobog, the White God of the waxing year. ... Hurs or Hors is the Slavic god of the winter sun. ... (Redirected from 22 December) December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... A young man breaking into the girls khorovod, a 1902 painting Khorovod (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Polish: ) is a Slavic art form, a combination of a circle dance and chorus singing, similar to Chorea of ancient Greece. ... (Redirected from 23 December) December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... Kolyada or koleda is the original Slavic word for Christmas. ... The Slavic peoples are defined by their linguistic attainment of the Slavic languages. ...


Koleda, Коляда, Sviatki, Dazh Boh (Ancient Eastern Slavic and Sarmatian)

In ancient Slavonic cultures, the festival of Kaleda began at Winter Solstice and lasted for ten days. In Russia, this festival was later applied to Christmas Eve but most of the practices were lost after the Soviet Revolution. Each family made a fire in their hearth and invited their personal household Gods to join in the festivities. Children disguise themselves on evenings and nights and as Koledari, visited houses and sang wishes of good luck, like Shchedryk, to hosts. As a reward, they were given little gifts, a tradition called Kolyadovanie, much like the old wassailing or mummers Tradition.[16][17] Nativity of the Lord redirects here. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Koledari (from the Slavic Koleda, Christmas) is the Bulgarian term for Christmas carolers. ... Shchedryk (from the Ukrainian word shchedryy; “bountiful”) is a Ukrainian shchedrivka, or Epiphany carol. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... There are two major branches to the tradition of the Mummers Play: Firstly the folk tradition of troupes of mummers performing street theatre and secondly the more formal Christian Mystery Plays. ...

Maenad depicted in red-figure cup, ca. 480 BCE, Louvre
Maenad depicted in red-figure cup, ca. 480 BCE, Louvre

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1520x1690, 1973 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Maenad Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1520x1690, 1973 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Maenad Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Woman officiating at an altar, Attic red-figure kylix by Chairias, c. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 485 BC 484 BC 483 BC 482 BC 481 BC _ 480 BC _ 479 BC... This article is about the museum. ...

Lenæa, Brumalia (Ancient and Hellenistic Greece, Roman Kingdom)

Main articles: Lenaia and Brumalia

In the Aegean civilizations, the exclusively female midwinter ritual, Lenaea or Lenaia, was the Festival of the Wild Women. In the forest, a man or bull representing the god Dionysus was torn to pieces and eaten by Maenads. Later in the ritual a baby, representing Dionysus reborn, was presented. Lenaion, the first month of the Delian calendar, derived its name from the festival's name. By classical times, the human sacrifice had been replaced by that of a goat, and the women's role had changed to that of funeral mourners and observers of the birth. Wine miracles were performed by the priests, in which priests would seal water or juice in a room overnight and the next day they would have turned into wine. The miracle was said to have been performed by Dionysus and the Lenaians. By the 5th century BCE the ritual had become a Gamelion festival for theatrical competitions, often held in Athens in the Lenaion theater. The festival influenced Brumalia, an ancient Roman solstice festival honoring Bacchus, generally held for a month and ending December 25. The festival included drinking and merriment. The name is derived from the Greek word bruma, meaning "shortest day", though the festivities almost always occurred at night. [18] [19] [20] The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... The Lenaia was a dramatic but one of the lesser festivals in Athens and Ionia in ancient Greece. ... In Roman festivals, the Brumalia was a feast of Bacchus, celebrated among the Romans during the space of thirty days, commencing on November 24. ... Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Maenad carrying a hind, fragment of an Attic red-figure cup, ca. ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... Maenad carrying a hind, fragment of an Attic red-figure cup, ca. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... The Attic calendar is the name of the calendar used in Ancient Athens. ... In Roman festivals, the Brumalia was a feast of Bacchus, celebrated among the Romans during the space of thirty days, commencing on November 24. ... History - Ancient history - Ancient Rome This is a List of Ancient Rome-related topics, that aims to include aspects of both the Ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lucia, Feast of St. Lucy (Ancient Swedish, Scandinavian Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox)

Lucia or Lussi Night happened on December 13, what was supposed to be the longest night of the year. The feast was later appropriated by the Catholic Church in the 16th century as St. Lucy's Day. It was believed in the folklore of Sweden that if people, particularly children, did not carry out their chores, the female demon, the Lussi or Lucia die dunkle would come to punish them.[21] Scandinavian folklore is the folklore of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and the Swedish speaking parts of Finland. ... Scandinavian can mean: a resident of, or anything relating to Scandinavia any North Germanic language a chess opening, Scandinavian Defense the aviation corpotation Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Lucia by Swedish painter Carl Larsson, 1908 Saint Lucys Day (Sankta Lucia, also known as Saint Lucias Day etc) is the Church feast day holiday dedicated to St. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ...


Makara Sankranti (India and Nepal, Hindu)

Main article: Makara Sankranti

Makara Sankranti, celebrated at the beginning of Uttarayana, is the only Hindu festival which is based on the celestial calendar rather than the lunar calendar. The zodiac having drifted from the solar calendar has caused the festival to now occur in mid-January (see precession of equinoxes). In Tamil Nadu it is celebrated as the festival of Pongal. The day before Pongal, the last day of the previous year, they celebrate Bhogi. In Assam it is called Magh Bihu (the First day of Magh), in Punjab Lohri and in Maharshtra it is called Makar Sankranti and is celebrated by exchanging balls of sesame candy (Til Gul) and requesting each other to be as sweet as the candy balls for the next year. It is called Makara Sankrant because the sun enters the zodiacal sign of Capricorn on 14th January (Makar meaning Capricorn). It is celebrated with much pomp in Andhra Pradesh, where the festival is celebrated for three days and is more of a cultural festival than an auspicious day as in other parts of India. In some parts of India, the festival is celebrated by taking dips in the Ganga or another river and offering water to the Sun god. The dip is said to purify the self and bestow punya. In many countries, families fly kites from their roofs all day and into the night. In Assam on Bihu Eve or Uruka families build house-like structures called bhelaghar and separate large bhelaghar are built by the community as a whole. Different sorts of twine are tied around fruit trees. Traditionally, fuel is stolen for the final ceremony, when all the bhelaghar are burned. Their remains are then placed at the fruit trees. Special puja is offered as a thanksgiving for good harvest. Since the festival is celebrated in midwinter, the foods prepared for this festival are such that they keep the body warm and give high energy. Laddu of til made with jaggery is specialty of the festival. [22] This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Makar Sankranti is a mid-winter festival of India and Nepal. ... For the kite-flying festival, see Makar Sankranti Uttarāyana (उत्तरायण) is the six month period between Makar Sankranti around (January 14) and Karka Sankranti around (July 14), when the Sun travels towards north on the celestial sphere. ... For other uses, see Zodiac (disambiguation). ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... This article is about the Pongal festival. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Ganga may refer to: Ganges River, a river in India Ganga, the Hindu goddess that personifies the Ganges River The Gangas, an ancient southern Indian dynasty Ganga (music), a type of rural folk singing from Croatia and Herzegovina Daren Ganga, a West Indian cricketer Ganga, an alternate spelling of ganja... In the Hindu theory of Karma, Punya is merit that accumulates as a result of good deeds, acts or thoughts and that carries over to later in life or to a persons next birth. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... sarah rules no matter what you say!!!!! Motichoor ladoo is a popular variant. ...


Meán Geimhridh, Celtic Midwinter (Celtic, Ancient Welsh, Neodruidic)

Meán Geimhridh (Irish tr: midwinter) or Grianstad an Gheimhridh (Ir tr: winter solstice) is a name sometimes used for hypothetical midwinter rituals or celebrations of the Proto-Celtic tribes, Celts, and late Druids. In Ireland's calendars, the solstices and equinoxes all occur at about midpoint in each season. The passage and chamber of Newgrange (Pre-Celtic or possibly Proto-Celtic 3,200 BCE), a tomb in Ireland, are illuminated by the winter solstice sunrise. A shaft of sunlight shines through the roof box over the entrance and penetrates the passage to light up the chamber. The dramatic event lasts for 17 minutes at dawn from the 19th to the 23rd of December. The point of roughness is the term for the winter solstice in Wales which in ancient Welsh mythology, was when Rhiannon gave birth to the sacred son, Pryderi. The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... A group of British druids, congregating to celebrate the summer solstice at stonehenge. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Newgrange, which is located at , is one of the passage tombs of the Brú na Bóinne complex in County Meath, and the most famous of all Irish prehistoric sites. ... Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... For the Stevie Nicks/Fleetwood Mac song, see Rhiannon (Will You Ever Win). ... In Welsh mythology, King Pryderi of Dyfed was the son of Pwyll and Rhiannon. ...


Wren day (Celtic, Irish, Welsh, Manx)

Main article: Wren day
For an unknown period, Lá an Dreoilín or Wren day has been celebrated in Ireland, the Isle of Man and Wales on December 26. Crowds of people, called wrenboys, take to the roads in various parts of Ireland, dressed in motley clothing, wearing masks or straw suits and accompanied by musicians supposedly in remembrance of the festival that was celebrated by the Druids. Previously the practice involved the killing of a wren, and singing songs while carrying the bird from house to house, stopping in for food and merriment.

The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... This article is about the country. ... Wren day is celebrated in Ireland on December 26. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In various parts of Ireland on St. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... Genera Donacobius Campylorhynchus Odontorchilus Salpinctes Catherpes Hylorchilus Cinnycerthia Thryomanes Ferminia Troglodytes Cistothorus Uropsila Thryorchilus Thryothorus Henicorhina Microcerculus Cyphorhinus Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) Stamp FR 345 of Postverk Føroya, Faroe Islands Issued: 22 February 1999 Artist: Astrid Andreasen The true wrens are members of a mainly New World passerine bird family...

Alban Arthan (Neodruidic)

Main article: Alban Arthan
In England, during the 18th century, there was a revival of interest in Druids. Today, amongst Neo-druids, Alban Arthan (Welsh tr. light of winter but derived from Welsh poem, Light of Arthur) is celebrated on the winter solstice with a ritualistic festival, and gift giving to the needy.

A group of British druids, congregating to celebrate the summer solstice at stonehenge. ... In Neo-druidism, Alban Arthan is a seasonal festival at the Winter Solstice. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... Neo-druidism is an attempt to reconstruct the ancient religion of druidism. ...

Midvinterblót (Swedish folk religion)

Main article: Blót

In Sweden and many surrounding parts of Europe, polytheistic tribes celebrated a Midvinterblot or mid-winter-sacrifice, featuring both animal and human sacrifice. The blot was performed by goði, or priests, at certain cult sites, most of which have churches built upon them now. Midvinterblot paid tribute to the local gods, appealing to them to let go winter's grip. The folk tradition was finally abandoned by 1200, due to missionary persistence. Scandinavian folklore is the folklore of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and the Swedish speaking parts of Finland. ... The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... The Bl t was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ... The term gothi (goði), in Norse mythology, refers to the person who administered the Blóts. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ...


Modranicht, Modresnach (Anglo-Saxon, Germanic)

The Night of Mothers or Mothers' Night was an Anglo-Saxon and Germanic feast. It was believed that dreams on this night foretold events in the upcoming year. While it may originally have occurred the night before Samhain according to a lunar calendar, it has moved around quite a bit in the year. By 730, It was thought by Bede to be observed by the Anglicans on the winter solstice. After the reemergence of Christmas in Britain it was recognized by many as one of the Twelve Days of Christmas.[23][24] For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire orders the destruction of all icons. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... This article is about the religious period from Christmas to Epiphany. ...


Perchta ritual (Germania, Alps)

Main article: Pre-Christian Alpine traditions

Early Germans (c.500-1000) considered the Norse goddess, Hertha or Bertha to be the goddess of light, domesticity and the home. They baked yeast cakes shaped like shoes, which were called Hertha's slippers, and filled with gifts. "During the Winter Solstice houses were decked with fir and evergreens to welcome her coming. When the family and serfs were gathered to dine, a great altar of flat stones was erected and here a fire of fir boughs was laid. Hertha descended through the smoke, guiding those who were wise in saga lore to foretell the fortunes of those persons at the feast".[25] There are also darker versions of Perchta which terrorize children along with Krampus. Many cities had practices of dramatizing the gods as characters roaming the streets. These traditions have continued in the rural regions of the Alps, and various similar traditions, such as Wren day, survived in the Celtic nations until recently. Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Alp redirects here. ... Procession in Klagenfurt The central and eastern Alps of Europe are rich in traditions dating back to pre-Christian (pagan) times, with surviving elements amalgamated from Germanic, Gaulish (Gallo-Roman) and Raetian culture. ... This article is about the year. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Perchta or Percht: Perchta was originally a goddess of vegetation and fertility from German mythology . ... The Dutch version, called Zwarte Piet Knecht Ruprecht, companion of Father Christmas or Saint Nicholas, is also known as Servant Ruprecht, Farmhand Ruprecht, Pelzebock, Pelznickel (Nicholas in furs), Zwarte Piet or Zwarte Peter in the Netherlands and Flanders, Black Peter, and Schmutzli Samichlaus in Switzerland, sometimes associated with Saint Rupert. ... Alp redirects here. ... Wren day is celebrated in Ireland on December 26. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ...


Rozhanitsa Feast (12th century Eastern Slavic Russian)

In twelfth century Russia, the eastern Slavs worshiped the winter mother goddess, Rozhnitsa, offering bloodless sacrifices like honey, bread and cheese. Bright colored winter embroideries depicting the antlered goddess were made to honor the Feast of Rozhanitsa in late December. And white, deer-shaped cookies were given as lucky gifts. Some Russian women continued the observation of these traditions into the 20th century.[26] (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


Shabe Celle, یلدا , Yaldā (2nd millennium BCE Persian, Iranian)

Main article: Yalda

Derived from a pre-Zoroastrian festival, Shabe Chelle is celebrated on the eve of the first day of winter in the Persian calendar, which always falls on the solstice. Yalda is the most important non-new-year Iranian festival in modern-day Iran and it has been long celebrated in Iran by all ethnic/religious groups. According to Persian mythology, Mithra was born at the end of this night after the long-expected defeat of darkness against light. "Shabe Chelle" is now an important social occasion, when family and friends get together for fun and merriment. Usually families gather at their elders' homes. Different kinds of dried fruits, nuts, seeds and fresh winter fruits are consumed. The presence of dried and fresh fruits is reminiscence of the ancient feasts to celebrate and pray to the deities to ensure the protection of the winter crops. Watermelons, persimmons and pomegranates are traditional symbols of this celebration, all representing the sun. It used to be customary to stay awake Yalda night until sunrise eating, drinking, listening to stories and poems, but this is no longer very common as most people have things to do on the next day. During the early Roman Empire many Syrian Christians fled from persecution into the Sassanid Empire of Persia, introducing the term Yaldā, meaning birth, causing Shabe Yaldā to became synonymous with Shabe Chelle. [27] (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) Events Second dynasty of Babylon First Bantu migrations from west Africa The Cushites drive the original inhabitants from Ethiopia, and establish trade relations with Egypt. ... Persia redirects here. ... A variety of foodstuff that are consumed on Yalda Yaldā also known as Shab-e Cheleh is celebrated on the eve of the first day of the winter (December 21) in the Iranian calendar, which falls on the Winter Solstice. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ... Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris; Family Cucurbitaceae) is the fruit and plant of a vine-like (climber and trailer) herb originally from southern Africa. ... Species See text A Persimmon is any of a number of species of trees of the genus Diospyros, and the edible fruit borne by them. ... Species L. Balf. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ...

Decorated Sri Maha Bodhi Tree in Sri Lanka
Decorated Sri Maha Bodhi Tree in Sri Lanka

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (802x602, 313 KB) Beschreibung Der Sri Maha Bodhi ist der älteste Baum auf diesem Planeten, dessen Geschichte dokumentiert ist. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (802x602, 313 KB) Beschreibung Der Sri Maha Bodhi ist der älteste Baum auf diesem Planeten, dessen Geschichte dokumentiert ist. ... The Bodhi Tree at the Mahabodhi Temple. ...

Sanghamitta Day (Buddhist)

Sanghamitta is in honor of the Buddhist nun who brought a branch of the Bodhi tree to Sri Lanka where it has flourished for over 2,000 years. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Sanghamitta was the daughter of Emperor Ashoka and sister of Venerable Mahinda. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Bodhi Tree at the Mahabodhi Temple. ...


Saturnalia, Chronia (Ancient Greek, Roman Republic)

Main article: Saturnalia

Originally celebrated by the ancient Greeks as Kronia, the festival of Chronos, Saturnalia was the feast at which the Romans commemorated the dedication of the temple of Saturn, which originally took place on 17 December, but expanded to a whole week, up to 23 December. A large and important public festival in Rome, it involved the conventional sacrifices, a couch set in front of the temple of Saturn and the untying of the ropes that bound the statue of Saturn during the rest of the year. Besides the public rites there were a series of holidays and customs celebrated privately. The celebrations included a school holiday, the making and giving of small presents (saturnalia et sigillaricia) and a special market (sigillaria). Gambling was allowed for all, even slaves during this period. The toga was not worn, but rather the synthesis, i.e., colorful, informal "dinner clothes" and the pileus (freedman's hat) was worn by everyone. Slaves were exempt from punishment, and treated their masters with disrespect. The slaves celebrated a banquet before, with, or served by the masters. Saturnalia became one of the most popular Roman festivals which led to more tomfoolery, marked chiefly by having masters and slaves ostensibly switch places, temporarily reversing the social order. In Greek and Cypriot folklore it was believed that children born during the festival were in danger of turning into Kallikantzaroi which come out of the earth after the solstice to cause trouble for mortals. Some would leave colanders on their doorsteps to distract them until the sun returned. Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Saturnalia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chronos (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Marcus Aurelius wearing a toga. ... Pileus may mean: In science: Pileus (mycology), the cap of a mushroom. ... Roman holidays generally were celebrated to worship and celebrate a certain god or mythological occurrence, and consisted of religious observances, various festival traditions and usually a large feast. ... A Kallikantzaros (Καλλικάντζαρος) pl. ... A typical household colander A colander (sometimes spelled pink leotard) is a type of sieve used in cooking for separating liquids and solids. ...


Şeva Zistanê (Kurdish)

The Night of Winter (Kurdish: Şeva Zistanê) is an unofficial holiday celebrated by communities throughout the Kurdistan region in the Middle East. The night is considered one of the oldest holidays still observed by modern Kurds and was celebrated by ancient tribes in the region as a holy day. The holiday falls every year on the winter solstice. Since the night is the longest in the year, ancient tribes believed that it was the night before a victory of light over darkness and signified a rebirth of the sun. The sun plays an important role in several ancient religions still practiced by some Kurds in addition to its importance in Zoroastrianism. Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


In modern times, communities in the Kurdistan region still observe the night as a holiday. Many families prepare large feasts for their communities and the children play games and are given sweets in similar fashion to modern-day Halloween practices. For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ...

Mosaic of Sol (the Sun) in Mausoleum M in the pre-fourth-century necropolis under St Peter's Basilica. Some have interpreted it as representing Christ.
Mosaic of Sol (the Sun) in Mausoleum M in the pre-fourth-century necropolis under St Peter's Basilica. Some have interpreted it as representing Christ.

Image File history File links ChristAsSol. ... Image File history File links ChristAsSol. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ...

Sol Invictus Festival (3rd century Roman Empire)

Main article: Sol Invictus

Sol Invictus ("the undefeated Sun") or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus ("the undefeated sun god") was a religious title applied to at least three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire; El Gabal, Mithras, and Sol. A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated when the duration of daylight first begins to increase after the winter solstice, — the "rebirth" of the sun. The Sol Invictus festival ran from December 22 through December 25, which at that time was at the solstice. With the growing popularity of the Christian cults, Jesus of Nazareth came to be given much of the recognition previously given to a sun god, thereby including Christ in the tradition. This was later condemned by the early Catholic Church for its pagan practices and for associating the Christ with the sun gods. // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Elagabalus Sol Invictus, was a Roman sun god, introduced in Rome, during the Severan dynasty, by the Roman emperor Elagabalus (also called Heliogabalus), who was the hereditary high priest of the god, Baal (lord) of Emesa (in ancient Syria), or El-Gabal, latinised as Elagabalus. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... Standards Of Learning SOL stands for The Standards Of Learning. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...


Soyal (Zuni and Hopi of North America)

Main article: Soyal

Soyalangwul is the winter solstice ceremony of the Zuni and the Hopitu Shinumu, "The Peaceful Ones," also known as the Hopi Indians. It is held on December 21, the shortest day of the year. The main purpose of the ritual is to ceremonially bring the sun back from its long winter slumber. It also marks the beginning of another cycle of the Wheel of the Year, and is a time for purification. Pahos (prayer sticks) are made prior to the Soyal ceremony, to bless all the community, including their homes, animals, and plants. The kivas (sacred underground ritual chambers) are ritually opened to mark the beginning of the Kachina season.[28][29] The Zuni (also spelled Zuñi) or Ashiwi are a Native American tribe, one of the Pueblo peoples, most of whom live in the Pueblo of Zuñi on the Zuni River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River, in western New Mexico. ... Moki redirects here. ... North American redirects here. ... Soyal is the winter solstice ceremony of the Hopitu Shinumu, The Peaceful Ones, also known as the Hopi Indians. ... The Zuni (also spelled Zuñi) or Ashiwi are a Native American tribe, one of the Pueblo peoples, most of whom live in the Pueblo of Zuñi on the Zuni River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River, in western New Mexico. ... Moki redirects here. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Teḳufat Ṭebet (Jewish)

Main article: Tekufah

Tekufah Tevet is one of four Tekufot (Hebrew: תקופות), solstices and equinoxes recognized by the Talmudical writers. Teḳufat Tevet, the winter solstice, the beginning of winter, or "'et ha-ḥoref" (stripping-time) was when Jephthah sacrificed his daughter . A long standing superstition is that on any of the Tekufot, water that was kept in vessels turned poisonous and must be thrown out. Some believed the poisoning could be prevented by placing iron in the water over the Tekufot.[30] This observation's solemnness is unlike the following holiday, Hanukkah. This celebration carries much of the 'light' symbolism present in solstice-connected holidays and has become more prominent in western cultures as it has been influenced by Christmas traditions. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Tekufot (singular: tekufah, Hebrew: תקופות) are the four seasons of the year recognized by the Talmudical writers. ... Tevet (טֵבֵת, Standard Hebrew Tevet, Tiberian Hebrew Ṭēḇēṯ: from Akkadian ṭebētu) is the fourth month of the ecclesiastical year and the tenth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... Tevet (טֵבֵת, Standard Hebrew Tevet, Tiberian Hebrew Ṭēḇēṯ: from Akkadian ṭebētu) is the fourth month of the ecclesiastical year and the tenth month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Jephtha יפתח -- one of the so called Judges in Israel between the conquest of Canaan and the first king. ... Grand Rabbi Israel Abraham Portugal of Skulen Hasidism lighting Hanukkah lights Hanukkah (‎, alt. ...


Wayeb (Maya)

Wayeb' or Uayeb, referencing the unlucky god N, were actually five nameless days leading up to the end of the Haab, the solar Maya calendar. It was thought to be a dangerous time in which there were no divisions between the mortal and immortal worlds, and deities were free to cause disaster if they willed it. To ward off the spirits, the Maya had a variety of customs they practiced during this period. For example, people avoided leaving their houses or grooming their hair. Calendar Round rituals would be held at the end of each 52 year round (coincidence of the three Maya calendars), 4 wayeb to 1 Imix 0 Pop, with all fires extinguished, old pots broken, and a new fire ceremony symbolizing a fresh start. The next Calendar Round will be on the winter solstice of 2012, beginning a new baktun. Haab' observations are still held by Maya communities in the highlands of Guatemala.[31] This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... The Maya Haab calendar is a 365-day solar calendar whose dates indicate the position of the Sun at noon relative to the zenith over the Yucatan peninsula. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of the Tzolkin 260 day period (eg the Tzolkin) with that of the 365 day period (known in the Maya language as the Haab). ... A baktun is 20 katun cycles of the ancient Maya Long Count Calendar. ...


Yule, Jul, Jól, Joul, Joulu, Jõulud, Géol, Geul (Viking Age, Northern Europe, Anglospherean, and Germanic cultures)

Icelandic manuscript depicting Odin who slayed the frost giant, Ymir.
Icelandic manuscript depicting Odin who slayed the frost giant, Ymir.
Main article: Yule

Originally the name Giuli signified a 60 day tide beginning at the lunar midwinter of the late Scandinavian Norse and Germanic tribes. The arrival of Juletid thus came to refer to the midwinter celebrations. By the late Viking Age, the Yule celebrations came to specify a great solstitial Midwinter festival that amalgamated the traditions of various midwinter celebrations across Europe, like Mitwinternacht, Modrasnach, Midvinterblot, and the Teutonic solstice celebration, Feast of the Dead. A documented example of this is in 960, when King Håkon of Norway signed into law that Jul was to be celebrated on the night leading into December 25, to align it with the Christian celebrations. For some Norse sects, Yule logs were lit to honor Thor, the god of thunder. Feasting would continue until the log burned out, three or as many as twelve days. The indigenous lore of the Icelandic Jól continued beyond the Middle Ages, but was condemned when the Reformation arrived. The celebration continues today throughout Northern Europe and elsewhere in name and traditions, for Christians as representative of the nativity of Jesus on the night of December 24th, and for others as a cultural winter celebration on the 24th or for some, the date of the solstice.[32][33] Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x764, 389 KB) Odin rides the eight-legged horse Sleipnir from the 18th century Icelandic manuscript NKS 1867 4to now in the care of the Danish Royal Library; taken from the English Wikipedia, see Image:Treated NKS sleipnir. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x764, 389 KB) Odin rides the eight-legged horse Sleipnir from the 18th century Icelandic manuscript NKS 1867 4to now in the care of the Danish Royal Library; taken from the English Wikipedia, see Image:Treated NKS sleipnir. ... This is the article about the chief god in North Germanic tradition; for other uses see Odin (disambiguation). ... Ymir is killed by the sons of Borr in this artwork by Lorenz Frølich In Norse mythology, Ymir, also named Aurgelmir (Old Norse gravel-yeller) among the giants themselves, was the founder of the race of frost giants and an important figure in Norse cosmology. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... For other uses, see yule log (disambiguation) A chocolate yule log. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The Nativity by Petrus Christus, c. ...


Jul (Germanic Neopaganism)

Main article: Yule
In Germanic Neopagan sects, Yule is celebrated with gatherings that often involve a meal and gift giving. Further attempts at reconstruction of surviving accounts of historical celebrations are often made, a hallmark being variations of the traditional. However it has been pointed out that this is not really reconstruction as these traditions never died out - they have merely removed the Christian elements from the celebration and replaced the event at the solstice.
The Icelandic Ásatrú and the Asatru Folk Assembly in the US recognize Jól or Yule as lasting for 12 days, beginning on the date of the winter solstice.[34]

The Mjolnir is one of the primary symbols of Germanic neopaganism. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Heathenry be merged into this article or section. ... Mjolnir, the hammer of Thor, is one of the major symbols of Ásatrú. This article is about the reconstruction of Norse paganism in particular. ... The Asatru Folk Assembly is an Ásatrú organization based in the US which was founded by Stephen McNallen in 1994. ...

Yule (Wiccan)

Main article: Yule
In Wicca, a form of the holiday is observed as one of the eight solar holidays, or Sabbat. In most Wiccan sects, this holiday is celebrated as the rebirth of the Great God, who is viewed as the newborn solstice sun. Although the name Yule has been appropriated from Germanic and Norsk paganism, elements of the celebration itself are of modern origin.

For the book series Wicca see Sweep (book series) and Circle Of Three. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... In the Wiccan form of neopaganism, a Sabbat is one of the eight major seasonal festivals which make up the Wheel of the Year. ...

Zagmuk, Sacaea (Ancient Mesopotamia, Sumerian, Babylonian)

Main article: Zagmuk

Adapting the Egyptian Osiris Celebrations, the Babylonians held the annual renewal or new year celebration, the Zagmuk Festival. It lasted 12 days overlapping the winter solstice or vernal equinox in its center peak. It was a festival held in observation of the sun god Marduk's battle over darkness. The Babylonians held both land and river parades. Sacaea, as Berossus referred to it, had festivals characterized with a subversion of order leading up to the new year. Masters and slaves interchanged, a mock king was crowned and masquerades clogged the streets. This has been a suggested precursor to the Festival of Kronos, Saturnalia and possibly Purim. [35][36] This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Zagmuk is a Mesopotamian festival celebrated around the vernal equinox, which literally means beginning of the year. It celebrates the triumph of Marduk, the patron deity of Babylon, over the forces of chaos, symbolized in later times by Tiamet. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Marines on parade A parade is an organized procession of people along a street, often in costume, and often accompanied by decorated vehicles called floats or sometimes large lighter-than-air balloons with complex shapes. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Masquerade ball at the Carnival of Venice An artists depiction of a masquerade ball. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, related to Akkadian pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Jewish people of the ancient Persian Empire from Hamans plot to annihilate them, as recorded in the Biblical Book of Esther (Megillat Esther). ...


Ziemassvētki (Latvian, Baltic, Romuva)

Main article: Ziemassvētki

In ancient Latvia, Ziemassvētki, meaning winter festival, was celebrated on December 24 as one of the two most important holidays, the other being Jāņi. Ziemassvētki celebrated the birth of Dievs, the highest god of Latvian mythology. The two weeks before Ziemassvetki are called Veļu laiks, the "season of ghosts." During the festival, candles were lit for Dieviņš and a fire kept burning until the end, when its extinguishing signaled an end to the unhappiness of the previous year. During the ensuing feast, a space at the table was reserved for Ghousts, who was said to arrive on a sleigh. during the feast, certain foods were always eaten: bread, beans, peas, pork and pig snout and feet. Carolers (Budeļi) went door to door singing songs and eating from many different houses. The holiday was later adapted by Christians in the middle ages. It is now celebrated on the 24th, 25th and 26th of December and largely recognized as both a Christian and secular cultural observance. Lithuanians of the Romuva religion continue to celebrate a variant of the original polytheistic holiday. The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In ancient Latvia, ZiemassvÄ“tki was a festival, celebrated on December 24, which was one of the two most important holidays, the other being Jāņi. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jāņi is Latvian festival held on 23/24 June to celebrate summer solstice - the shortest night and longest day in year. ... In art, Dievs is an ancient man with a long white beard. ... “Meza Virs” redirects here. ... In Latvian mythology, Dievs (god) was the supreme god. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Lithuanians are the Baltic ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million [8]. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada and Russia. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ...


See also

Holidays Portal

Winter observances

Related articles

Image File history File links Snowflake_icon. ... This is an incomplete list of festivals and holidays that take place during the winter in the northern hemisphere, especially those commemorating the season. ... Grand Rabbi Israel Abraham Portugal of Skulen Hasidism lighting Hanukkah lights Hanukkah (‎, alt. ... Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ... The New Year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next. ... This article is about the Pongal festival. ... Official HumanLight logo Celebrant-created logo featuring alternate compounding. ... Burning the Clocks is a winter solstice festival that takes place each year in Brighton, UK. Founded in 1993, the celebration centers round a procession of lanterns and costumes, made from withies (willow canes) and white tissue paper, lead by local bands with a carnival atmosphere. ... Winter solstice may refer to: Winter solstice Winter Solstice (band) Winter Solstice: North (album) Winter Solstice (film) Winter Solstice Part 1, an Avatar: The Last Airbender episode Winter Solstice Part 2, an Avatar: The Last Airbender episode Midwinter (disambiguation) Category: ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... Festive ecology explores the relationships between the symbolism and the ecology of the plants, fungi and animals associated with cultural events such as festivals, processions and special occasions. ... Festival of Light or Celebration of Light is a common name (or translation) for many disparate events and groups throughout the world. ... Midsummer may refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice and the diverse celebrations of it around the world, but more often refers to European celebrations that accompany the summer solstice, or to Western festivals that take place in June and are usually related to Saint John... Midwinter Christmas or Yulefest is a Midwinter/Yuletide related celebration custom in Australia and New Zealand during the wintertime (which on the Southern Hemisphere falls into the June-July-August period. ... The phrase Halcyon days is a literary commonplace in English language and culture, signifying ideals of prosperity, bonhomie, joy, liberation, or tranquillity. ... Figure 1 This is a diagram of the seasons. ...

Sources

  1. ^ United States Naval Observatory (01/28/07). Earth's Seasons: Equinoxes, Solstices, Perihelion, and Aphelion, 2000-2020.
  2. ^ ReligiousTolerance.org
  3. ^ An Ancient Holiday History Channel
  4. ^ Yale-New Haven Psychiatric Hospital
  5. ^ Q&A on Bright Light Therapy Columbia University
  6. ^ University of Connecticut
  7. ^ School of the Seasons
  8. ^ Madsen, Loren. Despite Everything Davka.org
  9. ^ "Christmas", The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913.
  10. ^ Celtic Yule Rituals ADF Druid Fellowship
  11. ^ The Iranian, History
  12. ^ New York Metropolitan Museum
  13. ^ UK History
  14. ^ Mostrey, Dimitri InfoPeru.com
  15. ^ Minnesota University
  16. ^ Winter solstice Adventure Calendar
  17. ^ Koleda
  18. ^ Dies Alcyoniae: The Invention of Bellini's Feast of the Gods, by Anthony Colantuono College Art Association, Inc. The Art Bulletin. 1991. Vol. 73, No. 2, p. 246
  19. ^ Correspondences between the Delian and Athenian Calendars in the Years 433 and 432 B. C., by Allen B. West. American Journal of Archaeology. 1934. Vol.38, No. 1, p.9
  20. ^ The Miracle of the Wine at Dionysos' Advent; On the Lenaea Festival, by J. Vürtheim The Classical Quarterly, 1920. Vol. 14, No. 2, p.94
  21. ^ Griffith University, The Centre for Public Culture and Ideas
  22. ^ Margaret Read MacDonald (1992). The Folklore of World Holidays, Chapter: circa December 21. 
  23. ^ Jones, Prudence & Pennick, Nigel. A History of Pagan Europe. Routledge; NY,NY (1997) pp.122-125.
  24. ^ Internet Sacred Texts Archive
  25. ^ Hottes, Alfred Carl, 1001 Christmas Facts and Fancies, NY: De La Mare, 1937.
  26. ^ Kelly, Mary B. Goddesses and Their Offspring, NY: Binghamton (1990)
  27. ^ The Iranian, History
  28. ^ Bahti, Tom. "Southwestern Indian Ceremonials". KC Publications (1970) p36-40.]
  29. ^ HOPI: The Real Thing
  30. ^ Abudarham, Sha'ar ha-Teḳufot, p. 122a, Venice, 1566
  31. ^ Foster, Lynn V. Handbook to Life in the Ancient Mayan World. New York: Facts on File. (2002).
  32. ^ Jones, Prudence & Pennick, Nigel. A History of Pagan Europe. Routledge; NY,NY (1997) pp.122-125.
  33. ^ Samuels, Brian. Aspects of Australian Folklife
  34. ^ Asatru Folk Assembly
  35. ^ Ruano, Teresa Sacaea-Saturnalia. Candlegrove.com
  36. ^ Morrison, Dorothy. Yule: A Celebration of Light and Warmth. Llewellyn Publications (2000)
The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the Roman Catholic Church, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. Starting in 1993, the encyclopedia (now in the public domain) was placed on the Internet through a world-wide... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Winter Solstice - Newgrange Ireland (550 words)
Admission to the chamber at Newgrange for the Winter Solstice sunrise is by lottery.
Joe and Clare won tickets in the winter solstice lottery for December 22nd, they were very fortunate to experience a glorious sunrise in the chamber at Newgrange.
Solstice literally means 'Sun Stands Still', for a few days around the time of the winter solstice the sun appears to stand still in the sky in that its elevation at noon does not seem to change.
Winter solstice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (548 words)
In the northern hemisphere, the winter solstice usually falls on December 21/December 22, which is the southern hemisphere's summer solstice.
Since the winter solstice, summer solstice, vernal equinox, and autumnal equinox were probably observed for the first time by people in the northern hemisphere, these naming conventions originally corresponded to the northern hemisphere's seasons.
The passage and chamber of Newgrange, a tomb in Ireland, are illuminated by the winter solstice sunrise.
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