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Encyclopedia > Winter Olympics
A runner carries the Olympic torch
A runner carries the Olympic torch

The Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics for short but more correctly The Olympic Winter Games, are the cold-weather counterpart to the Summer Olympic Games. They feature winter sports held on ice or snow, such as ice skating and skiing. Picture of John Nowak carrying the Olympic Torch to Salt Lake City and the 2002 Winter Games Picture from: http://www. ... Picture of John Nowak carrying the Olympic Torch to Salt Lake City and the 2002 Winter Games Picture from: http://www. ... For months before the Olympic Games, runners relay the Olympic Flame from Olympia to the opening ceremony. ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... A winter sport is a sport commonly played during winter, usually a sport played on snow or ice. ... Icicles A natural, 4 tonne, block of ice on a beach in Iceland Ice is the solid form of water. ... This page is about the form of precipitation. ... Outdoor ice skating in Austria Ice skating is travelling on ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special boots (or, more primitively, without boots, tied to regular footwear). ... Skiing is the activity of gliding over snow using skis (originally wooden planks, now usually made from fiberglass or related composites) strapped to the feet with ski bindings. ...


The Winter Olympics are held every four years. Most recently, the 2002 Games were held in Salt Lake City, United States. The Italian city of Turin (Torino) will host the next Winter Olympics in 2006, and after that the games will be held in Vancouver, Canada in 2010. The XIX Olympic Winter Games were held in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... Location Region Piedmont Province Turin Area   – Total   – Water 130 km&sup2 (50 mi²) ##.# km² (#.# mi²) #.##% Population   – Total (2002)   – Density 857,433 6,596/km² Time zone CET: UTC+1 Latitude Longitude   45°04′ N 7°40′ E1. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ...

Contents


History

Prelude

When the International Olympic Committee (IOC) was established in 1894, one of the sports proposed for the programme was ice skating. However, no skating was conducted at the Olympics until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, which featured four figure skating events. Ulrich Salchow (10-fold World champion) and Madge Syers (the first competitive woman figure skater) won the individual titles with ease. The International Olympic Committee is an organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organise this sports event every four years. ... Outdoor ice skating in Austria Ice skating is travelling on ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special boots (or, more primitively, without boots, tied to regular footwear). ... The Games of the IV Olympiad, originally scheduled to be held in Rome, were instead held in 1908 in London, England. ... London (see also different names) is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Figure skating is an ice skating sporting event where individuals, mixed couples, or groups perform spins, jumps, and other moves on the ice, often to music. ... Karl Emil Julius Ulrich Salchow (August 7, 1877-April 19, 1949) was a Swedish figure skater, who dominated the sport in the first decade of the 20th century. ... Florence Madeleine Madge Syers (born Cave) (1881-September 1917) was a British figure skater. ...


Three years later, Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d'Usseaux proposed to the IOC to stage a week with winter sports as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm. The organisers opposed this idea, wanting to promote the Nordic Games, a winter sports competition held every four years between competitors from the Nordic countries. However, this same idea was again proposed for the 1916 Games, which were to be held in Berlin. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned, but the 1916 Olympics were cancelled after the outbreak of World War I. Count Eugenio Brunetta dUsseaux (December 14, 1857-January 8, 1919) was an Italian nobleman. ... The Games of the V Olympiad were held in 1912 in Stockholm, Sweden. ... Stockholm  listen? is the capital and the largest city of Sweden. ... The Nordic Games was the first international multi-sport event that focused primarily on winter sports, and was held at varying intervals between 1901 and 1926. ... The Nordic countries (Greenland not shown) The Nordic countries is a term used collectively for five countries in Northern Europe. ... Gaetan Boucher training for the 1976 Olympics Speed skating or speedskating is a form of ice skating in which the competitors attempt to travel a certain distance over the ice as quickly as possible. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Nordic skiing is a term that includes the Olympic winter sports: Cross country skiing Ski jumping Nordic combined See also: Telemark skiing ... WWI redirects here. ...


The first Olympics after the war, the 1920 Games in Antwerp again featured figure skating, while ice hockey made its Olympic debut. At the IOC Congress held the next year, it was decided that the organisers of the next Olympics (France) would also host a separate "International Winter Sports Week", under patronage of the IOC. This week proved a great success, and in 1925 the IOC decided to create separate Winter Olympic Games, not connected to the Summer Olympics. The 1924 events were retroactively designated as the first Winter Olympics at the 1926 IOC Session. The Games of the VII Olympiad were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Originally called Semaine des Sports dHiver (International Winter Sports Week) and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, the sports competitions held at the foot of Mont Blanc in Chamonix, Haute-Savoie, France between 25 January and 5 February 1924, organised by the French Olympic Committee, were in...


1924 Winter Olympics

The French town of Chamonix in the Haute-Savoie was the host of the first Olympic Winter Games. From January 25 to February 5, more than 200 athletes from 16 nations competed in 16 events. The first event on the programme was the 500 m speed skating, which was won by American Charlie Jewtraw, thereby becoming the first Winter Olympic champion. Originally called Semaine des Sports dHiver (International Winter Sports Week) and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, the sports competitions held at the foot of Mont Blanc in Chamonix, Haute-Savoie, France between 25 January and 5 February 1924, organised by the French Olympic Committee, were in... Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, or more commonly, Chamonix is a town and commune in eastern France, in the Haute-Savoie département, at the foot of Mont Blanc. ... Haute-Savoie is a French département, named after the Alps mountain range. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Finnish and Norwegian athletes dominated the events. Finnish speed skater Clas Thunberg won three gold medals, while Norwegian Thorleif Haug also won three golds. He won both cross-country skiing events, as well as the Nordic combined. Furthermore he placed third in the ski jumping contest, but 50 years later it was discovered that a counting error had been made and that the bronze should have been awarded to American Anders Haugen, who received it in a special ceremony at age 83. Skiing by free technique/skating Cross-country skiing (aka XC skiing) is an adventure and fitness activity as well as a competitive winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily in Europe and Canada. ... The Nordic combined is a winter sport in which competitors involve in both cross-country skiing and ski jumping. ... Ski jumping is a winter sport in which skiers go down a hill with a take-off ramp (the jump), attempting to go as far as possible. ...


The Canadian ice hockey team easily won the tournament. Represented by the Toronto Granites, the Canadians scored 110 goals in 6 games, while conceding only three. Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The Senior A team that represented Canada in the 1924 Olympics. ...


1928 Winter Olympics

Sankt Moritz was appointed by the Swiss organisers to host the second Olympic Winter Games, held from February 11 to 19 in 1928. Curling and military patrol were no longer medal sports (although the latter was demonstrated) while skeleton made its first Olympic appearance. The American Heaton brothers won first and second place. The II Olympic Winter Games were held in 1928 in Sankt-Moritz, Switzerland. ... St. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Curling is a game played on ice with granite stones Curling is a precision sport similar to bowls or bocce, but played on ice with polished heavy stones rather than plastic balls. ... The name biathlon is commonly confused with duathlon, the term used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines. ... Skeleton is an individual, sledding, winter sport where competitors drive the sled in a prone, head-first position down an ice track on a sled or sleigh. This differs from luge, where the rider drives the sled from a supine, feet-first orientation. ...


Clas Thunberg won two more Olympic gold medals, bringing his total to five. Johan Grøttumsbråten also won two golds, winning the 18 km cross-country and the Nordic combined events. Gillis Grafström won his third consecutive figure skating title. His female counterpart was Norwegian Sonja Henie, only 15 years old at the time. It would turn out this was also the first of three titles for her. Sonja Henie (April 8, 1912-October 12, 1969) was a Norwegian figure skater and actress. ...


Warm weather conditions plagued the Olympics on the fourth day. The 10000 m speed skating was abandoned in the 5th pair, and the 50 km cross-country ended with a temperature of 25 degrees above zero, forcing a third of the field to abandon competition.


1932 Winter Olympics

For the first time, the Winter Olympics came to North America. However, fewer athletes participated than in 1928, as the journey to Lake Placid, New York was a long and expensive one for most competitors, and there was little money for sports in the midst of the Great Depression. On top of that, these games too were marred by warm weather, which eventually made it necessary to extend them for two more days. The Games opened on February 4 and closed on February 15. The III Olympic Winter Games were held in Lake Placid, New York, USA and opened on February 4, 1932. ... Lake Placid is a village located in Essex County, New York. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None (English is de facto) Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... The Great Depression was a massive global economic recession (or depression) that ran from 1929 to 1941. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


The two-man bobsleigh event was scheduled for the first time, while the speed skating events were conducted in mass start format, as was common in North America. This gave the American and Canadian skaters an advantage from which they benefited by winning all but two of the available skating medals. (Bernt Evensen from Norway won silver on the 500 m., and his fellow countryman Ivar Ballangrud did the same on the 10000 m.) Jack Shea and Irving Jaffee shared the gold between them, winning two gold medals each. There were three demonstration sports in Lake Placid: sled dog racing, curling and women's speed skating. Ivar Ballangrud (March 7, 1904- June 1, 1969) was a Norwegian speed skater. ... Dogsled racing is a winter dog sport involving the timed competition of teams of sleddogs that pull a sled, on the runners of which the dog driver or musher stands. ...


Swedish figure skater Gillis Grafström didn't manage to win his fourth straight Olympic gold, being defeated by Austria's Karl Schäfer. Sonja Henie (figure skating) and Billy Fiske (bobsleigh) successfully defended their titles. One of the members of Fiske's gold medal-winning sled was Eddie Eagan, who had been an Olympic champion in boxing in 1920. As of 2004, he is the only Olympian to have won gold medals in both the Summer and Winter Olympics. Billy Fiske (William Meade Lindsley Fiske III; June 4, 1911 – August 17, 1940) was an American notable for his achievements in the 1928 Winter Olympics, as well as being the first American pilot casualty of World War II during the Battle of Britain. ... Edward Patrick Francis Eddie Eagan (April 26, 1897 – June 14, 1967) is an American sportsman. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


1936 Winter Olympics

The Bavarian twin towns of Garmisch and Partenkirchen joined to organise the 1936 edition of the Winter Games, held from February 6 to 16. Alpine skiing made its Olympic debut in Germany, but skiing teachers were barred from entering, as they were considered to be professionals. This decision caused the Swiss and Austrian skiers to boycott the Olympics. The cross-country relay was also held for the first time, while the military patrol and ice stock sport were demonstration sports. The IV Olympic Winter Games were held in the villages of Garmisch and Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany. ... With an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Garmisch-Partenkirchen (29,875 inhabitants; 01-01-2004) is a market town, and the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region of Bavaria, Germany, near the border with Austria. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Ice stock sport is a winter sport, somewhat similar to curling. ...


Norwegian Ivar Ballangrud dominated the speed skating events, winning three of them, and placing second in the fourth. His compatriot, Sonja Henie won her third straight title, and turned professional after the Games. Another Norwegian, Birger Ruud attempted a rare double, competing in both ski jumping and alpine skiing. He led the alpine combined event after the downhill, but dropped to fourth place in the slalom. He did win the ski jumping event, held one week later. Ivar Ballangrud (March 7, 1904- June 1, 1969) was a Norwegian speed skater. ...


An upset occurred in the ice hockey tournament, where Canada was defeated for the first time, and lost the gold medal to Great Britain. However, most of the British players were born in, or lived in, Canada.


World War II

The Second World War interrupted the celebration of the Winter Olympics. The 1940 Winter Olympics had originally been awarded to Japan, and were supposed to be held in Sapporo, but Japan had to give the Games back in 1938, because of the Japanese invasion of China in the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945 after the Allied atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. ... The anticipated V Olympic Winter Games were cancelled due to World War II. They were to have been held in Sapporo, Japan. ... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ...


Sankt Moritz was chosen by the IOC to host the 1940 Winter Olympics, but three month later the IOC withdrew Sankt Moritz the Games again, because of quarrels with the Swiss organisation team.


Garmisch-Partenkirchen stepped in to organise the Games again, but the Games were cancelled in November 1939, because Germany invaded Poland in September 1939.


The 1944 Winter Olympics, scheduled to take place in Cortina d'Ampezzo, were cancelled in Summer 1941. The anticipated V Olympic Winter Games were cancelled due to World War II. They were to have been held in Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy. ... Cortina dAmpezzo (population 8000) is a town in the province of Veneto, northern Italy. ...


1948 Winter Olympics

The Swiss town of Sankt-Moritz, untouched by the war because Switzerland remained neutral, became the first place to organise the Winter Olympics for the second time. Twenty-Eight countries competed in Switzerland from January 30 to February 8, although athletes from Germany and Japan were not invited. The V Olympic Winter Games were held in St. ... St. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Skeleton returned on the programme after 20 years. Remarkably, American John Heaton won the silver, as he had done in 1928. The sport disappeared again after the Sankt Moritz games, returning again in 2002. Four new alpine skiing events were also held, allowing Frenchman Henri Oreiller to win three medals, including golds in the downhill and the combined event. Swedish cross-country skier Martin Lundström also won two golds. A major upset occurred in the Nordic combined. This event had been dominated by Norway, which had won all medals from 1924 to 1936. But the best Norwegian only placed 6th in 1948, and the title went to Heikki Hasu of Finland.


A strange incident occurred in ice hockey. Because of a dispute, two American ice hockey teams arrived in Sankt Moritz: one sanctioned by the American Olympic Committee (AOC), and one sanctioned by the American Hockey Association (AHA). The IOC voted to bar both teams from competing, but Swiss allowed the AHA team to compete anyway, while the AOC team marched in the opening ceremonies. After the IOC threatened to annul the entire competition, the AHA team was removed from the standings and lost its fourth position. There were two different American Hockey Associations: American Hockey Association (1926-42) - A minor pro league existing between 1926 and 1942. ...


1952 Winter Olympics

In 1952, the Winter Games came to Norway, considered to be the birthplace of modern skiing. As a tribute, the Olympic Flame was lit in the fireplace of the home of skiing pioneer Sondre Nordheim. The programme in Oslo, from February 14 to 25, was expanded with the first ever cross-country event for women, while the alpine combination was replaced with the giant slalom. Bandy, a popular sport in the Nordic countries, was held as a demonstration sport. The VI Olympic Winter Games were held in 1952 in Norway. ... The Olympic Flame at the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics The Olympic Flame or Olympic Fire is a symbol of the Olympic Games. ... Sondre Norheim (June 10, 1825–March 9, 1897) was the pioneer of modern skiing. ... County Oslo NO-03 Landscape Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Bandy is a winter sport, where a ball is hit with a stick. ...


Speed skater Hjalmar Andersen excited the home crowd by winning gold medals in three of the four speed skating events. Germany returned to the Olympic Games after 16 years, although only represented by West German athletes. German bobsledder Andreas Ostler steered his crews to two gold medals. His 4-man crew weighed a record 472 kg, while the international bobsleigh federation had just decided before the Games that the weight limit would be 400 kg in the future. Nineteen-year-old Andrea Mead Lawrence won two gold medals in alpine skiing, winning both the slalom and the giant slalom. Hjalmar Johan Hjallis Andersen (born March 12, 1923) is a Norwegian speed skater who won three gold medals at the 1952 Winter Olympic Games in Oslo, Norway. ... KG, Kg or kg may indicate: A Kampfgeschwader, a bomber squadron of the former German Luftwaffe Basketball Player Kevin Garnett An abbreviation for kilogram (always kg) Knight of the Garter, a British decoration Kongo language (ISO 639 alpha-2) An abbreviation for konig or king Kwansei Gakuin University (Japan) [1...


1956 Winter Olympics

After not being able to host the Games in 1944 due to the war, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy was able to organise the 1956 Winter Olympics, held from January 26 to February 5. At the first Winter Games to be televised, the programme was extended with two events in cross-country skiing. The VII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1956 in Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy. ... Cortina dAmpezzo (population 8000) is a town in the province of Veneto, northern Italy. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Most important development was the debut of the Soviet Union at the Winter Olympics. They immediately showed their potential by winning more medals than any other nation. In speed skating, Soviet skaters won three out of four events, with Yevgeni Grishin winning the 500 and 1500 m (the latter shared with compatriot Yuri Sergeyev). They ended Canada's dominance over the Olympic ice hockey tournament, and the first non-Nordic medallist in cross-country skiing was also a Russian.


Star of the Games, however, was Austrian skier Toni Sailer. He won all three alpine events, the first time this occurred in the Olympics. Cross-country skier Sixten Jernberg won four medals for Sweden, but only one gold medal. Toni Sailer in 1957 Anton Toni Sailer (born November 17, 1935 in Kitzbühel) is an Austrian skiing legend. ... Edy Sixten Jernberg (born 6 February 1929, Malung Municipality, Dalarna County) is a retired Swedish cross country skier. ...


1960 Winter Olympics

At the time the Olympics were awarded to Squaw Valley, a resort town created by Alexander Cushing, near Lake Tahoe in California. By 1960, this had changed, although there was no bobsleigh run. The organising committee found it too expensive as only 9 nations would take part. There was a fear of lack of snow, but late snowfall prevented a disaster. The Games were held from February 18 to 28. While bobsleighing was absent, biathlon was first contested at the Olympics, and women first took part in speed skating. The VIII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1960 in Squaw Valley, USA. Alexander Cushing, the creator of the resort, campaigned vigorously to win the Games. ... A resort is a place used for relaxation or recreation. ... Alexander Cushing is the founder and chairman of Ski Corporation, the parent company of the internationally recognized ski resort of Squaw Valley, in the Lake_Tahoe area of Northern_California. ... Lake Tahoe and hotels, 1908. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The name biathlon is commonly confused with duathlon, the term used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines. ...


Only two athletes managed to win more than one gold medal in Squaw Valley, both Soviet speed skaters. Yevgeni Grishin repeated his 1956 performance by winning both the 500 and 1500 m. Even more remarkable was that he again tied for the gold in the 1500, this time with Norwegian Roald Aas. Fellow Russian Lidia Skoblikova won the two longest distances in the inaugural women's races. She would add four more titles in 1964. The men's 10000 m saw Knut Johannesen glide to the gold in a time 46 seconds under the world record. Lidia Skoblikova was born in Zlatoust Soviet Union, March 8, 1939, some 60 km west of Chelyabinsk, Siberia. ...


35-year-old Veikko Hakulinen of Finland won a complete set of medals in these Games, including a narrow win in the 4 x 10 km relay. A surprise occurred in ice hockey, where the home team surprisingly defeated the favoured Soviets, Canadians and Czechs.


1964 Winter Olympics

The Tyrolean city of Innsbruck was the host in 1964. Despite being a traditional winter sports resort, there was a lack of snow and ice during the Games, and the Austrian army was called in to bring snow and ice to the sport venues. Bobsleigh returned to the Olympics, while a new event was added to ski jumping and women's cross-country skiing. Luge was first contested in the Olympics, although the sport got bad publicity when a competitor was killed in a pre-Olympic training run. The IX Olympic Winter Games were held in 1964 Innsbruck, Austria. ... This article is about the Tyrol, the region in the eastern Alps. ... Innsbruck City Center Innsbruck and Nordkette from south // Geography Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the Tyrol province. ... A luge is small one- or two-person sled on which one sleighs supine and feet-first. ...


Two Soviet athletes were very successful at these Games. Speed skater Lidia Skoblikova swept all four women's events, while her compatriot Klavdia Boyarskikh did the same in women's cross-country, winning three golds. Two other cross-country skiers, Eero Mäntyranta and Sixten Jernberg, took home two gold medals. Lidia Skoblikova was born in Zlatoust Soviet Union, March 8, 1939, some 60 km west of Chelyabinsk, Siberia. ... Edy Sixten Jernberg (born 6 February 1929, Malung Municipality, Dalarna County) is a retired Swedish cross country skier. ...


The French sisters Marielle and Christine Goitschel took the first two places in both the slalom and the giant slalom event, each sister winning once. Also remarkable was Eugenio Monti, who leant a spare part of his bobsleigh to British competitors Tony Nash and Robin Dixon, enabling them to win the gold medal in the 2-man event. Eugenio Monti (January 23, 1928 – December 1, 2003) was an Italian bobsledder known for an act of sportsmanship during the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria that made him the first athlete ever to receive the Pierre de Coubertin medal. ...


1968 Winter Olympics

Held in the French town of Grenoble, the 1968 Winter Olympics were the first Olympic Games in which East and West Germany participated as separate countries. Until 1964, they had competed in a combined German team. One new event was added for the Grenoble Games: the 4 x 10 km relay in biathlon. Another first in the Olympics were doping and sex tests. See also: 1968 Winter Paralympics The X Olympic Winter Games were held in 1968 France and opened on Norway won the most medals, the first time a country other than the Soviet Union had done so since the Soviet Union first entered the Winter Games in 1956. ... View of Grenoble, 2002, with the snowy peaks of the Dauphiné Alps Location within France Grenoble (Occitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France, situated at the foot of the Alps, at the confluence of the Drac into the Isère River. ...


Alpine skier Jean-Claude Killy lead the home team's good performances. By winning all three alpine events, he equalled Toni Sailer's 1956 performance. Killy's third gold medal was slightly controversial however, as Austrian Karl Schranz was disqualified. He had been allowed to re-ski his second run after he was interrupted by spectators. The jury later ruled Schranz had missed a gate before the interruption, and disqualified him as a winner. Another controversy arose in the women's luge. The East German women had finished first, second and fourth, but were subsequently disqualified for heating their sledge's runners, which is illegal in lugeing. Jean-Claude Killy (born August 30, 1943) is a French alpine skier and a triple Olympic champion. ... Toni Sailer in 1957 Anton Toni Sailer (born November 17, 1935 in Kitzbühel) is an Austrian skiing legend. ...


Other successful athletes were Italian bobsleigh driver Eugenio Monti, who won both bobsleigh events after a long Olympic career, and Toini Gustafsson of Sweden, who won both individual events in cross-country, and added a silver with the Swedish relay team. Her male colleagues of Norway, Ole Ellefsæter and Harald Grønningen, also won two gold medals. Eugenio Monti (January 23, 1928 – December 1, 2003) was an Italian bobsledder known for an act of sportsmanship during the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria that made him the first athlete ever to receive the Pierre de Coubertin medal. ...


1972 Winter Olympics

The 1972 Winter Games were the first to be held outside North America or Europe. The Games in Sapporo, Japan, were surrounded by several professionalism issues. Three days before the Olympics, IOC president Avery Brundage threatened to bar a large number of top alpine skiers from competing because they did not comply with the amateurism rules. Eventually, only Austrian star Karl Schranz, who earned most of all skiers, was not allowed to compete. Also, the Canadian ice hockey team was absent, protesting the Eastern European "state amateurs", who, according to the Canadians, were in fact professionals. The XI Olympic Winter Games were held in 1972 in Japan. ... Sapporo scene Sapporo White Illumination Sapporo (札幌市; -shi) is the fifth-largest city in Japan and it is the capital of Hokkaido Prefecture. ... Avery Brundage (September 28, 1887 _ May 8, 1975) was an American athlete, sports official, art collector and philanthropist. ...


Major stars of the Games were, without a doubt, Dutch speed skater Ard Schenk and Soviet cross-country skier Galina Kulakova. Schenk won three of the four skating events (falling in the 500 m), while Kulakova won all three events she entered. Switzerland's Marie Thérès Nadig and Vyacheslav Vedenin (USSR) both returned home with two Olympic gold medals. Adrianus Ard Schenk (born September 16, 1944) is a former Dutch speedskater. ...


Sapporo also brought several surprising winners. In ski jumping, Wojciech Fortuna from Poland won his country first gold medal, while the host nation performed a clean sweep of the other ski jumping event, also winning its first Olympic winter gold. In alpine skiing, Spaniard Francisco Fernández Ochoa was the surprise winner of the slalom event. Wojciech Fortuna (1952 in Zakopane) is a Polish ski jumper. ...


On a historical note, the 1972 Games were the last Olympic Winter Games where a skier would win the gold medal using all-wooden skis. After this, all top-level cross-country skiing would take place with the athletes using skis made mostly of fibreglass synthetics. There is a disputed proposal to merge this article with glass-reinforced plastic. ...


1976 Winter Olympics

Originally, the 1976 Winter Games had been awarded to Denver, but in a 1972 plebiscite, the city's inhabitants voted against organising the Games. Innsbruck, which still had the venues of 1964 in good shape, was chosen in 1973 to replace Denver. Because it was the second time the Austrian town hosted the Games, two Olympic flames were lit. New events on the programme were ice dancing and the men's 1000 m in speed skating. The XII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1976 in Innsbruck, Austria. ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ...


No athlete managed to win three gold medals, but a few came close. West German alpine skier Rosi Mittermaier won two gold medals, and came within 12 hundredths of a second of winning a third. Soviet cross-country skier Raisa Smetanina also won two golds and a silver, while her compatriot Tatyana Averina won two golds and two bronzes in speed skating. Rosi Mittermaier (born August 5, 1950 in Reit im Winkl) is an Alpine Ski champion who won two gold medals and one silver in the 1976 Olympic winter games in Innsbruck, Austria, earning her the nickname of Gold-Rosi within Germany. ...


East German bobsledders Nehmer and Germeshausen collected two gold medals, winning both the 2- and 4-man events. Russian biathlete Nikolay Kruglov also won two golds.


1980 Winter Olympics

The Olympic Winter Games returned to Lake Placid, which had earlier hosted the 1932 edition. The People's Republic of China made its debut at the Winter Olympics. Because of this, the Republic of China (Taiwan) was forced by the IOC to compete under the name of Chinese Taipei. The Taiwanese refused, and thus became the only nation to boycott the Olympic Winter Games. The threat of the American boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics was also clouding these Olympics, as the decision to do so fell during the Games. The XIII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1980 in Lake Placid, New York, Canada; they withdrew before the final vote. ... Lake Placid is the name of some places in the United States of America: Lake Placid, Florida Lake Placid, New York Lake Placid is also a lake in the state of New York (see Lake Placid (lake)). Lake Placid is also the name of a film. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Simplified Chinese: 中华民国; Wade-Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo, Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó, Taiwanese POJ: Tiong-hoâ Bîn-kok) is a multiparty democratic state that is effectively composed of the island groups of Taiwan, the Pescadores, Quemoy... The Games of the XXII Olympiad were held in 1980 in Moscow, Soviet Union. ...


Fortunately, there were also many sporting highlights. Nordic combiner Ulrich Wehling and figure skater Irina Rodnina both won their third consecutive gold medals in the same event, while biathlete Aleksander Tikhonov won his fourth one in the relay. Speed skater Eric Heiden equalled Lidia Skoblikova's achievement from 1964 by winning all speed skating events. However, where Skoblikova won four, Heiden won five gold medals, which made him the first to ever win five gold medals in individual events during a single Olympics (a record equalled by Vitaly Scherbo in the 1992 Summer Olympics). Ulrich Wehling (born July 8, 1952 in Halle) is a German skier who won the Nordic combined event in the Winter Olympics three consecutive times, in 1972, 1976, and 1980. ... Irina Konstantinovna Rodnina (born September 12, 1949, Moscow, Russia) was a Soviet figure skater. ... Eric Arthur Heiden (born June 15, 1958) is an American speed skater who won an unprecedented five gold medals at the 1980 Winter Olympic Games in Lake Placid, New York, United States. ... Lidia Skoblikova was born in Zlatoust Soviet Union, March 8, 1939, some 60 km west of Chelyabinsk, Siberia. ... Vitaly Scherbo (born January 13, 1972 in Minsk, Belarus) is Belarusian gymnast. ... The Games of the XXV Olympiad were held in 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ...


In alpine skiing, Liechtenstein's Hanni Wenzel won two gold medals, as did Ingemar Stenmark from Sweden. For the Americans, however, the highlight of the Games was the Olympic ice hockey tournament. In a match later dubbed the "Miracle on Ice", the home team upset the favoured Soviet Union, and went on to win the title. Hanni Wenzel (born in Straubing, Germany on December 14, 1956) is an alpine skier from Liechtenstein. ... Ingemar Stenmark (March 18, 1956-) was a Swedish Slalom and Giant Slalom skiier, competing for Fjällvinden Tärnaby. ... The 1980 U.S. Olympic hockey team celebrates the goal that led them to victory over the USSR. The Miracle on Ice is the popular nickname for the ice hockey game in the 1980 Olympic Winter Games, in which a team of amateur and collegiate players from the United States...


1984 Winter Olympics

Sarajevo was quite a surprising choice for the Winter Olympics, as no Yugoslavian athlete had ever won an Olympic medal in the Winter Games. This gap was filled by alpine skier Jure Franko, who won a silver medal in the giant slalom. There was only one new event at the Sarajevo Games, a 20 km cross-country event for women. The XIV Olympic Winter Games were held in 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. ... View of Sarajevo from the east. ... Jure Franko, born on March 28, 1962, is a Slovenian alpine skier. ...


Finnish skier Marja-Liisa Hämäläinen took advantage of this new event, which allowed her to win three gold medals, winning all individual events. She added a bronze in the relay event. Other well scoring athletes were skaters Gaétan Boucher (Canada) and Karin Enke (East Germany), who both won two gold medals. Enke also won two silver medals in the other two women's speed skating events, which where completely dominated by East Germany, winning all gold and silver medals. Gaétan Boucher, born May 10, 1958 in Charlesbourg, Quebec, Canada, is a Canadian speed skater. ...


In figure skating, British ice dancers Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean were popular with the audience and the jury, who gave them perfect scores for their free dance programme. East German figure skater Katarina Witt also won many hearts with her gold performance. Jayne Torvill (born 7 October 1957) was a British figure skater who won a gold medal in ice dancing at the 1984 Winter Olympics with her skating partner Christopher Dean. ... Christopher Dean was a British figure skater who won a gold medal in ice dancing at the 1984 Winter Olympics with his skating partner Jayne Torvill. ... Katarina Witt is a German figure skater. ...


1988 Winter Olympics

The Canadian city of Calgary hosted the first Winter Olympics to span 16 days. New events had been added in alpine skiing, ski jumping and speed skating, while future Olympic sports curling, short track speed skating and freestyle skiing made their appearance as demonstration sports. The XV Olympic Winter Games were held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Motto: Heart of the new west Area: 712. ...


For the first time, the speed skating events were held indoor, on the Calgary Olympic Oval. Dutch skater Yvonne van Gennip beat the favoured East German, winning three gold medals and setting two new world records. Her total was equalled by Finnish ski jumper Matti Nykänen, who won all events in his sport. The Olympic Oval in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, is a covered speed skating oval built for the 1988 Winter Olympics. ... Yvonne Maria van Gennip, born on May 1, 1964 in Haarlem, The Netherlands was one of the most successful female Dutch allround speed skaters. ... East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a Communist state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... Matti Nykänen (born July 17, 1963 in Jyväskylä, Finland) is a Finnish ski jumper, and inarguably one of the greatest in that sport, winning five olympic medals (four golden), 15 world championships medals (six golden) and 22 Finnish championships medals (13 golden). ...


Other stars of the Games include flamboyant Italian skier Alberto Tomba, East German figure skater Katarina Witt and Swedish cross-country skier Gunde Svan. Not all athletes making the headlines were winning medals: British ski jumper Eddie 'the Eagle' Edwards, who came in last, and the Jamaica's first ever bobsleigh team also received plenty of attention. Alberto Tomba (popularly called Tomba la Bomba) is a retired professional alpine skier of Italian nationality. ... Katarina Witt is a German figure skater. ... Categories: Stub | 1962 births | Swedish skiers ... Michael Edwards (b. ...


1992 Winter Olympics

The 1992 Games were held in the French Haute Savoie region; Albertville itself only hosted 18 events. Two new sports, short track speed skating and freestyle skiing were on the programme. Women's biathlon was also included for the first time. Curling, speed skiing and two freestyle skiing events were demonstrated. The XVI Olympic Winter Games were held in 1992 in France. ... Haute-Savoie is a French département, named Upper Savoy for its location in the Alps mountain range. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Host cities of the Winter Olympic Games | Cities, towns and villages in France ...


Political changes of the time were reflected in the Olympic teams appearing in France. Germany competed as a single nation for the first time since the 1930s, and former Yugoslavian republics Croatia and Slovenia made their debut. The Soviet Union still competed as a single team, under the name of Unified Team, but the Baltic States made independent appearances, for the first time since World War II. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... The Unified Team was the name used for the sports team of the former Soviet Union (also Commonwealth of Independent States) at both the Winter and Summer Olympic Games of 1992 (in Albertville and Barcelona, respectively). ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ...


Norway won all cross-country events for men, with Bjørn Dæhlie and Vegard Ulvang each winning three gold medals. Several athletes won two gold medals, such as Petra Kronberger (skiing), Bonnie Blair, Gunda Niemann (both speed skating) and Kim Ki-Hoon (short track). Finnish ski jumper Toni Nieminen made history by becoming the youngest male Winter Olympic champion. New Zealand skier Annelise Coburger made history with a silver medal in the women's slalom, becoming the first Winter Olympic medallist from the Southern Hemisphere. Bjørn Dæhlie (born June 19, 1967) is a Norwegian cross-country skier. ... Vegard Ulvang (born October 10, 1963) is a Norwegian cross-country skier. ... Bonnie Kathleen Blair (b. ...


1994 Winter Olympics

In 1986, the IOC decided to stop holding the Summer Games and Winter Games in the same year. The Lillehammer Games were the first Winter Olympics to be held in a different year. The winter sports-minded Norwegians organised the Olympics extremely well, and many still consider them to be the best organised to date. The event programme was again extended, adding two new events each in freestyle skiing and short track speed skating. After the split-up of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the Czech Republic and Slovakia made their Olympic debut in Lillehammer, as did several former Soviet republics. The XVII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. ... The XVII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. ...


Johann Olav Koss emulated Hjalmar Andersen's achievement of 1952, winning speed skating's three longest distances for his home audience - Koss set a new world record in each of the distances as well. Italian cross-country skier Manuela di Centa won five medals out of five events, including two gold medals; Lyubov Yegorova won three gold medals in the same sport. US speed skater Bonnie Blair won the fourth and fifth gold medal of her career, including the third straight gold in the 500 m, while Canadian biathlete Myriam Bédard won both individual events in her sport. Johann Olav Koss (born October 29, 1968, in Drammen) is a Norwegian speed skater, considered to be one of the best in history. ... Hjalmar Johan Hjallis Andersen (born March 12, 1923) is a Norwegian speed skater who won three gold medals at the 1952 Winter Olympic Games in Oslo, Norway. ... Bonnie Kathleen Blair (b. ... Myriam Bédard (born December 22, 1969) is a Canadian biathlete (ret), winner of two Olympic gold medals. ...


A lot of media attention, especially in the United States, went to the women's figure skating competition. American skater Nancy Kerrigan had been injured some months before the Games in an assault planned by the ex-husband of opponent Tonya Harding. Both skaters competed in the Games, but neither of them won the gold medal, which went to Oksana Baiul, who won Ukraine's first Olympic title. Nancy Kerrigan (born 13 October 1969) is a two-time Olympic figure skating medalist. ... Tonya Maxine Harding (born November 12, 1970) is a former figure skater from Portland, Oregon. ... Oksana Baiul (Оксана Баюл, born November 16, 1977 in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine) is a professional figure skater and a former Olympic gold medalist. ...


1998 Winter Olympics

For the first time, more than 2000 winter athletes competed in the Winter Olympics, Japan's second Winter Olympics, held in the city of Nagano. Two new sports were conducted - snowboarding and curling - while women's ice hockey was also included. The XVIII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1998 in Nagano, Japan. ... Categories: Host cities of the Winter Olympic Games | Cities in Nagano Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ...


The men's ice hockey tournament was open to all players for the first time, making Canada and the United States favourites for the gold with their many NHL professionals. However, neither nation medalled and the Czech Republic captured the gold instead. Speed skating saw a wave of new world records thanks to the use of the revolutionary clap skate; Dutch skaters Gianni Romme and Marianne Timmer each won two golds. Bjørn Dæhlie won three gold medals, bringing his all-time total to 12 medals, including 8 golds. The Russian women swept the cross-country events, with Larisa Lazutina winning three titles. German luger Georg Hackl won his third straight singles title, while Austria's Hermann Maier won two gold medals in alpine skiing, after a spectacular fall in the downhill event. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of ice hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey. ... Clap skates (also called clapskates, slap skates, slapskates, from Dutch klapschaats) are a type of skates used in speed skating. ... Bjørn Dæhlie (born June 19, 1967) is a Norwegian cross-country skier. ... Georg Hackl (born 9 September 1966) is a German luger and a three time Olympic and World Champion. ... Hermann Maier (born December 7, 1972) is an Austrian skier who has won four overall World Cup titles (1998, 2000, 2001, 2004), two Olympic gold medals (both in 1998) and two World Campionship titles (both in 1999). ...


Snowboarding's introduction into the Olympics did not come without a scandal, as gold medallist Ross Rebagliati (Canada) was initially disqualified for cannabis use, but his disqualification was overturned later. Rebagliati after receiving his gold medal Ross Rebagliati (Born: July 14, 1971 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) is a Canadian professional snowboarder. ... Cannabis leaves are less potent than the flowers. ...


2002 Winter Olympics

The 19th Olympic Winter Games were held in Salt Lake City, Utah. Prior to the opening of the Games, it was found that Salt Lake organisers had bribed several IOC members in order to be elected. This resulted in a change of the host city election procedures and several IOC members resigned or were punished. Again, the programme was expanded. Skeleton made its return on the Olympic podium after 54 years, while new events were added in biathlon, bobsleigh, cross-country skiing, Nordic combined and short track speed skating. The XIX Olympic Winter Games were held in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... Aerial view of Temple Square of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints during the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. ... The 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal was a scandal involving allegations of bribery to obtain the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah. ...


The Salt Lake City Olympics had many stars. Ole Einar Bjørndalen won all four biathlon events, while Samppa Lajunen took all three Nordic combined medals. Croatia's Janica Kostelić won four medals in alpine skiing, of which three gold. Simon Ammann won both individual ski jumping events, while Georg Hackl won his fifth consecutive medal in the same event (luge singles), a feat never before achieved by any Olympian. In speed skating, the high altitude of the skating rink assured several new world records. Jochem Uytdehaage broke three world records, winning two golds and a silver; Claudia Pechstein won the 5000 m for the third time in a row, while also winning the 3000 m. Canadians jubilated as both their men's and their women's hockey teams defeated the United States to win the gold; the men's team thus ended a medal drought that had lasted 50 years to the day. Ole Einar Bjørndalen (born January 27, 1974) from Simostranda in Modum, southeastern Norway, is a career biathlete. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Zakopane 2005 fot. ... Georg Hackl (born 9 September 1966) is a German luger and a three time Olympic and World Champion. ... Categories: Sports stubs | Dutch speed skaters ... 2002 Winter Olympic Games Ice hockey Men Fourteen countries played in the tournament. ...


The men's 1000 m short track speed skating event saw one of the unlikeliest results in sports history. Australian Steven Bradbury, who would have been eliminated in the quarterfinals but for the disqualification of Marc Gagnon, advanced to the final when the four other competitors in his semifinal collided on the final lap. In the final, Bradbury was fifth going into the final lap, when another collision left him the last man standing. Bradbury was able to avoid the pileup, becoming the first Winter Olympic gold medallist from the Southern Hemisphere. Many Australians saw this as a painfully humorous example of the country's struggle for competitiveness in winter sports, being that it took for all other competitors to crash for an Aussie to win. Steven Bradbury is a former Australian speed skater. ... Marc Gagnon (born May 24, 1975) is a Canadian short track speed skater. ...


A major scandal evolved around the pair figure skating contest. Canadians Jamie Salé and David Pelletier initially placed second. However, it was decided that a French jury member had favoured the winning Russian pair, and the IOC and the International Skating Union decided to award both pairs the gold medal, after much discussion. Combined with several other referee decisions that came out negatively for Russian athletes, there was a brief threat by the Russians of withdrawing from the Games. Jamie Salé and David Pelletier Jamie Salé (born April 21, 1977, in Calgary, Alberta) is a Canadian pairs figure skater who partners with David Pelletier. ... External link The Official Website of Jamie Salé and David Pelletier Stars on Ice Profile Pairs on Ice: Jamie Salé & David Pelletier Categories: Sportspeople stubs | Canadian people stubs | 1974 births | Canadian figure skaters | Figure skaters at the 2002 Winter Olympics ...


Cross-country skiers accounted for a second scandal, as Johann Muehlegg (Spain) and Olga Danilova and Larissa Lazutina (both Russia), who had already medalled in earlier events, where shown to have used doping. As of 2004 they had all been officially stripped of all medals won at the 2002 Games. Johann Mühlegg is a German-born top level cross-country skier who has competed in several international competitions representing Spain after becoming a Spanish citizen in 1999. ...


Future Olympics

The Italian city of Turin (Torino) will host the 2006 Winter Olympics. It will be the second time Italy hosts the Winter Olympic Games, after Cortina d'Ampezzo in 1956. In a 2003 IOC vote, the 2010 Winter Olympics were awarded to Vancouver, allowing Canada to host its second Winter Olympics as well. The host city for 2014 will be chosen in July 2007 in Guatemala City. Location Region Piedmont Province Turin Area   – Total   – Water 130 km&sup2 (50 mi²) ##.# km² (#.# mi²) #.##% Population   – Total (2002)   – Density 857,433 6,596/km² Time zone CET: UTC+1 Latitude Longitude   45°04′ N 7°40′ E1. ... See also: 2006 Winter Paralympics The XX Olympic Winter Games will be held in Turin, Italy from February 10 to 26. ... The 2010 Winter Olympics, known formally as the XXI Olympic Winter Games, will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Members of Parliament Libby Davies, Ujjal Dosanjh, David Emerson, Hedy Fry, Stephen Owen Members of the Legislative Assembly Gordon Campbell, David Chudnovsky, Adrian Dix, Colin Hansen, Jenny Kwan, Lorne Mayencourt, Wally Oppal, Gregor Robertson, Shane Simpson, Carole Taylor Mayor Larry Campbell Governing Body Vancouver City Council Latitude: Longitude: 49°16... National Palace National Post Office Building Guatemala City (in full, La Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción; locally known as Guatemala or, informally, Guate) is the capital and largest city of Guatemala. ...


Statistics

Games overview

Year Host city Country Held Nations Participants Events
1924 Chamonix France January 25 - February 5 16 292 18
1928 St. Moritz Switzerland February 11 - February 19 25 464 14
1932 Lake Placid United States February 4 - February 15 17 252 14
1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Germany February 6 -February 16 28 668 17
1948 St. Moritz Switzerland January 30 - February 8 28 669 22
1952 Oslo Norway February 14 - February 25 30 694 22
1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo Italy January 26 - February 5 32 820 24
1960 Squaw Valley United States February 18-February 28 30 665 27
1964 Innsbruck Austria January 29-February 9 36 1091 34
1968 Grenoble France February 6-February 18 37 1158 35
1972 Sapporo Japan February 3-February 13 35 1006 35
1976 Innsbruck Austria February 4-February 15 37 1123 37
1980 Lake Placid United States February 13-February 24 37 1072 38
1984 Sarajevo Yugoslavia February 8-February 19 49 1274 39
1988 Calgary Canada February 13-February 28 57 1423 46
1992 Albertville France February 8-February 23 64 1801 57
1994 Lillehammer Norway February 12-February 27 67 1739 61
1998 Nagano Japan February 7-February 22 72 2302 68
2002 Salt Lake City United States February 8-February 24 77 2399 78
2006 Torino Italy February 10-February 26
2010 Vancouver Canada February 12-February 28

Originally called Semaine des Sports dHiver (International Winter Sports Week) and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, the sports competitions held at the foot of Mont Blanc in Chamonix, Haute-Savoie, France between 25 January and 5 February 1924, organised by the French Olympic Committee, were in... Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, or more commonly, Chamonix is a town and commune in eastern France, in the Haute-Savoie département, at the foot of Mont Blanc. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The II Olympic Winter Games were held in 1928 in Sankt-Moritz, Switzerland. ... St. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The III Olympic Winter Games were held in Lake Placid, New York, USA and opened on February 4, 1932. ... Lake Placid is the name of some places in the United States of America: Lake Placid, Florida Lake Placid, New York Lake Placid is also a lake in the state of New York (see Lake Placid (lake)). Lake Placid is also the name of a film. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The IV Olympic Winter Games were held in the villages of Garmisch and Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany. ... Garmisch-Partenkirchen (29,875 inhabitants; 01-01-2004) is a market town, and the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region of Bavaria, Germany, near the border with Austria. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The V Olympic Winter Games were held in St. ... St. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The VI Olympic Winter Games were held in 1952 in Norway. ... County Oslo NO-03 Landscape Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The VII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1956 in Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy. ... Cortina dAmpezzo (population 8000) is a town in the province of Veneto, northern Italy. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The VIII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1960 in Squaw Valley, USA. Alexander Cushing, the creator of the resort, campaigned vigorously to win the Games. ... Squaw Valley is a census-designated place located in Fresno County, California, in the United States. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The IX Olympic Winter Games were held in 1964 Innsbruck, Austria. ... Innsbruck City Center Innsbruck and Nordkette from south // Geography Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the Tyrol province. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... See also: 1968 Winter Paralympics The X Olympic Winter Games were held in 1968 France and opened on Norway won the most medals, the first time a country other than the Soviet Union had done so since the Soviet Union first entered the Winter Games in 1956. ... View of Grenoble, 2002, with the snowy peaks of the Dauphiné Alps Location within France Grenoble (Occitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France, situated at the foot of the Alps, at the confluence of the Drac into the Isère River. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The XI Olympic Winter Games were held in 1972 in Japan. ... Sapporo scene Sapporo White Illumination Sapporo (札幌市; -shi) is the fifth-largest city in Japan and it is the capital of Hokkaido Prefecture. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The XII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1976 in Innsbruck, Austria. ... Innsbruck City Center Innsbruck and Nordkette from south // Geography Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the Tyrol province. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The XIII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1980 in Lake Placid, New York, Canada; they withdrew before the final vote. ... Lake Placid is the name of some places in the United States of America: Lake Placid, Florida Lake Placid, New York Lake Placid is also a lake in the state of New York (see Lake Placid (lake)). Lake Placid is also the name of a film. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The XIV Olympic Winter Games were held in 1984 in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. ... View of Sarajevo from the east. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The XV Olympic Winter Games were held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Motto: Heart of the new west Area: 712. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The XVI Olympic Winter Games were held in 1992 in France. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Host cities of the Winter Olympic Games | Cities, towns and villages in France ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The XVII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. ... County Oppland Landscape Gudbrandsdalen Municipality NO-0501 Administrative centre Lillehammer Mayor (2005) Synnøve Brenden Klemetrud (Ap) Official language form Bokmål Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 211 477 km² 450 km² 0. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The XVIII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1998 in Nagano, Japan. ... Categories: Host cities of the Winter Olympic Games | Cities in Nagano Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of every year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The XIX Olympic Winter Games were held in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... See also: 2006 Winter Paralympics The XX Olympic Winter Games will be held in Turin, Italy from February 10 to 26. ... Torino may refer to: Torino, a major industrial city in northwestern Italy. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The 2010 Winter Olympics, known formally as the XXI Olympic Winter Games, will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Members of Parliament Libby Davies, Ujjal Dosanjh, David Emerson, Hedy Fry, Stephen Owen Members of the Legislative Assembly Gordon Campbell, David Chudnovsky, Adrian Dix, Colin Hansen, Jenny Kwan, Lorne Mayencourt, Wally Oppal, Gregor Robertson, Shane Simpson, Carole Taylor Mayor Larry Campbell Governing Body Vancouver City Council Latitude: Longitude: 49°16... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

All-time Winter Olympic medal table

Rank Country Gold Silver Bronze All Medals
1 Norway 96 90 75 261
2 Soviet Union (1956-1988) 78 57 59 194
3 United States 69 71 51 191
4 Germany (1928-1936, 1992-) 54 51 38 143
5 Austria 42 57 63 162
6 Finland 41 52 49 142
7 East Germany (1952-1988) 39 36 35 110
8 Sweden 36 28 40 104
9 Switzerland 32 33 37 102
10 Italy 31 31 28 90
11 Canada 31 28 36 95
12 Russia (since 1994) 25 18 11 54
13 Netherlands 22 28 19 69
14 France 22 22 28 72
15 West Germany (1952-1988) 14 17 15 46
16 South Korea 11 5 4 20
17 Unified Team (1992) 9 6 8 23
18 Japan 8 10 13 31
19 Great Britain 7 2 10 19
20 Croatia 3 1 0 4
21 China 2 12 8 22
22 Czechoslovakia (until 1992) 2 8 15 25
23 Czech Republic (since 1994) 2 3 1 6
24 Liechtenstein 2 2 5 9
25 Australia 2 0 2 4
26 Poland 1 2 3 6
27 Kazakhstan 1 2 2 5
28 Belgium 1 1 3 5
Bulgaria 1 1 3 5
30 Estonia 1 1 1 3
= Ukraine 1 1 1 3
32 Spain 1 0 1 2
33 Uzbekistan 1 0 0 1
34 Yugoslavia 0 3 1 4
35 Hungary 0 2 4 6
36 Belarus 0 2 3 5
37 Luxembourg 0 2 0 2
38 North Korea 0 1 1 2
39 Denmark 0 1 0 1
New Zealand 0 1 0 1
41 Slovenia 0 0 4 4
42 Romania 0 0 1 1
Total 688 688 678 2054

Note:
Adding the tallies for East and West Germany between 1952 and 1988 together, Germany has 107 Gold, 104 Silver, 88 Bronze and a total of 299 medals. East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a Communist state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... The Unified Team was the name used for the sports team of the former Soviet Union (also Commonwealth of Independent States) at both the Winter and Summer Olympic Games of 1992 (in Albertville and Barcelona, respectively). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ...


See also: All-time_Summer_Olympic_medals The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ...


Top ten athletes

Name Nat. Sport Years Gold Silver Bronze
Bjørn Dæhlie NOR Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 8 4 0
Lyubov Yegorova RUS Cross-country skiing 1992–1994 6 3 0
Lidia Skoblikova URS Speed skating 1960–1964 6 0 0
Larissa Lazutina RUS Cross-country skiing 1992–2002 5 1 1
Clas Thunberg FIN Speed skating 1924–1928 5 1 1
Ole Einar Bjørndalen NOR Biathlon 1998–2002 5 1 0
Bonnie Blair USA Speed skating 1984–1994 5 0 0
Eric Heiden USA Speed skating 1980 5 0 0
Raissa Smetanina URS Cross-country skiing 1976–1992 4 5 1
Sixten Järnberg SWE Cross-country skiing 1956–1964 4 3 2

Bjørn Dæhlie (born June 19, 1967) is a Norwegian cross-country skier. ... The Kingdom of Norway is a Nordic country on the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering Sweden, Finland and Russia, with territorial waters bordering Danish and British waters. ... Skiing by free technique/skating Cross-country skiing (aka XC skiing) is an adventure and fitness activity as well as a competitive winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily in Europe and Canada. ... The Russian Federation consists of a great number of different federal subjects, making a total of 89 constituent components. ... Lidia Skoblikova was born in Zlatoust Soviet Union, March 8, 1939, some 60 km west of Chelyabinsk, Siberia. ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: (СССР)   listen?; tr. ... Gaetan Boucher training for the 1976 Olympics Speed skating or speedskating is a form of ice skating in which the competitors attempt to travel a certain distance over the ice as quickly as possible. ... The Russian Federation consists of a great number of different federal subjects, making a total of 89 constituent components. ... The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. ... Ole Einar Bjørndalen (born January 27, 1974) from Simostranda in Modum, southeastern Norway, is a career biathlete. ... The Kingdom of Norway is a Nordic country on the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering Sweden, Finland and Russia, with territorial waters bordering Danish and British waters. ... The name biathlon is commonly confused with duathlon, the term used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines. ... Bonnie Kathleen Blair (b. ... Eric Arthur Heiden (born June 15, 1958) is an American speed skater who won an unprecedented five gold medals at the 1980 Winter Olympic Games in Lake Placid, New York, United States. ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: (СССР)   listen?; tr. ... The Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige   listen?) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. ...

Sports

Through the years, the number of sports and events conducted at the Winter Olympic Games has increased. In this section, we give an overview of all sports and events that are currently on the programme, or have been in the past. So- called demonstration sports, in which contests were held but for which no medals were awarded, are also discussed.


Current sports

  • Alpine skiing was first included in 1936. It would not have been conducted in 1940 due to professionalism disputes, but it was on the programme again in 1948. The current programme features 10 events, with both men and women skiing the downhill, super g, giant slalom, slalom and combined events.
  • Biathlon was first included in 1960, although the very similar military patrol was contested in 1924. Only a single individual event for men was included in 1960, but events have been added over the years. Women first participated in 1992. At present there are 4 events, conducted by both men and women: the sprint (10 km (men)/7.5 km (women)), the individual (20 km (men)/15 km (women)), the pursuit (12.5 km (men)/10 km (women)) and the relay (4 x 7.5 km). A mass start event will be added in 2006 (15 km (men)/12.5 km (women)).
  • Bobsleighing has been included since 1924, although it was not held in 1960. The four-man event has been held since 1924, the two-man event was added in 1932. Women didn't compete until 2002, when the two-woman race was included.
  • Cross-country skiing has always been on the Olympic programme. The number of events has steadily grown over the years, being 12 in 2002: sprint (1.5 km), pursuit (10 km for men, 5 km for women), mass start (30 km (men)/15 km (women)), 10 km (women), 15 km (men), 30 km (women), 50 km (men), relay (4 x 10 km (men), 4 x 5 km (women)).
  • Curling was on the programme in 1924, but disappeared afterwards. It was demonstrated in 1932, 1988 and 1992, to be officially included in 1998. Since then, separate tournaments for men and women have been held.
  • Figure skating was the first winter sport to be included in the Olympics, appearing in the programme of the Summer Olympics in 1908 and 1920. The single events for men and women, and the pairs contest have been on the programme since 1908, ice dancing was first included in 1976. The special figures event for men was only conducted in 1908.
  • Freestyle skiing was first demonstrated in three disciplines in 1988. The moguls event become Olympic in 1992, while ballet and aerials remained a demonstration event. The aerials also received official status in 1994. Both events are held for men and women.
  • Ice hockey was already held at the 1920 Summer Olympics, and has been played in every celebration of the Winter Games. A women's tournament was first conducted in 1998.
  • Luge first entered the Olympic programme in 1964, and the three events conducted then are still unchanged. It included a singles event for both men and women, and a doubles event. The latter is technically open for both men and women, but in practice, only men compete.
  • Nordic combined, a combination of ski jumping and cross-country skiing, has been Olympic since 1924. Until 1988, when a team event was added, there was only an individual event. A third event, the sprint, made its debut in 2002. Only men compete in this sport.
  • Short track speed skating was a demonstration sport in 1988, and was included as a full sport four years later. The programme was expanded from 4 in 1992 to 8 in 2002. The events are the same for both men and women: 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m and the relay (5000 m (men)/3000 m (women)).
  • Skeleton was included in both Olympics held in Sankt Moritz, the birthplace of the sport. It was not held again until it was included again in 2002, with individual events for both men and women.
  • Ski jumping has been an Olympic sport since 1924, with the normal hill event contested. A second event (large hill) was introduced in 1964, and a team event followed in 1988. This sport is only contested by men.
  • Snowboarding was first contested at the 1998 Olympics, with giant slalom and halfpipe events for both sexes. The giant slalom was replaced by a parallel giant slalom for 2002, and in 2006 the snowboard cross event will be added.
  • Speed skating has been on the programme since 1924. Women's events were not included until 1960, although they were demonstrated in 1932 and had been on the preliminary programme for 1940. Current events are the 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, 3000 m (women only), 5000 m and 10000 m (men only). The all-round competition was only contested in 1924. The team pursuit event will make its debut in 2006.

Alpine skiing (or downhill skiing) is a recreational activity and sport involving sliding down snow-covered hills with long, thin skis attached to each foot. ... The name biathlon is commonly confused with duathlon, the term used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines. ... Bobsleigh is a winter sport in which teams make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked purpose-built iced tracks in a gravity-powered, steerable sled. ... Skiing by free technique/skating Cross-country skiing (aka XC skiing) is an adventure and fitness activity as well as a competitive winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily in Europe and Canada. ... Curling is a game played on ice with granite stones Curling is a precision sport similar to bowls or bocce, but played on ice with polished heavy stones rather than plastic balls. ... Figure skating is an ice skating sporting event where individuals, mixed couples, or groups perform spins, jumps, and other moves on the ice, often to music. ... Ice dancing is a form of pairs figure skating which draws from the world of ballroom dancing. ... Freestyle skiing involves tricks while skiing, including mogul runs or from a ramp (aerials). ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The Games of the VII Olympiad were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... A luge is small one- or two-person sled on which one sleighs supine and feet-first. ... The Nordic combined is a winter sport in which competitors involve in both cross-country skiing and ski jumping. ... Short track speed skating (also Shorttrack speedskating) is a form of ice skating akin to speed skating. ... Skeleton is an individual, sledding, winter sport where competitors drive the sled in a prone, head-first position down an ice track on a sled or sleigh. This differs from luge, where the rider drives the sled from a supine, feet-first orientation. ... Ski jumping is a winter sport in which skiers go down a hill with a take-off ramp (the jump), attempting to go as far as possible. ... Snowboarder in the halfpipe Snowboarder trail entry Snowboarding is a boardsport on snow similar to skiing, but came about as an idea for a combination of surfing and skateboarding. ... Gaetan Boucher training for the 1976 Olympics Speed skating or speedskating is a form of ice skating in which the competitors attempt to travel a certain distance over the ice as quickly as possible. ...

Discontinued sports

  • Military patrol, a precursor to the biathlon, was a medal sport in 1924. It was also demonstrated in 1928, 1936 and 1948, and in 1960 biathlon became an official sport.

The name biathlon is commonly confused with duathlon, the term used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines. ...

Demonstration sports

  • Bandy, a sport briefly described as "ice hockey with a ball", very popular in the Nordic countries, was demonstrated in 1952.
  • Ice stock sport, a German variant to curling, was demonstrated in 1936 and 1964.
  • Skijöring, skiing behind horses, was a demonstration sport in Sankt Moritz 1928.
  • Sled-dog racing contests were displayed in Lake Placid 1932.
  • Speed skiing was demonstrated in 1992.
  • Winter pentathlon, a variant to the modern pentathlon, was included as a demonstration event in 1948.

Bandy is a winter sport, where a ball is hit with a stick. ... Ice stock sport is a winter sport, somewhat similar to curling. ... Skijoring is a winter dog-powered sport popularized in North America and derived from the Scandinavian sport of pulka. ... Dogsled racing is a winter dog sport involving the timed competition of teams of sleddogs that pull a sled, on the runners of which the dog driver or musher stands. ... Speed skiing is the sport of skiing fastest in a straight line downhill, and is the worlds second fastest non-motorized sport (the fastest being speed skydiving, with speeds of over 300mph). ... The Winter Pentathlon was a demonstration sports in the 1948 Winter Olympics in St. ... Competitors in the final round of the Mens Modern Pentathlon pull for the finish line at the Goudi Sports Complex on August 26, 2004. ...

See also

The International Olympic Committee is an organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organise this sports event every four years. ... For months before the Olympic Games, runners relay the Olympic Flame from Olympia to the opening ceremony. ... Both the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games have been marred by various incidents and scandals. ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... Multi-Sport Events Arctic Winter Games Asian Games Canada Games Commonwealth Games Francophone Games Gaelic Games Gay Games Goodwill Games Nordic Games Pan American Games Paralympic Games Special Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Winter Olympic Games World Games World Wheelchair Games X Games American football Alamo Bowl Aztec Bowl Capital...

Bibliography

  • Volker Kluge, Olympische Winterspiele - Die Chronik
  • David Wallechinsky, The Complete Book of the Winter Olympics

External links

  • IOC official website
  • IOC overview of the Olympic Games
  • A history of the Olympics

  Results from FactBites:
 
Winter Olympics News (1027 words)
Cesare Vaciago, the chief executive officer for the Turin Olympic Organizing Committee, believes that the Vancouver organizers have underestimated the cost of construction for the Olympics venues for the 2010 Olympics.
Environmental groups think that the plan, which ends shortly after the 2010 Winter Olympics, is simply for the benefit of the international community as the Olympic spotlight is focused on Vancouver.
The Winter Olympics News is copyright 2006 Jill Manty
World Almanac for Kids (1093 words)
The winter Olympics were begun in 1924 and were held in the same year as the summer games until the 1994 winter games in Lillehammer, Norway, when the alternating cycles began.
A total of eight sports were included in the winter Olympics in 1998: biathlon (cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship), bobsled, curling (for the first time), ice hockey (which included women’s hockey for the first time), luge (toboggan), figure skating, speed skating, and skiing (which, for the first time, included snowboarding as a medal sport).
The Olympic games are competitions of individual athletes, not of nations, and the IOC does not keep national scores; however, the media of all nations report national standings according to one of two scoring systems.
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