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Encyclopedia > Winston Churchill
The Right Honourable
 Sir Winston Churchill  
KG OM CH TD FRS QPC (Can)


In office
26 October 1951 – 7 April 1955
Monarch George VI
Elizabeth II
Deputy Anthony Eden
Preceded by Clement Attlee
Succeeded by Sir Anthony Eden
In office
10 May 1940 – 27 July 1945
Monarch George VI
Deputy Clement Attlee
Preceded by Neville Chamberlain
Succeeded by Clement Attlee

In office
6 November 1924 – 4 June 1929
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Philip Snowden
Succeeded by Philip Snowden

Born 30 November 1874(1874-11-30)
Blenheim Palace, Woodstock,
Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
Died 24 January 1965 (aged 90)
Hyde Park Gate, London, United Kingdom
Nationality British
Political party Conservative
Liberal
Spouse Clementine Churchill
Religion Anglican

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can). (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. A noted statesman, orator and strategist, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army. A prolific author, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his own historical writings.[1] Churchill is the name of a number of places and people, and derived objects and organisations. ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated Rt Hon, The Rt Hon, The Right Hon, Right Hon) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... The Territorial Decoration (TD) was a United Kingdom military medal, also known as the Territorial Efficiency Decoration, which was given to officers for long service in the Territorial Army. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... PD image from http://www. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... This article is about the British prime minister. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden (July 18, 1864 - May 15, 1937) was a British politician, and the first Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer. ... Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden (July 18, 1864 - May 15, 1937) was a British politician, and the first Labour Chancellor of the Exchequer. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Blenheim Palace is a large and monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. ... Map sources for Woodstock at grid reference SP4416 Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Hyde Park Gate is situated in London, England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill (April 1, 1885 - December 12, 1977) (née Clementine Ogilvy Hozier) was the wife of Sir Winston Churchill. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... The Territorial Decoration (TD) was a United Kingdom military medal, also known as the Territorial Efficiency Decoration, which was given to officers for long service in the Territorial Army. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland takes place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch is head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Look up orator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. ... Officer may refer to: Holders of an office Academia Chief Academic Officer · Sabbatical officer Military Officer (armed forces) Officers Training Corps · Reserve Officers Training Corps Corporate Law enforcement Customs officer · Peace officer · Police officer · Prison officer · Probation officer Politics and government Chief medical officer · Political commissar · Presiding Officer · Returning Officer... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ...


During his army career Churchill saw combat with the Malakand Field Force on the Northwest Frontier, at the Battle of Omdurman in the Sudan and during the Second Boer War in South Africa. During this period he also gained fame, and not a small amount of notoriety, as a correspondent. At the forefront of the political scene for almost sixty years, Churchill held numerous political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade and Home Secretary during the Liberal governments. In the First World War Churchill served in numerous positions, as First Lord of the Admiralty, Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air. He also served in the British Army on the Western Front and commanded the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. During the interwar years, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer. The Story of the Malakand Field Force: An Episode of Frontier War was an 1897 book written by Winston Churchill; it was his first published work of non-fiction. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  Egypt Mahdist Sudan Commanders Horatio Kitchener Abdullah al-Taashi Strength 8,200 British, 17,600 Sudanese and Egyptian soldiers 52,000 warriors Casualties 48 dead 434 wounded 9,700 killed 13,000 wounded 5,000 captured At the Battle of Omdurman (September 2, 1898) an army commanded... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The President of the Board of Trade the title of a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... With the fall of Arthur Balfours Conservative government in the United Kingdom in December 1905, the Liberals under Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman were called in to form a government. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... The Minister of Munitions was a British government position created during the First World War to oversee and co-ordinate the production and distribution of munitions for the war effort. ... The secretary of war in cabinet position was Henry Knox. ... The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet level British position, in charge of the Air Ministry. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... The Royal Scots Fusiliers was a Regiment of the British Army. ... Europe between 1929 and 1938. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ...


After the outbreak of the Second World War, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain in May 1940, he became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and led Britain to victory against the Axis powers. His speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled Allied forces. After losing the 1945 election, Churchill became the leader of the opposition. In 1951, Churchill again became Prime Minister before finally retiring in 1955. Upon his death, he was granted the honour of a state funeral which saw one of the largest assemblies of politicians in the world. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... This article is about the British prime minister. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

Contents

Family and early life

A descendant of a famous aristocratic family, Churchill's birth name was Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill. He, like his father and his immediate family, used the surname Churchill in public life. His family was the senior branch of the Spencer family, which changed their surname to Churchill in the late 18th century. They did this to highlight their descent from John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough who won the Battle of Blenheim (a battle that seemed world-decisive for the next couple of centuries) and fought to deny Philippe, Duc d'Anjou his inheritance of the Spanish Succession which ultimately failed. Sir Winston descended from the first member of the Churchill family to achieve public prominence.[2] Likewise John Churchill's mother was a first cousin several times removed of Sir Francis Drake. There are, of course, many Spencer families, comprising all individuals with the surname Spencer. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Combatants England, Dutch Republic, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark Kingdom of France, Electorate of Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Prince Eugène of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[3] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 34... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ...


Winston's father, Lord Randolph Churchill, the third son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough was also a politician; Winston's mother, Lady Randolph Churchill (née Jennie Jerome), the daughter of American millionaire Leonard Jerome, was of mostly Colonial American, ultimately English, descent. Churchill was born two months premature in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace in Woodstock, Oxfordshire on 30 November 1874.[2] He arrived eight months after his parents' hasty marriage.[3] He had one brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill. Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill (13 February 1849 – 24 January 1895) was a British statesman. ... His Grace The Duke of Marlborough John Winston Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough (2 June 1822 - 4 July 1883); English statesman. ... Jennie Jerome in 1874 Lady Randolph Churchill CI DStJ (Jeanette Jennie Jerome) (January 9, 1854 – June 9, 1921) was an American society beauty, best known to history as the mother of British prime minister Winston Churchill. ... Leonard Walter Jerome, born November 3, 1817 in Pompey, New York, United States – died March 3, 1891 at Brighton, England , was a Brooklyn, New York entrepreneur and grandfather of Sir Winston Churchill. ... This article is about the colonial history of the United States. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Blenheim Palace is a large and monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. ... Map sources for Woodstock at grid reference SP4416 Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Major John Strange Spencer-Churchill, DSO (4 February 1880 - 23 February 1947) was the son of Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill and Jennie Jerome, and brother of Winston Churchill. ...


Churchill had an independent and rebellious nature and generally did poorly in school, for which he was punished. He entered Harrow School on 17 April 1888, where his military career began—within weeks of his arrival, he had joined the Harrow Rifle Corps.[4] Churchill earned high marks in English and History; he was also the school's fencing champion. He was rarely visited by his mother (then known as Lady Randolph), but wrote letters begging her to either come to the school or to allow him to come home. Churchill also had a very distant relationship with his father and Churchill once remarked how they barely talked to each other.[2] Due to his lack of parental contact Churchill became very close to his nanny, Elizabeth Anne Everest, whom he used to call "Woomany".[5][6] Harrow School, (originally: The Free Grammar School of John Lyon; generally: Harrow), is an independent school for boys (aged 13-18), and is located in Harrow on the Hill in the London Borough of Harrow. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Combined Cadet Force (CCF) is a Ministry of Defence sponsored youth organisation in the United Kingdom. ... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Fencing advertisement for the 1900 Summer Olympic Games This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ...


Speech impediment

Churchill described himself as having a "speech impediment", which he consistently worked to overcome; after many years, he finally stated, "My impediment is no hindrance." Although the Stuttering Foundation of America has claimed that Churchill stuttered, the Churchill Centre has concluded that he lisped.[7] Churchill's impediment may also have been cluttering,[8] which would fit more with his lack of attention to unimportant details and his very secure ego. Weiss suggests that Churchill may have "excelled because of, rather than in spite of his cluttering."[9] “Stutter” redirects here. ... For the programming language, see Lisp (programming language). ... Cluttering (also called tachyphemia) is a communicative disorder characterized by speech that is difficult for listeners to understand due to rapid speaking rate, erratic rhythm, poor syntax or grammar, and words or groups of words unrelated to the sentence. ...


Service in the Army

Sandhurst

After Churchill left Harrow in 1893, he applied to attend the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. However it took three attempts before Churchill passed the admittance exam.[2] Once there, Churchill did well and he graduated eighth out of a class of 150 in December 1894.[2] He was immediately commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the 4th Queen's Own Hussars on 20 February 1895.[10] In 1941, he received the honour of Colonel of the Hussars. The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (commonly known as Sandhurst) is the British Army officer training centre. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... The 4th Queens Own Hussars was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Queens Royal Hussars (The Queens Own and Royal Irish), (QRH), is the senior United Kingdom light cavalry regiment. ...


Churchill's official biographer Martin Gilbert noted in a 1991 interview about his book, Churchill: A Life,[11] that Churchill was accused of buggering other students while at Sandhurst. In the book Gilbert states that Churchill immediately filed a libel case against his accuser, who was the father of a young officer snubbed by Churchill and his peers in the Hussars. According to Gilbert the father withdrew the charge and settled out of court with Churchill for a sum of £400.[12] François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ...


War correspondent

Churchill's pay as a second lieutenant in the 4th Hussars was £300. However Churchill believed that he needed at least £500 to support a style of life in keeping with other officers of the regiment. According to biographer Roy Jenkins, this is why Churchill took an interest in war correspondence.[2] When Churchill finished training he asked to be posted to areas of action in which, against all etiquette, he earned additional income as a roving war correspondent for the London newspapers.[13] Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ...


Lord Deedes explained to a gathering of the Royal Historical Society in 2001 about why Churchill went into the front line. "He was with the Grenadier Guards, who were dry [without alcohol] at battalion headquarters. They very much liked tea and condensed milk, which had no great appeal to Winston, but alcohol was permitted in the front line, in the trenches. So he suggested to the colonel that he really ought to see more of the war and get into the front line. This was highly commended by the colonel, who thought it was a very good thing to do."[14] The Right Honourable William Francis Deedes, Baron Deedes, KBE, MC, DL, PC (born 1 June 1913) is a veteran British journalist and a former politician. ... The Royal Historical Society was founded in 1868. ... The Grenadier Guards is the most senior regiment of the Guards Division of the British Army, and, as such, is the most senior regiment of infantry. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1895, Churchill travelled to Cuba to observe the Spanish fight the Cuban guerrillas; he had obtained a commission to write about the conflict from the Daily Graphic. To Churchill's delight, he came under fire for the first time on his twenty-first birthday.[10] Churchill had fond memories of Cuba a "...large, rich, beautiful island..."[15] Churchill soon received word that his nanny, Mrs Everest, was dying; he then returned to England and stayed with her for a week until she died. He wrote in his journal "She was my favourite friend." In Churchill's My Early Life he wrote "She had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the twenty years I had lived."[16] In early October 1896, he was transferred to Bombay, India. He was considered one of the best polo players in his regiment and led his team to many prestigious tournament victories.[17] My Early Life: A Roving Commission is a 1930 book by Winston Churchill. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ...


About this time he read Winwood Reade's Martyrdom of Man, a classic of Victorian atheism, which completed his loss of faith in Christianity and left him with a sombre vision of a godless universe in which humanity was destined, nevertheless, to progress through the conflict between the more advanced and the more backward races. When he was posted to India and began to read avidly, to make up for lost time, Churchill was profoundly impressed by Darwinism. He lost whatever religious faith he may have had through reading Gibbon, he said and took a particular dislike, for some reason, to the Catholic Church, as well as Christian missions. He became, in his own words, "a materialist to the tips of my fingers," and he fervently upheld the worldview that human life is a struggle for existence, with the outcome the survival of the fittest. This philosophy of life and history Churchill expressed in his one novel, Savrola. He passed for a time through an aggressively anti-religious phase, but this eventually gave way to a more tolerant belief in the workings of some kind of divine providence.[2] “Atheist” redirects here. ... In theology, Divine Providence, or simply Providence, is the sovereignty, superintendence, or agency of God over events in peoples lives and throughout history. ...


Malakand

In 1897, Churchill attempted to travel to both report and, if necessary, fight in the Greco-Turkish War, but this conflict effectively ended before he could arrive. Later, while preparing for a leave in England, Churchill heard that three brigades of the British Army were going to fight against a Pashtun tribe and he asked his superior officer if he could join the fight.[18] He fought under the command of General Jeffery, who was the commander of the second brigade operating in Malakand, in what is now Pakistan. Jeffery sent fifteen scouts and Churchill to explore the Mamund Valley; while on reconnaissance, they encountered an enemy tribe, dismounted from their horses and opened fire. After an hour of shooting, their reinforcements, the 35th Sikhs arrived, and the fire gradually ceased and the brigade and the Sikhs marched on. Hundreds of tribesmen then ambushed them and opened fire forcing them to retreat. As they were retreating four men were carrying an injured officer but the fierceness of the fight forced them to leave him behind. The man who was left behind was slashed to death in front of Churchill’s eyes; afterwards he wrote of his killer, "I forgot everything else at this moment except a desire to kill this man".[19] However the Sikhs' numbers were being depleted so the next commanding officer told Churchill to get the rest of the men and boys to safety. The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days War, was a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire, under its ruler Sultan Hamid. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Combatants British Empire پشتون Pashtun tribes Commanders William Hope Meiklejohn, Sir Bindon Blood Fakir Saidullah[1] Strength 10,630 on July 26, 1897[2] 10,000[3] Casualties 173 killed and wounded in the Malakand camps,[4][5] 33 killed and wounded at Chakdara,[6] 206 killed and wounded in total... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... // History Geography Climate Economy Civic administration Transport Utility services Demographics People and culture Media Education Sports External links Further reading References ... Mamunds (12,000 ; Bajaur, principally in Watelai valley, but they own villages on both sides of the Durand Line) - One of the four clans of Tarkanis. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ...


Before he left he asked for a note so he would not be charged with desertion.[20] He received the note, quickly signed, and headed up the hill and alerted the other brigade, whereupon they then engaged the army. The fighting in the region dragged on for another two weeks before the dead could be recovered. Churchill wrote in his journal: "Whether it was worth it I cannot tell."[19][21] An account of the Siege of Malakand was published in December 1900 as the The Story of the Malakand Field Force. He received £600 for his account. During the campaign, he also wrote articles for the newspapers The Pioneer and The Daily Telegraph.[2] His account of the battle was one of his first published stories, for which he received £5 per column from The Daily Telegraph.[22] Combatants British Empire پشتون Pashtun tribes Commanders William Hope Meiklejohn, Sir Bindon Blood Fakir Saidullah[1] Strength 10,630 on July 26, 1897[2] 10,000[3] Casualties 173 killed and wounded in the Malakand camps,[4][5] 33 killed and wounded at Chakdara,[6] 206 killed and wounded in total... Malakand Field Force was a 1897 book written by Winston Churchill; it was his first published work of non-fiction. ... Logo of the Pioneer Daily The Pioneer is an English language newspaper in India. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... GBP may be: short for Game Boy Player the ISO currency code for the British Pound Sterling. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ...


Sudan

The River War, one of Churchill's first books
The River War, one of Churchill's first books

Churchill was transferred to Egypt in 1898 where he visited Luxor before joining an attachment of the 21st Lancers serving in Sudan under the command of General Herbert Kitchener. During his time he encountered two future military officers of the First World War - Douglas Haig, then a captain and Earl Jellicoe, then a gunboat lieutenant.[2] While in the Sudan, Churchill participated in what has been described as the last meaningful British cavalry charge at the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898. He also worked as a war correspondent for the Morning Post. By October 1898, he had returned to Britain and begun work on his two-volume work;The River War, an account of the reconquest of the Sudan published the following year. Churchill stood for parliament in 1899 as a Conservative candidate in Oldham in a by-election, which he lost, coming third.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... The River War: An Account of the Reconquest of the Sudan was a 1899 book written by Winston Churchill while he was still an officer in the British army, a first-hand account of the conquest of the Sudan by the English-Egyptian force under Lord Kitchener. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... The 21st Lancers (Empress of Indias) was a cavalry regiment of the British Army, most famous for its participation in the Battle of Omdurman, where Winston Churchill rode with the unit as a reporter. ... The Earl Kitchener Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was an Irish-born British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman popularly referred to as Lord Kitchener. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig (June 19, 1861 - January 28, 1928) was a British soldier and senior commander during World War I. He had independent wealth: his family manufactured Haig & Haig whisky. ... John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe. ... Battle of WoÅ‚odarka Polish infantry charging enemy positions during the Polish Defensive War A charge is a maneuver in battle in which soldiers advance towards their enemy at their best speed to engage in close combat. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  Egypt Mahdist Sudan Commanders Horatio Kitchener Abdullah al-Taashi Strength 8,200 British, 17,600 Sudanese and Egyptian soldiers 52,000 warriors Casualties 48 dead 434 wounded 9,700 killed 13,000 wounded 5,000 captured At the Battle of Omdurman (September 2, 1898) an army commanded... The Morning Post was a conservative daily newspaper published in London from 1772 to 1937, when it was acquired by The Daily Telegraph. ... The River War: An Account of the Reconquest of the Sudan was a 1899 book written by Winston Churchill while he was still an officer in the British army, a first-hand account of the conquest of the Sudan by the English-Egyptian force under Lord Kitchener. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. ...


South Africa

After Churchill's failure at the election in Oldham, he went to South Africa in 1899 to report on the Second Boer War as a war correspondent. On 12 October 1899, the war between Britain and the Boer Republics broke out in South Africa. Churchill was captured and held in a POW camp in Pretoria. Churchill escaped from his prison camp and travelled almost 300 miles (480 km) to Portuguese Lourenço Marques in Delagoa Bay, with the assistance of an English mine manager.[2] His escape made him a minor national hero for a time in Britain, though instead of returning home, he rejoined General Redvers Buller's army on its march to relieve the British at the Siege of Ladysmith and take Pretoria.[2] This time, although continuing as a war correspondent, Churchill gained a commission in the South African Light Horse Regiment. He was one of the first British troops into Ladysmith and Pretoria; in fact, he and the Duke of Marlborough, his cousin, were able to get ahead of the rest of the troops in Pretoria, where they demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer guards of the prison camp there.[2] For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent self-governed republics created by the Dutch-speaking (proto Afrikaans) inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope and their descendants (variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers) in mainly the northern and eastern parts of what is now the... Prisoner of War camps Contents // Categories: Substubs | Prisons and detention centres ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... Maputo is the capital of Mozambique. ... Maputo Bay from space, January 1990 Maputo Bay (Baia de Maputo), formerly Delagoa Bay (Port. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... Sir Redvers Henry Buller (VC, GCB, GCMG) (7 December 1839-2 June 1908) was a British general and Victoria Cross holder. ... The Siege of Ladysmith was a famous battle in the Boer War, taking place between 2 November 1899 and 28 February 1900. ... The Light Horse Regiment (formerly the Imperial Light Horse Regiment (ILH)) is an armoured regiment of the South African Army. ... Ladysmith (2001: pop. ... The Ninth Duke of Marlborough, painted by John Singer Sargent Charles Richard John Spencer-Churchill (November 13, 1871–June 30, 1934) became the 9th Duke of Marlborough upon the death of his father in 1892. ...


In 1900, he returned to England on the RMS Dunottar Castle, the same ship on which he set sail for South Africa eight months earlier,[23] and he published books on the Boer war, London to Ladysmith via Pretoria and Ian Hamilton's March, which were published in May and October respectively.[2] For the castle in Aberdeenshire, see Dunnottar Castle. ...


Early years in Parliament

Churchill's election poster, Oldham
Churchill's election poster, Oldham

After his failure to be elected in Oldham in 1899, he returned again to stand in the 1900 general election (also known as "the Khaki election"). In December, 1900, a dinner was given at the Waldorf-Astoria in honor of the young journalist, recently returned from his well-publicized adventures in South Africa. Mark Twain, who introduced him, had already, it seems, caught on to Churchill. In a brief satirical speech, Twain slyly suggested that, with his English father and American mother, Churchill was the perfect representative of Anglo-American cant. This time however he was elected; but rather than attending the opening of Parliament, he embarked on a speaking tour throughout Britain and the United States, in the process raising ten thousand pounds for himself. (Members of Parliament were unpaid in those days and Churchill was not rich by the standards of other MPs at that time.) In both these elections, his campaign expenses were paid by his cousin the 9th Duke of Marlborough.[24] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... Lord Salisbury Henry Campbell-Bannerman Keir Hardie The campaign for United Kingdom general election of 1900 was held from 25 September to 24 October 1900. ... Khaki election is a term in British political history. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ...


In Parliament, Churchill became associated with a group of Tory dissidents led by Lord Hugh Cecil called the Hughligans, a play of words on "hooligans". During his first parliamentary session, Churchill provoked controversy by opposing what he viewed as the government's extravagant military expenditure.[25] By 1903, he was drawing away from Lord Hugh's views. He also opposed the Liberal Unionist leader Joseph Chamberlain, whose party was in coalition with the Conservatives. Chamberlain proposed extensive tariffs intended to protect Britain's economic dominance. This earned Churchill the detestation of his own supporters—indeed, Conservative backbenchers even staged a walkout once while he was speaking.[26] His own constituency effectively deselected him, although he continued to sit for Oldham until the next general election. Hugh Richard Heathcote (Gascoyne-)Cecil, 1st Baron Quickswood PC (14 October 1880–10 December 1956) was a British poltician, known as Lord Hugh Cecil before 1941. ... The Hughligans were a faction of the British Conservative Party in the early 20th century. ... Ultras at FC Twente - SC Heerenveen in 2002 Hooliganism is unruly and destructive behaviour, usually by gangs of young people. ... A parliamentary session is a period of time where the legislature in a parliamentary government is sitting. ... A military budget of an entity, most often a nation or a state, is the budget and financial resources dedicated to raising and maintaining armed forces for that entity. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | UK political parties | Historical liberal parties ... The Rt. ...


In 1904, Churchill's dissatisfaction with the Conservatives had grown so strong that, on returning from the Whitsun recess, he crossed the floor to sit as a member of the Liberal Party. It was rumoured at the time that his real reason in doing so was that he would receive an official salary.[27] As a Liberal, he continued to campaign for free trade. He won the seat of Manchester North West (carefully selected for him by the party - his electoral expenses were paid for by his uncle Lord Tweedmouth, a senior Liberal[28]) in the 1906 general election. As a Liberal, Churchill played an instrumental role in passing a law that established labour rights, and a minimum wage in Britain. The word Whitsun is another name for Pentecost It has that meaning in the following: Whitsun, a poem by Sylvia Plath The Whitsun Weddings, a poem by Philip Larkin A Whitsun Ale (esp. ... In politics, crossing the floor is to vote against party lines, especially where this is considered unusual or controversial. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Manchester North West was one of several Parliamentary constituencies created in 1885 from the former Manchester constituency. ... Edward Marjoribanks, 2nd Baron Tweedmouth (8 July 1849 - 15 September 1909) was a British Liberal statesman who served in various capacities in the Liberal governments of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The UK general election of 1906 was from 12th January – 8th February 1906. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ...


From 1903 until 1905, Churchill was also engaged in writing Lord Randolph Churchill, a two-volume biography of his father which was published in 1906 and received much critical acclaim.[29] However, filial devotion caused him to soften some of his father's less attractive aspects.[30] Theodore Roosevelt, who had known Lord Randolph, reviewed the book as "a clever tactful and rather cheap and vulgar life of that clever tactful and rather cheap and vulgar egotist".[31] Some historians suggest Churchill used the book in part to vindicate his own career and in particular to justify crossing the floor.[32] Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ...


Ministerial office

Growing prominence

When the Liberals took office, with Henry Campbell-Bannerman as Prime Minister, in December 1905, Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. Serving under the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin, Churchill dealt with the adoption of constitutions for the defeated Boer republics of the Transvaal and Orange River Colony and with the issue of 'Chinese slavery' in South African mines. He also became a prominent spokesman on free trade. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 1836 – 22 April 1908) , also known as Andie McDowell, was a British Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. ... A Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, in the United Kingdom government structure, is a minister who is junior to a Minister of State who is then junior to a Secretary of State. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... Victor Alexander Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin, 13th Earl of Kincardine (16 May 1849 - 18 January 1917) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1894 to 1899. ... The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent self-governed republics created by the Dutch-speaking (proto Afrikaans) inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope and their descendants (variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers) in mainly the northern and eastern parts of what is now the... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Flag of Orange River Colony The Orange River Colony was a British colony created by the annexation of the Orange Free State in 1900, after the Boer War. ...


Churchill became the most prominent member of the Government outside the Cabinet, and when Campbell-Bannerman was succeeded by Herbert Henry Asquith in 1908, it came as little surprise when Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade. Under the law at the time, a newly appointed Cabinet Minister was obliged to seek re-election at a by-election. Churchill lost his Manchester seat to the Conservative William Joynson-Hicks but was soon elected in another by-election at Dundee constituency. As President of the Board of Trade, he pursued radical social reforms known as the Liberal reforms, enacted in conjunction with David Lloyd George, the new Chancellor of the Exchequer. Most notable amongst these was the People's Budget that led to the downfall of the House of Lords as well as the opposition of Navy building by then First Lord of the Admiralty, Reginald McKenna. The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... The President of the Board of Trade the title of a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... William Joynson-Hicks, 1st Viscount Brentford (23 June 1865 – 8 June 1932), popularly known as Jix, was a British Conservative politician, most known for his tenure as Home Secretary during which he gained a reputation for strict authoritarianism. ... Dundee was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1832 to 1950, when it was split into Dundee East and Dundee West. ... David Lloyd George was one the New Liberals who passed welfare legislation The Liberal reforms (1906-1914) collectively describes legislation passed by the British Liberal Party after the 1906 General Election. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... The Peoples Budget was proposed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, and was a key issue of contention between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, ultimately leading to two general elections in 1910 and the enactment of the Parliament Act 1911. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Cover of Time Magazine (March 3, 1924) Reginald McKenna (1863-1943) was a Liberal British statesman who has recently achieved a limmited amount of noteriety following a recent biography by disgraced heart-throb and former Tory MP Martin Farr. ...

Winston Churchill (highlighted) at Sidney Street, 3 January 1911
Winston Churchill (highlighted) at Sidney Street, 3 January 1911

In 1910, Churchill was promoted to Home Secretary, where he was to prove somewhat controversial. On society he commented that "The unnatural and increasingly rapid growth of the feeble minded and insane classes, coupled as it is with a steady restriction among all the thrifty, energetic and superior stocks, constitutes a national and race danger which it is impossible to exaggerate...I feel that the source from which the stream of madness is fed should be cut off and sealed up before another year has passed" - Churchill to Asquith, 1910. A famous photograph from the time shows the impetuous Churchill at the scene of the January 1911 Siege of Sidney Street, peering around a corner to view a gun battle between cornered anarchists and Scots Guards. His role attracted much criticism. The building under siege caught fire and Churchill supported the decision to deny the fire brigade access, forcing the criminals to choose surrender or death. Arthur Balfour asked, "He [Churchill] and a photographer were both risking valuable lives. I understand what the photographer was doing but what was the Right Honourable gentleman doing?" Winston Churchill (highlighted) at Sidney Street, 3 January 1911 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Winston Churchill (highlighted) at Sidney Street, 3 January 1911 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... Soldiers from the Scots Guards open fire in Sidney Street The Siege of Sidney Street, popularly known as the Battle of Stepney, was a notorious gunfight in Londons East End in 1911. ... The Scots Guards are a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division, and have a long and proud history stretching back hundreds of years. ... This article is about the profession. ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated Rt Hon, The Rt Hon, The Right Hon, Right Hon) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ...


1910 also saw Churchill preventing the army being used to deal with a dispute at the Cambrian Colliery mine in Tonypandy. Initially, Churchill blocked the use of troops fearing a repeat of the 1887 'bloody Sunday' in Trafalgar Square. Nevertheless, troops were deployed to protect the mines and to avoid riots when thirteen strikers were tried for minor offences, an action that broke the tradition of not involving the military in civil affairs and led to lingering dislike for Churchill in Wales. The Tonypandry Riot of 1910 was a dispute between miners and mine owners that took place at the Cambrian Colliery mine in South Wales, UK. The conflict arose when the Naval Colliery Company opened a new seam at the Ely Pit in Penygraig. ... Tonypandy is a town in the county borough of Rhondda Cynon Taff, traditional county of Glamorgan, south Wales, lying in the Rhondda Fawr Valley. ... For other incidents referred to by this name, see Bloody Sunday. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ...


First Lord of the Admiralty

Churchill in 1912 as First Lord of the Admiralty
Churchill in 1912 as First Lord of the Admiralty

In 1911, Churchill became First Lord of the Admiralty, a post he held into World War I. He gave impetus to reform efforts, including development of naval aviation (he undertook flying lessons himself [1]), tanks, and the switch in fuel from coal to oil, a massive engineering task, also depending on securing Mesopotamia's oil rights, bought circa 1907 through the secret service using the Royal Burmah Oil Company as a front company.[citation needed] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Naval aviation of the United States. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Mineral rights, mining rights, oil rights or drilling rights, are the rights to remove minerals, oil, or sometimes water, that may be contained in and under some land. ... The Burmah Oil Company was founded in Glasgow, Scotland in 1896 by David Sime Cargill to develop oil interests on the Indian subcontinent. ...

Winston Churchill, as the British Colonial Secretary, in Ottoman Damascus, 1912.

The development of the tank was financed from naval research funds via the Landships Committee, and, although a decade later development of the battle tank would be seen as a stroke of genius, at the time it was seen as misappropriation of funds. The tank was deployed too early and in too small numbers, much to Churchill's annoyance. He wanted a fleet of tanks used to surprise the Germans under cover of smoke, and to open a large section of the trenches by crushing barbed wire and creating a breakthrough sector. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Historical stubs ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ...


In 1915, Churchill was one of the political and military engineers of the disastrous Gallipoli landings on the Dardanelles during World War I. Churchill took much of the blame for the fiasco, and when Prime Minister Asquith formed an all-party coalition government, the Conservatives demanded Churchill's demotion as the price for entry. For several months Churchill served in the sinecure of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, before resigning from the government, feeling his energies were not being used. He rejoined the army, though remaining an MP, and served for several months on the Western Front commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. During this period, his second-in-command was a young Archibald Sinclair who later led the Liberal Party. Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Asquiths British coalition government of 1915 came about in the aftermath of the Gallipoli disaster, when it was felt it was necessary to bring the Conservatives into the government to shore it up. ... A sinecure (from Latin sine, without, and cura, care) means an office which requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service. ... The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is, in modern times, a sinecure office in the British government. ... Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ... The Royal Scots Fusiliers was a Regiment of the British Army. ... Second in Command is a 2006 action film directed by Simon Fellows, starring Jean-Claude Van Damme. ... Archibald Henry Macdonald Sinclair, 1st Viscount Thurso KT CMG PC (October 22, 1890 – June 15, 1970), known as Sir Archibald Sinclair from 1912 until 1952, was a Scottish politician and leader of the British Liberal Party. ...


Return to power

In December 1916, Asquith resigned as Prime Minister and was replaced by David Lloyd George. The time was thought not yet right to risk the Conservatives' wrath by bringing Churchill back into government. However, in July 1917, Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions, and in January 1919, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air. He was the main architect of the Ten Year Rule, but the major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle".[33] He secured, from a divided and loosely organised Cabinet, intensification and prolongation of the British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament or the nation — and in the face of the bitter hostility of Labour. In 1920, after the last British forces had been withdrawn, Churchill was instrumental in having arms sent to the Poles when they invaded Ukraine. David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... The Minister of Munitions was a British government position created during the First World War to oversee and co-ordinate the production and distribution of munitions for the war effort. ... The secretary of war in cabinet position was Henry Knox. ... The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet level British position, in charge of the Air Ministry. ... The Ten Year Rule was a British government order, under Winston Churchill as Secretary of State for War, of August 1919 to the armed forces that they should draft their estimates on the assumption that the British Empire would not be engaged in any great war during the next ten... Old War Office Building, seen from Whitehall, London - the former location of the War Office The War Office was a former department of the British Government, responsible for the administration of the British Army between the 17th century and 1963, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. ...


He became Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1921 and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which established the Irish Free State. Churchill always disliked Éamon de Valera, the Sinn Féin leader. Churchill, to protect British maritime interests engineered the Irish Free State agreement to include three Treaty Ports — Queenstown (Cobh), Berehaven and Lough Swilly — which could be used as Atlantic bases by the Royal Navy.[34] Under cuts instituted by Churchill as Chancellor of the Exchequer and others, the bases were neglected. Under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement the bases were returned to the newly constituted Éire in 1938. The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... This article is about the prior state. ... After the Irish Free State won independence in 1922, three deep water Treaty Ports, at Berehaven, Queenstown (renamed Cobh) and Lough Swilly, were retained by the United Kingdom as sovereign bases. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference W793666 Statistics Province: Munster County: Elevation: 47 m (154 ft} Population (2006)  - Town:  - Rural:   6,517  6,370 Website: www. ... Castletownbere (Baile Chaisleáin Bhéarra in Irish) is a town in County Cork, Republic of Ireland. ... Lough Swilly (Loch Súilí in Irish) in Ireland is a fjord-like body of water lying between the eastern side of the Inishowen Peninsula in County Donegal and the rest of northern Donegal. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... The Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement was signed on 25 April 1938 by the Irish Free State and the United Kingdom. ... Map of Éire Éire (pronounced ) is the Irish name for Ireland. ...


As the President of the Air Council, he advocated the use of tear gas against insurgents, arguing that it was ridiculous to "lacerate" a man with lead but "boggle" at making his eyes water.


Career between the wars

Second crossing of the floor

In 1920, as Secretaries of State for War and Air, Churchill had responsibility for quelling the rebellion of Kurds and Arabs in British-occupied Iraq. Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...

Churchill secretly meets with President Ismet Inönü at the Yenice Station 15 miles (24 km) outside of Adana in south-east Turkey, on January 30, 1943
Churchill secretly meets with President Ismet Inönü at the Yenice Station 15 miles (24 km) outside of Adana in south-east Turkey, on January 30, 1943

In October 1922, Churchill underwent an operation to remove his appendix. Upon his return, he learned the government had fallen and a General Election was looming. The Liberal Party was now beset by internal division and Churchill's campaign was weak. Even the D. C. Thomson & Co. Ltd, a local newspaper publisher, published vitriolic rhetoric about his political status in the city, particularly from David Coupar Thomson. At one meeting, he was only able to speak for 40 minutes when he was barracked by a section of the audience.[35] He came only fourth in the poll and lost his seat at Dundee to the prohibitionist Edwin Scrymgeour, quipping later that he left Dundee "without an office, without a seat, without a party and without an appendix".[36] Image File history File linksMetadata ChurchillandInonu. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ChurchillandInonu. ... İsmet İnönü 1884-1973 Mustafa İsmet İnönü (1884 - December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Adana (Turkish: }) (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus)) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up appendix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The UK general election of 1922 was held on 15th November 1922. ... D. C. Thomson & Co. ... Reading the newspaper: Brookgreen Gardens in Pawleys Island, South Carolina, United States. ... David Coupar Thomson (born May 23, 1861; died December 12, 1954) was the proprietor of the newspaper and publishing company D. C. Thomson & Co. ... Dundee was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1832 to 1950, when it was split into Dundee East and Dundee West. ... The Scottish Prohibition Party was a minor Scottish political party, represented in the House of Commons by Edwin Scrymgeour from 1922-1931. ... Edwin Scrymgeour (28 July 1866-1947), born in Dundee, also known as Neddy, was a Scottish MP for Dundee. ...


Churchill stood for the Liberals again in the 1923 general election, losing in Leicester, but over the next few months he moved towards the Conservative Party in all but name. His first electoral contest as an Independent candidate, fought under the label of "Independent Anti-Socialist," was a narrow loss in a by-election in the Westminster Abbey constituency — his third electoral defeat in less than two years. However, he stood for election yet again several months later in the General Election of 1924, again as an Independent candidate, this time under the label of "Constitutionalist" although with Conservative backing, and was finally elected to represent Epping - a statue in his honour in Woodford Green was erected when Woodford Green was part of the Epping constituency. The following year, he formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting wryly that "Anyone can rat [betray], but it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat."[36] The UK general election of 1923 was held on 5th December 1923. ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Abbey was a parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, named for Westminster Abbey. ... The 1924 UK general election was held on 29th October 1924. ... Epping was a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom up until 1974. ... Woodford Green is a suburban area of Woodford divided between the London Borough of Redbridge and London Borough of Waltham Forest, London, and surrounded by the Epping Forest. ...


Chancellor of the Exchequer

He was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1924 under Stanley Baldwin and oversaw Britain's disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation, unemployment, and the miners' strike that led to the General Strike of 1926. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ... The UK General Strike of 1926 lasted nine days, from 3 May to 12 May 1926, and was called by the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) in an unsuccessful attempt to force the government to act to prevent wage reduction and worsening conditions for coal miners. ...


His decision, announced in the 1924 Budget, came after long consultation with various economists and the board of the Bank of England. He held a dinner at which the economist John Maynard Keynes, the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, Sir Otto Niemeyer and others argued the case. Keynes redirects here. ... Niemeyer, Sir Otto Ernest (1883-1971) Worked as adviser and director of the Bank of England ...


This decision prompted Keynes to write The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill, arguing that the return to the gold standard at the pre-war parity in 1925 (£1=$4.86) would lead to a world depression. Interestingly, the pamphlet did not criticise the decision to return to the gold standard per se. However, the decision was generally popular and seen as 'sound economics' although it was opposed by Lord Beaverbrook and the Federation of British Industries [37]). For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, PC (May 25, 1879 – June 9, 1964) was a Canadian – British business tycoon and politician. ...


Churchill later regarded this as the greatest mistake of his life; he stated he was not an economist and that he acted on the advice of the Governor of the Bank of England, Montagu Norman. However in discussions at the time with former Chancellor McKenna, Churchill acknowledged that the return to the gold standard and the resulting 'dear money' policy was economically bad. In those discussions he maintained the policy as fundamentally political - a return to the pre war conditions in which he believed [38]. In his speech on the Bill he said "I will tell you what it (the return to the Gold Standard) will shackle us to. It will shackle us to reality." Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... Montagu C. Norman, Time cover, 1929 Montagu Collet Norman, 1st Baron Norman, DSO (6 September 1871–4 February 1950), was a distinguished English banker, best known for his role as the Governor of the Bank of England from 1920 to 1944. ... McKenna is a surname, and may refer to Andrew McKenna, American political organizer Antoinette McKenna Barney McKenna Dennis McKenna Frank McKenna Patricia McKenna Paul McKenna Reginald McKenna Rob McKenna Terence McKenna Virginia McKenna Categories: | ...


It was not only the return to the Gold Standard that later economists, as well as people at the time, criticised in Churchill's time at the Treasury. Rather it was his budget measures which, even given the consensus at the time that the budgets should be balanced were attacked as assisting the generally prosperous rentier banking and salaried classes (to which Churchill and his associates generally belonged) at the expense of manufacturers and exporters which were known then to be suffering from imports and from competition in traditional export markets.[39]


The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard depressed industries. The most affected was the coal industry. Already suffering from declining output as shipping switched to oil, as basic British industries like cotton came under more competition in export markets, the return to the pre war exchange was estimated to add up to 10% in costs to the industry. In July 1925 a Commission of Inquiry reported generally favouring the miners, rather than the mine owners' position. Attached to the report was a memorandum from Sir Josiah Stamp stating that the increased difficulties in the coal industry could be entirely explained by the 'immediate and necessary effects of the return to Gold." Josiah Stamp Banking was conceived in iniquity and born in sin. ...


Baldwin, with Churchill's support proposed a subsidy to the industry while a Royal Commission prepared a further report


During the General Strike of 1926, Churchill was reported to have suggested that machine guns be used on the striking miners. Churchill edited the Government's newspaper, the British Gazette, and, during the dispute, he argued that "either the country will break the General Strike, or the General Strike will break the country." Furthermore, he controversially claimed that the Fascism of Benito Mussolini had "rendered a service to the whole world," showing, as it had, "a way to combat subversive forces" — that is, he considered the regime to be a bulwark against the perceived threat of Communist revolution. At one point, Churchill went as far as to call Mussolini the "Roman genius… the greatest lawgiver among men."[40] The UK General Strike of 1926 lasted nine days, from 3 May to 12 May 1926, and was called by the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) in an unsuccessful attempt to force the government to act to prevent wage reduction and worsening conditions for coal miners. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... The British Gazette was a short-lived British newspaper published by the government during the General Strike of 1926. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism (state or worker ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ...


Political isolation

The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 General Election. Churchill did not seek election to the Conservative Business Committee, the forerunner to the Shadow Cabinet. In the next two years, Churchill became estranged from the Conservative leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule, which he bitterly opposed. He further distanced himself from the party as a whole by his friendships with press barons, financiers and people seen as unsound and by his political views. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. He was now at the low point in his career, in a period known as "the wilderness years". The 1929 UK general election was held on 30th May 1929, and resulted in a hung parliament. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all UK major political parties. ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...

John Churchill
John Churchill

He spent much of the next few years concentrating on his writing, including Marlborough: His Life and Times — a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough — and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (though the latter was not published until well after World War II). Though badly hurt when he was struck by a car in New York City on a North American speaking tour, he wrote a profitable article about the experience. He supported himself largely by his writing and was one of the best paid writers of his time. Image File history File links John_Churchill_Marlborough_porträtterad_av_Adriaen_van_der_Werff_(1659-1722). ... Image File history File links John_Churchill_Marlborough_porträtterad_av_Adriaen_van_der_Werff_(1659-1722). ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... History of the English Speaking Peoples cover A History of the English Speaking Peoples is a four-volume history of Britain and the other English speaking nations, written by Winston Churchill, covering the period from the Roman conquest of Britain (55 BC) to the beginning of World War I (1914). ...


His political views, set forth in his 1930 Romanes Election and published as Parliamentary Government and the Economic Problem (OUP) (republished in 1932 in his collection of essays "Thoughts and Adventures") (in America under the title Amid These Storms) involved abandoning universal suffrage, a return to a property franchise, proportional representation for the major cities and an economic 'sub parliament'. He continued to support Mussolini, in 1933 writing of him as 'the greatest lawgiver among men' [41]. Some suspected him of wishing to become the "British Mussolini". Harold Nicholson for example wrote in 1932 of a new Britain governed by Churchill and Oswald Mosley in his novel Public Faces. Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... Sir Harold Nicolson (November 21, 1886-May 1, 1968) was a British diplomat, author and politician. ... Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet (November 16, 1896 – December 3, 1980), was a British politician known principally as the founder of the British Union of Fascists. ...


Indian Independence

During the first half of the 1930s, outspoken opposition towards the granting of Dominion status to India (see Simon Commission and Government of India Act 1935) became Churchill's major political focus. This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament that had been dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform in that colony. ... 24. ...


Churchill was one of the founders of the India Defence League, a group dedicated to the preservation of British power in India. In speeches and press articles in this period he forecast widespread British unemployment and civil strife in India should independence be granted to India.[42]. The Viceroy Lord Irwin who had been appointed by the prior Conservative Government engaged in the Round Table Conference in early 1931 and then announced the Government's policy that India should be granted Dominion Status. In this the Government was supported by the Liberal Party and, officially at least, by the Conservative Party. Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as Lord Irwin from 1926 until 1934, (1881-1959) was a British Conservative politician. ... First Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 was attended by eighty-nine delegates from different religious, political groups and princely states. ...


This support as Churchill later wrote "brought about my breaking point with Mr Baldwin"[43]. Churchill denounced the Round Table Conference. He spoke at a public meetings at Manchester and Liverpool in January and February 1931 respectively. At both he forecast widespread unemployment into the millions and other social and economic problems in England if India became self governing.[44]. Though he would come to respect Mahatma Gandhi, especially after Gandhi "stood up for the untouchables",[45] at a meeting of the West Essex Conservative Association specially convened so Churchill could explain his position he said , "It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle-Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well-known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace...to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor."[46] . He called the Congress leaders "Brahmims who mouth and patter principles of Western Liberalism."[47]


In Parliament on 26th January 1931 he attacked the Government's policy saying that the Round Table Conference "was a frightful prospect" and that he would support "effective and real organisms of provisional and local government in the provinces."[48]. He returned to the Parliamentary attack on 13th March. Baldwin answered him by quoting Churchill's own speech in winding up the debate for the Lloyd George Coalition government on Amritsar massacre in which Churchill defended the cashiering of General Reginald Dyer. Baldwin continued by challenging Churchill and his other critics to depose him as leader of the Conservative Party. [49] The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in the northern Indian city of Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers under the command of Brigadier Reginald Dyer opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and... Reginald Dyer : The Butcher of Amritsar by Nigel Collett Brigadier-General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer CB (October 9, 1864 – July 23, 1927) was a British Indian Army officer responsible for the Amritsar massacre. ...


Perhaps the incident that damaged Churchill's reputation within the Conservative Party the most was his speech on the eve of the St George by-election. In this normally very safe Conservative seat, the official Conservative candidate Duff Cooper was opposed by an independent Conservative supported by Lord Rothermere and Lord Beaverbrook and their respective newspapers. Both press barons had tried to urge specific policies on the Conservative Party - Rothermere opposed Indian home rule, Beaverbrook pressed for Tariff Reform under the slogan Empire Free Trade. Churchill's speech at the Albert Hall had been arranged before the date of the by election had been set [50]. But he made no attempt to change the date and his speech was seen as a part of the Press Baron's campaign against Baldwin. This was reinforced by Churchill's personal friendship with both but especially with Beaverbrook who wrote "The primary issue of the by-election will be the leadership of the Conservative Party. If..(the independent candidate wins) Baldwin must go"[51]. Baldwin's position was strengthened when Duff Cooper won and when the civil disobedience campaign in India ceased with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact Westminster St Georges, originally named St Georges, Hanover Square, was a parliamentary constituency in Central London. ... Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich (February 22, 1890 - January 1, 1954), known universally as Duff Cooper, was a British diplomat, Cabinet member and acclaimed author. ... Lord Rothermere Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere (26 April 1868 – 26 November 1940) was a highly successful British newspaper proprietor, owner of Associated Newspapers. ... A media proprietor is a person who controls, either through personal ownership or a dominant position in a public company, a significant part of the mass media. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ... Albert P. Hall (born November 10, 1937 in Boothton, Alabama) is an African-American actor. ... Gandhi-Irwin Pact refers to a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the-then Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931. ...


Churchill's break with Baldwin was permanent. He never held any office while Baldwin was in Parliament. In 1947 Churchill said "I wish Stanley Baldwin no ill, but it would have been much better had he never lived." In the index to the Gathering Storm, Churchill's first volume of his History of World War Two, he records Baldwin "admitting to putting party before country" for his alleged admission that he would not have won the 1935 Election if he had pursued a more aggressive policy of rearmament. Churchill selectively quotes a speech in the Commons by Baldwin and gives the false impression that Baldwin is speaking of the general election when he was speaking of a by election in 1933 and omits altogether Baldwin's actual comments about the 1935 election "we got from the country, a mandate for doing a thing [a substantial rearmament programme] that no one, twelve months before, would have believed possible".[52] This canard had been first put forward in the first edition of Guilty Men but in subsequent editions (including those before Churchill wrote the Gathering Storm) had been corrected.[53] Guilty Men was a polemic book published in the summer of 1940 in the United Kingdom, which attacked the leading politicians of the 1930s for failing to confront Nazi Germany. ...


Churchill continued his campaign against any further transfer of power to Indians. He continued to predict bloodshed in India and mass unemployment at home. His speeches often quoted nineteenth century politicians and his own policy was to maintain the existing Raj. Some historians see his basic attitude to India as being set out in his My Early Life which was published in 1930 [54]


German Rearmament

Beginning in 1932 when he opposed those who advocated giving Germany the right to military parity with France, Churchill spoke often of the dangers of Germany's rearmament.[55]


He later, particularly in The Gathering Storm tried to portray himself as being for a time, a lone voice calling on Britain to strengthen itself to counter the belligerence of Germany.[56] However Lord Lloyd was the first to so agitate.[57] George Ambrose Lloyd, 1st Baron Lloyd (1879-February 4, 1941) was a British Conservative politician strongly associated with the Diehard wing of the party. ...


Churchill's attitude toward the Fascist dictators was ambiguous. In 1931 he warned against the League of Nations opposing the Japanese in Manchuria "I hope we shall try in England to understand the position of Japan an ancient state...On the one side they have the dark menace of Soviet Russia. On the other the chaos of China four or five provinces of which are being tortured under Communist rule".[58] In contemporary newspaper articles he referred to the Spanish Republican government as a communist front, and Franco's army as the "Anti red movement' [59] . He supported the Hoare-Laval Pact and continued up till 1937 to praise Mussolini [60].In 1937 in his book "Great Contemporaries", Churchill wrote: "If our country were defeated, I hope we should find a champion as admirable (as Hitler) to restore our courage and lead us back to our place among the nations". Speaking in the House of Commons, 1937 he said "I will not pretend that, if I had to choose between communism and Nazism, I would choose communism". In the same work, Churchill expressed a hope that despite Hitler's apparent dictatorial tendencies, he would use his power to rebuild Germany into a worthy member of the world community. "One may dislike Hitler's system and yet admire his patriotic achievements. If our country were defeated, I hope we should find a champion as admirable to restore our courage and lead us back to our place among the nations" - From 'Great Contemporaries', 1937. The Hoare-Laval Pact was a December 1935 plan concocted by the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Samuel Hoare and the French Prime Minister, Pierre Laval for the partitioning of Ethiopia, as a means of ending the Italo-Ethiopian War. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


Churchill's first major speech on defence on 7th February 1934 stressed the need to rebuild the Royal Air Force and to create a Ministry of Defence, his second, on 13th July urged a renewed role for the League of Nations. These three topics remained his themes till early 1936. In 1935 he was one of the founding members of "Focus" a group which also included Sir Archibald Sinclair, Lady Violet Bonham Carter, Wickham Steed and Professor Gilbert Murray. Focus brought together people of differing political backgrounds and occupations who were united in seeking 'the defence of freedom and peace' [61]. Focus led to the formation of the much wider Arms and the Covenant Movement in 1936. Lady Violet Bonham Carter DBE (April 15, 1887–February 19, 1969) was a British politician and the daughter of Liberal Prime Minister H.H. Asquith by his first wife, Helen. ... H. Wickham Stickum Steed full name Henry Wickham Steed (October 10, 1871 - January 13, 1956) was a British journalist and historian and was also one of the first English speakers to sound the warning bells about the new German Chancellor Adolf HItler. ... Gilbert Murray (or George Gilbert Aime) (January 2, 1866 - 1957) was a British classical scholar and diplomat. ...


Churchill was holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the Rhineland in February of that year and returned to a divided England where the Labour opposition was adamant in opposing sanctions and the National Government divided between advocates of economic sanctions and those who said that even these would lead to a humiliating backdown by Britain as France would not support any intervention.[62] Churchill's speech on 9th March was measured and praised by Neville Chamberlain as constructive. But within weeks Churchill was passed over for the post of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence in favour of the Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip [63]. The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ... This article is about the British prime minister. ... The position of Minister for Coordination of Defence was a British Cabinet position established in 1936 to oversee and co-ordinate the rearmament on Britains defences. ... Thomas Walker Hobart Inskip, 1st Viscount Caldecote was a British politician who served in many legal posts, culminating in serving as Lord Chancellor from 1939 until 1940. ...


This surprising appointment- it surprised Inskip as much as anyone - came despite advice to Baldwin to broaden his cabinet. Historians have variously seen it as Baldwin's caution in not wanting to appoint someone as controversial as Churchill, as avoiding giving Germany any sign that the United Kingdom was preparing for war and as avoiding someone who had few allies in the Conservative Party and was opposed as a war monger by many people in England [64]. Whatever the reason it was a severe blow to Churchill.


In June 1936 he organised a deputation of senior Conservatives who shared his concern to see Baldwin, Chamberlain and Halifax. He had tried to have delegates from the other two parties and later wrote "If the leaders of the Labour and Liberal oppositions had come with us there might have been a political situation so intense as to enforce remedial action [65]. As it was the meeting achieved little, Baldwin arguing that the Government was doing all it could given the anti war feeling of the electorate. But it showed that more Conservatives shared Churchill's views, he was less isolated then he had been earlier.


Abdication Crisis

(for main article see Abdication Crisis) The Instrument of Abdication signed by Edward VIII Like King Henry VIII of England, whose wish to marry Anne Boleyn in the 1530s shook his kingdom, King Edward VIII created a crisis for the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth in the 1930s when he wished to marry Wallis Simpson. ...


In June 1936 Walter Monckton told Churchill that the rumours that King Edward VIII intented to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson were true. Churchill then advised against the marriage and said he regarded Mrs Simpson's existing marriage as a 'safeguard' [66]. In November he declined Lord Salisbury's invitation to be part of a delegation of senior Conservative backbenchers which met with Baldwin to discuss the matter. On 25th November he, Atlee and Sinclair met with Baldwin and were told officially of the King's intention and asked whether they would form an administration if Baldwin and the National Government resigned should the King not take the Ministry's advice. Both Atlee and Sinclair said they would not take office if invited to do so. Churchill's reply was that his attitude was a little different but he would support the government [67]. Walter Turner Monckton, 1st Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, GCVO, KCMG, MC, PC (1891-1965) was a British politician. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... Wallis, Duchess of Windsor and the Duke of Windsor on their wedding day Bessie Wallis Warfield, more widely known as Wallis Simpson and later The Duchess of Windsor (June 19, 1896–April 24, 1986) was the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII of the... The best-known Lord Salisbury was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830–1903). ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, FRS (January 3, 1883 - October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ...


At the time Churchill was seen as an alternative leader. As Lord Beaverbrook wrote "he has emerged as a leader of a big armaments anti-German movement in politics, hostile to the Government"[68].


After some months in which English newspapers remained silent the Crisis became public on 1st December. Churchill's support for the King was also public. The first public meeting of the Arms and the Covenant Movement was on 3rd December. Churchill was a major speaker and later wrote that in replying to the Vote of Thanks he made a declaration 'on the spur of the moment' asking for delay before any decision was made by either the King or his Cabinet[69]. Later that night Churchill saw the draft of the King's proposed wireless broadcast and spoke with Beaverbrook and the King's solicitor about it.


On 4th December he met with the King and again urged delay. On 5th December he issued a lengthy statement implying that the Ministry was applying unconstitutional pressure on the King to force him to make a hasty decision [70]


On 7th December he tried to address the Commons to plead for delay. He was shouted down. Seemingly staggered by the unanimous hostility of all Members he left.


Churchill's reputation in Parliament and England as a whole was badly damaged. Some such as Alistair Cooke saw him as trying to build a King's Party [71]. Others like Harold Macmillan were dismayed by the damage Churchill's support for the King had done to the Arms and the Covenant Movement [72]. Churchill himself later wrote "I was myself smitten in public opinion that it was the almost universal view that my political life was ended [73]. Alistair Cooke should not be confused with Alastair Cook, English cricketer. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ...


Historians are divided about Churchill's motives in his support for Edward VIII. Some such as A J P Taylor see it as being an attempt to 'overthrow the government of feeble men' [74]. Others such as Rhode James see Churchill's motives as entirely honourable and disinterested, that he felt deeply for the King.[75] A. J. P. Taylor (March 25, 1906 - September 7, 1990) (full name Alan John Percivale Taylor) was a renowned British historian of the 20th century. ...


Return from Exile

Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Hitler, leading the wing of the Conservative Party that opposed the Munich Agreement which Chamberlain famously declared to mean "peace in our time".[76] In a speech to the House of Commons, he bluntly (and prophetically) stated, "You were given the choice between war and dishonour. You chose dishonour, and you will have war."[77] This article is about the British prime minister. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy The Munich Agreement (Czech: ; Slovak: ; German: ) was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland Crisis among the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich, Germany in 1938 and signed in the early hours of...


Role as wartime Prime Minister

"Winston is back"

After the outbreak of the World War II Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty and a member of the War Cabinet, just as he was in the first part of the World War I. The Navy, according to myth, sent out the signal: "Winston is back."[78] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


In this job, he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so-called "Phony War", when the only noticeable action was at sea. Churchill advocated the pre-emptive occupation of the neutral Norwegian iron-ore port of Narvik and the iron mines in Kiruna, Sweden, early in the War. However, Chamberlain and the rest of the War Cabinet disagreed, and the operation was delayed until the successful German invasion of Norway. British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Swedish iron ore was important to the German war effort during World War two, as Germany had an inadequate domestic supply, and other sources were cut off by the British sea blockade. ... A War Cabinet is committee formed by a government in time of war. ... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign, lasting from 9 April to 10 June 1940, led to the first direct land confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France — against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for...


Bitter beginnings of the war

On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a lightning advance through the Low Countries, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the country had no confidence in Chamberlain's prosecution of the war and so Chamberlain resigned. The commonly accepted version of events states that Lord Halifax turned down the post of Prime Minister because he believed he could not govern effectively as a member of the House of Lords instead of the House of Commons. Although traditionally, the Prime Minister does not advise the King on the former's successor, Chamberlain wanted someone who would command the support of all three major parties in the House of Commons. A meeting between Chamberlain, Halifax, Churchill and David Margesson, the government Chief Whip, led to the recommendation of Churchill, and, as a constitutional monarch, George VI asked Churchill to be Prime Minister and to form an all-party government. Churchill's first act was to write to Chamberlain to thank him for his support.[79] is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the military term. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, KG, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (16 April 1881–23 December 1959), known as The Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and as The Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was a British Conservative politician. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Henry David Reginald Margesson, 1st Viscount Margesson, of Rugby (July 26, 1890 – December 24, 1965) was a British Conservative politician most popularly remembered for his tenure as Government Chief Whip in the 1930s. ... The Chief Whip is a political office in some legislatures assigned to an elected member whose task is to administer the whipping system that ensures that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ...

Churchill with Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and Field Marshal Alan Brooke, 1944
Churchill with Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and Field Marshal Alan Brooke, 1944

remained a strong opponent of any negotiations with Germany throughout the war. Few others in the Cabinet had this degree of resolve. By refusing an armstice with Germany, Churchill kept resistance alive in the UK and created the basis for the later Allied counter-attacks of 1942-45, with Britain serving as a platform for the supply of Soviet Union and the liberation of Western Europe. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... Statue of Field Marshal The Viscount Alanbrooke, MoD Building, Whitehall, London Field Marshal Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, KG, GCB, OM, GCVO, DSO (July 23, 1883 - June 17, 1963) was a British Field Marshal during World War II. He also served as Lord High Constable during the coronation of... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Among the many consequences of this stand was that Britain was maintained as a base from which the Allies could attack Germany, thereby ensuring that the Soviet sphere of influence did not extend over Western Europe at the end of the war. For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ...


In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war, Churchill created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence. He immediately put his friend and confidant, the industrialist and newspaper baron Lord Beaverbrook, in charge of aircraft production. It was Beaverbrook's business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering that eventually made the difference in the war. The post of Minister of Defence was responsible for co-ordination of defence and security from its creation in 1940 until its abolition in 1964. ... William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, PC (May 25, 1879 – June 9, 1964) was a Canadian – British business tycoon and politician. ...


Churchill's speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled British. His first speech as Prime Minister was the famous "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat". He followed that closely with two other equally famous ones, given just before the Battle of Britain. One included the immortal line, "we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender." On 13 May 1940 Winston Churchill made his famous blood, toil, tears, and sweat speech to the House of Commons of the British Parliament, three days after replacing Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister in the first year of World War II. Churchill gave the brief speech after calling for a... This article is about military history. ... The We shall fight on the beaches speech was a famous speech made by Sir Winston Churchill to the House of Commons of the British Parliament on 4 June 1940. ...


The other included the equally famous "Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.' " On 18 June 1940 Winston Churchill made his famous This was their finest hour speech to the House of Commons of the British Parliament, shortly after taking over as Prime Minister in the first year of World War II. It was given as France continued to reel from the stunning...


At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few", which engendered the enduring nickname "The Few" for the Allied fighter pilots who won it. One of his most memorable war speeches came on 10 November 1942 at the Lord Mayor's Luncheon at Mansion House in London, in response to the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Churchill stated famously: On August 20, 1940 Winston Churchill made his famous Never was so much owed by so many to so few speech to the House of Commons of the British Parliament, at the height of the Battle of Britain, often viewed as the most critical turning point of World War II... The Few is a term used to describe the Allied airmen of the Royal Air Force (RAF) who won the Battle of Britain in the Second World War. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mansion House is the name applied to the official residences of the Lords Mayor of Dublin and London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Combatants British Eighth Army: United Kingdom Australia New Zealand South Africa India Free French Greece Panzer Army Africa: Nazi Germany Italy Commanders Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Georg Stumme Ettore Bastico Strength 220,000 men 1,100 tanks[1] 750 aircraft (530 serviceable) 116,000 men[1] 559 tanks...

This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.

Without having much in the way of sustenance or good news to offer the British people, he took a political risk in deliberately choosing to emphasise the dangers instead. Languages Cornish, Dgèrnésiais, English, French, Irish, Jèrriais, Manx, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Llanito Religions Anglican, Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism - Related ethnic groups British-Americans, Anglo-Celtic Australian, Anglo-African, Belongers, English Canadians, Channel Islanders, Cornish, English, Anglo-Irish, Ulster-Scots, Irish, Manx, New Zealand European, Scottish, Welsh British... Political risk is a broad term to collectively describe the risks companies and investors face due to the exercise of political power. ...


"Rhetorical power," wrote Churchill, "is neither wholly bestowed, nor wholly acquired, but cultivated." Not all were impressed by his oratory. Robert Menzies, who was the Prime Minister of Australia, said during World War II of Churchill: "His real tyrant is the glittering phrase so attractive to his mind that awkward facts have to give way." Another associate wrote: "He is . . . the slave of the words which his mind forms about ideas. . . . And he can convince himself of almost every truth if it is once allowed thus to start on its wild career through his rhetorical machinery."


Relations with the United States

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Churchill at the Cairo Conference in 1943
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Churchill at the Cairo Conference in 1943

His good relationship with Franklin D. Roosevelt secured vital food, oil and munitions via the North Atlantic shipping routes. It was for this reason that Churchill was relieved when Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940. Upon re-election, Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of providing military hardware and shipping to Britain without the need for monetary payment. Put simply, Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the USA; and so Lend-lease was born. Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe first strategy, the Declaration by the United Nations and other war policies. After Pearl Harbor was attacked, Churchill's first thought in anticipation of U.S. help was, "We have won the war!",[80] Then 26 December 1941 Churchill addressed a joint meeting of the U.S. Congress, asking of Germany and Japan, "What kind of people do they think we are?".[81] Churchill initiated the Special Operations Executive (SOE) under Hugh Dalton's Ministry of Economic Warfare, which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world's current Special Forces. The Russians referred to him as the "British Bulldog". File links The following pages link to this file: Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Cairo Conference Military history of Egypt during World War II ... File links The following pages link to this file: Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Cairo Conference Military history of Egypt during World War II ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... FDR redirects here. ... Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in Cairo, 11/25/1943. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... List of World War II conferences of the Allied forces In total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 5. ... Winston Churchills edited copy of the final draft of the Atlantic Charter. ... Europe first (sometimes known as Germany first) was the key element of the grand strategy employed by the United States and the United Kingdom during World War II. According to this policy, the United States and the United Kingdom would use the preponderance of their resources to subdue Germany in... The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1, 1942 by 26 governments, several of them governments-in-exile. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton PC , generally known as Hugh Dalton (26 August 1887 – 13 February 1962) was a British Labour Party politician, and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1945 to 1947. ... The Minister of Economic Warfare was a British government position which existed during the Second World War. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The British Commandos were first formed by the Army in June 1940 during World War II as a well-armed but non-regimental raider force employing unconventional and irregular tactics to assault, disrupt and reconnoitre the enemy in mainland Europe and Scandinavia. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ...


Churchill's health was fragile, as shown by a mild heart attack he suffered in December 1941 at the White House and also in December 1943 when he contracted pneumonia. Despite this, he travelled over 100,000 miles (160,000 km) throughout the war to meet other national leaders. For security, he usually travelled using the alias Colonel Warden.[82] Heart attack redirects here. ...


Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-World War II European and Asian boundaries. These were discussed as early as 1943. Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were officially agreed to by Harry S Truman, Churchill, and Stalin at Potsdam. At the second Quebec Conference in 1944 he drafted and together with U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a toned down version of the original Morgenthau Plan, where they pledged to convert Germany after its unconditional surrender "into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character."[83] Churchill's strong relationship with Harry Truman was also of great significance to both countries. While he clearly regretted the loss of his close friend and counterpart Franklin D. Roosevelt, Churchill was enormously supportive of Truman in his first days in office, calling him, "the type of leader the world needs when it needs him most." For the victim of Mt. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Quebec Conference refers to one of several different meetings by the same name that were held in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ...


Relations with the Soviet Union

When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Winston Churchill, a vehement anti-Communist, famously stated "If Hitler were to invade Hell, I should find occasion to make a favourable preference to the Devil," regarding his policy toward Stalin. Soon, British supplies and tanks were flowing to help the Soviet Union.[84] Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov...


The settlement concerning the borders of Poland, that is, the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union and between Germany and Poland, was viewed as a betrayal in Poland during the post-war years, as it was established against the views of the Polish government in exile. It was Winston Churchill, who tried to motivate Mikołajczyk, who was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile, to accept Stalin's wishes, but Mikołajczyk refused. Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the two populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders. As he expounded in the House of Commons in 1944, "Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble... A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions." However the resulting expulsions of Germans was carried out by the Soviet Union in a way which resulted in much hardship and, according to a 1966 report by the West German Ministry of Refugees and Displaced Persons, the death of over 2,100,000. Churchill opposed the effective annexation of Poland by the Soviet Union and wrote bitterly about it in his books, but he was unable to prevent it at the conferences. The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk (1901 - 1966), Polish politician, was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile during World War II, and later Deputy Prime Minister in postwar Poland. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with forced migration. ...


During October 1944, he and Eden were in Moscow to meet with the Russian leadership. At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. Churchill held the view that until everything was formally and properly worked out at Yalta, there had to be a temporary, war-time, working agreement with regard to who would run what. Churchill suggested that Stalin had an 90 percent interest in Romania, Britain an 90 percent interest in Greece, both Russia and Britain a 50 percent interest in Yugoslavia and Hungary and in Bulgaria, a 75% Russian interest.[85] Stalin agreed. Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


Dresden bombings controversy

Between February 13 and February 15, 1945, British and the U.S. bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with German wounded and refugees[86] Because of the strategic insignificance and the large numbers of civilian casualties, this remains one of the most controversial Western Allied actions of the war. Ultimately, responsibility for the attack lay with Churchill, which is why he has been criticised for allowing the bombings to happen. However, no consensus has been reached by historians whether he can be accused of war crimes and deliberate violation of the Geneva Conventions. Following the bombing Churchill stated in a top secret telegram: The bombing of Dresden, led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. The exact number of casualties is uncertain, but most historians agree... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Civilian casualties is a military term describing civilian, non-combatant persons killed or injured by direct military action. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Original document. ...

"It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed." "...I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive."

After World War II

Although the importance of Churchill's role in World War II is undeniable, he had many enemies in his own country. He expressed contempt for a number of popular ideas, in particular public health care and better public education, and his stance produced much popular opposition. Immediately following the close of the war in Europe. Churchill was defeated in the 1945 election by Clement Attlee and the Labour Party.[87] Some historians think that many British voters believed that the man who had led the nation so well in war was not the best man to lead it in peace. Others see the election result as a reaction not against Churchill personally, but against the Conservative Party's record in the 1930s under Baldwin and Chamberlain. During the opening broadcast of the election campaign, Churchill astonished many of his admirers by warning that a Labour government would introduce into Britain "some form of Gestapo, no doubt humanely administered in the first instance". Churchill had been genuinely worried during the war by the inroads of state bureaucracy into civil liberty, and was clearly influenced by Friedrich Hayek's anti-totalitarian tract, The Road to Serfdom (1944). Publicly-funded health care is a health care system that is financed entirely or in majority part by citizens tax payments instead of through private payments made to insurance companies or directly to health care providers (health insurance premiums, copayments or deductibles)[citation needed]. // Publicly-funded health care systems are... // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... “Electioneering” redirects here. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... The Road to Serfdom is a book written by Friedrich Hayek (recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1974) and originally published by Routledge Press in March 1944 in the UK and then by the University of Chicago in September 1944. ...


Winston Churchill was an early supporter of the pan-Europeanism. In his famous speech at the University of Zurich in 1946, Winston Churchill called for a "United States of Europe" and the creation of a "Council of Europe". He also participated in the Hague Congress of 1948, which discussed the future structure and role of this Council of Europe. The Council of Europe was finally founded as the first European institution through the Treaty of London of 5 May 1949 and has its seat in Strasbourg. Pan-Europeanism is often described as pan and the euro, but the truth is that none of these statements are false. ... The University of Zurich (in German: Universität Zürich) is the largest university of Switzerland, in the city of Zürich. ... There have been two Hague Congress: Hague Congress (1948) Hague Congress (1872) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Treaty of London may refer to: Treaty of London, 1359 ceding western France to England, repudiated by the Estates-General in Paris, 19 May 1359 Treaty of London, 1604 between England and Spain Treaty of London, 1700, also known as the Second Partition Treaty. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ...


However, this is often seen as his supporting Britain's membership in a united Europe, which is far from the truth. Rather, he saw Pan Europeanism as a Franco-German project which would foster cooperation amongst European countries and the rest of the world and prevent war on the European continent. This can be seen in Churchill’s landmark refusal to join the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951 as well as his often quoted speech in which he said of Britain's role with Europe: The United States of Europe is a name given to one version of the hypothetical unification scenarios of Europe, as a sovereign federation of states, similar to the United States of America, both as projected by writers of speculative fiction and by political scientists and politicians. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member...

We have our own dream and our own task. We are with Europe, but not of it. We are linked but not combined. We are interested and associated but not absorbed.[88]

This stance has, arguably, shaped Britain's feelings toward European integration and its subsequent general ambivalence towards all things Europe. He saw Britain's place as separate from the continent, much more in-line with the countries of the Commonwealth and the Empire and with the United States, the so-called Anglosphere. As evidenced in his speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, given on 5 March 1946 where as a guest of Harry S. Truman, he declared: European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... Westminster College is a private, liberal arts institution in Fulton, Missouri, USA. It was founded by Presbyterians in 1851 as Fulton College and assumed the present name two years later. ... Fulton is a city located in Callaway County, Missouri. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...

Neither the sure prevention of war, nor the continuous rise of world organisation will be gained without what I have called the fraternal association of the English-speaking peoples. This means a special relationship between the British Commonwealth and Empire and the United States.[89]

It was also during this speech that he famously popularised the term "The Iron Curtain": Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ...

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.[89] Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ...

Churchill was instrumental in giving France a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council (which provided another European power to counterbalance the Soviet Union's permanent seat). A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


Second term

After Labour's defeat in the General Election of 1951, Churchill again became Prime Minister. His third government — after the wartime national government and the brief caretaker government of 1945 — would last until his resignation in 1955. During this period, he renewed what he called the "special relationship" between Britain and the United States, and engaged himself in the formation of the post-war order. On racial questions, Churchill was still a late Victorian. He tried in vain to manoeuvre the cabinet into restricting West Indian immigration. "Keep England White" was a good slogan, he told the cabinet in January 1955.[90] The 1951 election was held soon after the UK general election, 1950, which Labour won, but with an unworkable majority. ... Prime Minister Winston Churchill, (left) with President Franklin Roosevelt, at the 1945 Yalta Conference. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...

Churchill with Canadian Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent in 1954

His domestic priorities were, however, overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power. Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power, Churchill would often meet such moments with direct action. Trying to retain what he could of the Empire, he once stated that, "I will not preside over a dismemberment." Image File history File links ChurchillStLaurent1954. ... Image File history File links ChurchillStLaurent1954. ... Louis Stephen St. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ...


The Mau Mau Rebellion

Main article: Mau Mau Uprising

In 1951, grievances against the colonial distribution of land came to a head with the Kenya Africa Union demanding greater representation and land reform. When these demands were rejected, more radical elements came forward, launching the Mau Mau rebellion in 1952. On 17 August 1952, a state of emergency was declared, and British troops were flown to Kenya to deal with the rebellion. As both sides increased the ferocity of their attacks, the country moved to full-scale civil war. Combatants Mau Mau British Empire Commanders * Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi * General China (Waruhiu Itote) * Stanley Mathenge * Evelyn Baring(Governor) * General Sir George Erskine Strength Unknown 10,000 regular troops (Africans and Europeans) 21,000 police, 25,000 home guard[1] Casualties 10,527 killed in action;[2] 2,633 captured... -1... Combatants Mau Mau British Empire Commanders * Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi * General China (Waruhiu Itote) * Stanley Mathenge * Evelyn Baring(Governor) * General Sir George Erskine Strength Unknown 10,000 regular troops (Africans and Europeans) 21,000 police, 25,000 home guard[1] Casualties 10,527 killed in action;[2] 2,633 captured... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ...


In 1953, the Lari massacre, perpetrated by Mau-Mau insurgents against Kikuyu loyal to the British, changed the political complexion of the rebellion and gave the public-relations advantage to the British. Churchill's strategy was to use a military stick, extreme repression such as public executions, combined with implementing many of the concessions that Attlee's government had blocked in 1951. He ordered an increased military presence and appointed General Sir George Erskine, who would implement Operation Anvil in 1954 that defeated the rebellion in the city of Nairobi. Operation Hammer, in turn, was designed to kill rebels in the countryside. Churchill ordered peace talks opened, but these collapsed shortly after his leaving office. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nairobi (pronounced IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Kenya. ...


Malayan Emergency

Main article: Malayan Emergency

In Malaya, a rebellion against British rule had been in progress since 1948. Once again, Churchill's government inherited a crisis, and once again Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not. He stepped up the implementation of a "hearts and minds" campaign and approved the creation of fortified villages, a tactic that would become a recurring part of Western military strategy in South-east Asia. (See Vietnam War). Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand British colonies Federation of Malaya Rhodesia Fiji various British East African colonies Malayan Communist Party Malayan Races Liberation Army Commanders Harold Briggs Henry Gurney † Gerald Templer Henry Wells Chin Peng Strength 250,000 Malayan Home Guard troops 40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel 37,000... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Hearts and Minds refers to two separate Vietnam War related subjects. ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


The Malayan Emergency was a more direct case of a guerrilla movement, centred in an ethnic group, but backed by the Soviet Union. As such, Britain's policy of direct confrontation and military victory had a great deal more support than in Iran or in Kenya. At the highpoint of the conflict, over 35,500 British troops were stationed in Malaya. As the rebellion lost ground, it began to lose favour with the local population. Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand British colonies Federation of Malaya Rhodesia Fiji various British East African colonies Malayan Communist Party Malayan Races Liberation Army Commanders Harold Briggs Henry Gurney † Gerald Templer Henry Wells Chin Peng Strength 250,000 Malayan Home Guard troops 40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel 37,000... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ...


While the rebellion was slowly being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer plausible. In 1953, plans were drawn up for independence for Singapore and the other crown colonies in the region. The first elections were held in 1955, just days before Churchill's own resignation, and in 1957, under Prime Minister Anthony Eden, Malaya became independent. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ...


Stroke

In June 1953, when he was 78, Churchill suffered a stroke after a meeting with the Italian Prime Minister [[Commons when meeting other MPs. In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ...


Churchill's fondness for alcoholic beverages was well-documented. While in India and South Africa, he got in the habit of adding small amounts of whisky to the water he drank in order to prevent disease. He was quoted on the subject as saying that "by dint of careful application I learned to like it." He consumed alcoholic drinks on a near-daily basis for long periods in his life, and frequently imbibed before, after, and during mealtimes. He is not generally however considered by historians to have been an alcoholic. The Churchill Centre states that Churchill made a bet with a man with the last name of Rothermere (possibly one of the Viscounts Rothermere) in 1936 that Churchill would be able to successfully abstain from drinking hard liquor for a year; Churchill apparently won the bet. [91] Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... A family name or surname is the part of a persons name indicating the family to which the person belongs. ... Viscount Rothermere, of Hemsted in the County of Kent, is a peerage title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Various distilled beverages in a Spanish bar A distilled beverage, also called spirits or liquor, is a preparation for consumption containing ethyl alcohol purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as wine, malt, or grain. ...


Retirement and death

Aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Churchill retired as Prime Minister in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden, who had long been his ambitious protégé (three years earlier, Eden had married Churchill's niece, Anne Clarissa Spencer-Churchill, his second marriage.) Upon his resignation, the Queen offered him a dukedom; he declined, sometimes voting in parliamentary divisions, but never again speaking in the House. He continued to serve as an MP for Woodford until he stood down for the last time at the 1964 General Elections. His private verdict on the Suez fiasco was: "I would never have done it without squaring the Americans, and once I'd started I'd never have dared stop".[92] In 1959, he became Father of the House, the MP with the longest continuous service: he had already gained the distinction of being the only MP to serve under both Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II. Churchill spent most of his retirement at Chartwell House in Kent, two miles (3 km) south of Westerham. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Anthony and Clarissa Eden on their wedding day, 15 August 1952 Anne Clarissa Eden, Countess of Avon (née Spencer-Churchill, 28 June 1920) is the widow of Sir Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon (1897-1977), who was British Prime Minister 1955-7. ... Woodford was a constituency which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1945 until it was abolished for the February 1974 general election. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1964 result was a very slim majority for the Labour Party, of 4, and led to their first government since 1951. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Father of the House is a term that has by tradition been unofficially bestowed on certain members of some national legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Chartwell For the suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa, see Chartwell, South Africa Chartwell, located two miles south of Westerham, Kent, England, was the home of Sir Winston Churchill. ...


As Churchill's mental and physical faculties decayed, he began to lose the battle he had fought for so long against the "black dog" of depression. He found some solace in the sunshine and colours of the Mediterranean. He took long holidays with his literary adviser Emery Reves and Emery's wife, Wendy Russell, at La Pausa, their villa on the French Riviera, seldom joined by Clementine. He also took eight cruises aboard the yacht Christina as the guest of Aristotle Onassis. Once, when the Christina had to pass through the Dardanelles, Onassis gave instructions that it was to do so during the night, so as not to disturb his guest with unhappy memories. On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Emery Reves is the author of The Anatomy of Peace, a 1945 book that helped popularize the cause of world federalism. ... The Quai des États-Unis in Nice on the French Riviera at night. ... Aristotelis Sokratis (also Ari) Onassis (in Greek, Αριστοτέλης Ωνάσης) (January 20, 1900 – March 15, 1975) was the most famous shipping magnate of the 20th century. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ...


In 1963, U.S. President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed Churchill the first Honorary Citizen of the United States.[93] Churchill was physically incapable of attending the White House ceremony, so his son and grandson accepted the award for him. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... An Act of Vaginapenis is a bill or resolution adopted by both houses of the United States Congress to which one of the following events has happened: Acceptance by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception (excluding Sundays) while the Congress is... A non-United States citizen of exceptional merit may be declared an Honorary Citizen of the United States by the President pursuant to an Act of Congress. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Churchill's final years were melancholy. He never resolved the love–hate relationship between himself and his son. Sarah was descending into alcoholism and Diana committed suicide in the autumn of 1963. Churchill himself suffered a number of minor strokes. It was a figure ravaged by age and sorrow who appeared at the window of his London home, 28 Hyde Park Gate, to greet the photographers on his ninetieth birthday in November 1964. For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...

The Grave of Winston and Clementine Churchill at St Martin's Church, Bladon

On 15 January 1965, Churchill suffered another stroke — a severe cerebral thrombosis — that left him gravely ill. He died at his home nine days later, at age 90, shortly after eight o'clock on the morning of 24 January 1965, 70 years to the day after his father's death. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1382 KB) Churchills Grave, Bladon, Oxfordshire Own Work, Taken August 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1382 KB) Churchills Grave, Bladon, Oxfordshire Own Work, Taken August 2006. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... A thrombus or blood clot is the final product of blood coagulation, through the aggregation of platelets and the activation of the humoral coagulation system. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


Funeral

By decree of the Queen, his body lay in state for three days and a state funeral service was held at St Paul's Cathedral.[94] This was the first state funeral for a non-royal family member since 1914, and no other of its kind has been held since. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ...


As his coffin passed down the Thames on the Havengore, the cranes of London's Docklands bowed in a spontaneous salute. The Royal Artillery fired a 19-gun salute (as head of government), and the RAF staged a fly-by of sixteen English Electric Lightning fighters. The state funeral was the largest gathering of dignitaries in Britain as representatives from well over 100 countries attended, including French President Charles de Gaulle, Canadian Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Rhodesia Ian Smith, former U.S. president Dwight Eisenhower, and many other heads of state, including past and present heads of state and government, and members of royalty. Historians dismiss as unfounded the myth that the departure of the cortège from Waterloo station was related in some way to De Gaulle. The train was hauled by Battle of Britain class locomotive 34051 Winston Churchill.[95] Fittingly, this was the last great State occasion to be movingly commented upon by the great British broadcaster Richard Dimbleby who died of lung cancer in December 1965. The funeral also saw the largest assemblage of statesmen in the world until the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005. Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... Havengore is a hydrographic survey launch and ceremonial vessel. ... The 02 and Canary Wharf from the Royal Victoria Dock. ... Tactical Recognition Flash of the Royal Artillery The Royal Regiment of Artillery, generally known as the Royal Artillery (RA), is, despite its name, a corps of the British Army. ... A 21-gun salute is fired by the members of the U.S. Army. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... RAF redirects here. ... The English Electric Lightning (later the BAC Lightning) was a supersonic fighter aircraft of the Cold War era, particularly remembered for its great speed and natural metal exterior. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... The Prime Minister of Canada, the head of the Canadian government, is usually the leader of the political party with the most seats in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Mike Pearson redirects here. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID (born 8 April 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 11 November 1965, and Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 11 November... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... For other uses, see Waterloo station (disambiguation). ... The SR West Country and Battle of Britain Classes, also known as Bulleid Light Pacifics or Spam Cans, are classes of air-smoothed 4-6-2 steam locomotive designed for the Southern Railway by Oliver Bulleid. ... Richard Dimbleby CBE (May 25, 1913–December 22, 1965) was an English journalist and broadcaster. ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... The body of Pope John Paul II. April 5, 2005 The funeral of Pope John Paul II was held on April 8, 2005, six days after his death on April 2. ...


At Churchill's request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin's Church, Bladon, near Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim. In the fields along the route, and at the stations through which the train passed, thousands stood in silence to pay their last respects. In 1998 his tombstone had to be replaced due to the large number of visitors over the years having eroded it and its surrounding area. A new stone was dedicated in a ceremony attended by members of the Spencer-Churchill family.[96] The parish church of St Martin in Bladon St Martins Church in Bladon near Woodstock, Oxfordshire is the Anglican parish church of Bladon-with-Woodstock. ...


Because the funeral took place on 30 January, people in the United States marked it by paying tribute to his friendship with Franklin D. Roosevelt because it was the anniversary of FDR's birth. The tributes were led by Roosevelt's children at the president's grave at the FDR Presidential Library. On 9 February 1965, Churchill's estate was probated at £304,044 (equivalent to about £3.8m in 2004). is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Franklin D. Roosevelt Library is the first of the United States presidential libraries. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... GBP may be: short for Game Boy Player the ISO currency code for the British Pound Sterling. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Churchill as historian

Statue of Winston Churchill in Parliament Square, London The British statesman Winston Churchill was a prolific writer throughout his life, and during his periods out of office regarded himself as a professional writer who was also a Member of Parliament. ...

Honours

Aside from receiving the great honour of a state funeral, Churchill also received numerous awards and honours, including being made the first Honorary Citizen of the United States. Churchill also received the Nobel Prize in Literature for his six edition set The Second World War. Sir Winston Churchill received numerous honours and awards throughout his career as a statesman and author. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A non-United States citizen of exceptional merit may be declared an Honorary Citizen of the United States by the President pursuant to an Act of Congress. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ...

Statue of Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in Bond Street, London
Statue of Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in Bond Street, London

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 647 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Winston Churchill Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 647 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Winston Churchill Metadata... FDR redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Churchill's cabinets

Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1940-1945, 1945, 1951-1955. ... Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1940-1945, 1945, 1951-1955. ...

Winston Churchill's third cabinet, October 1951 – April 1955

Main article: Conservative Government 1951-1957

Members of the Cabinet are in bold face. ... Gavin Turnbull Simonds, 1st Viscount Simonds, PC (28 November 1881 – 28 June 1971) was a British judge and Lord Chancellor. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Frederick James Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton (1883-1964) was a British businessman and politician. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury KG (August 27, 1893-February 23, 1972) was a grandson of the great 3rd Marquess. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, KG, CH, PC, DL (9 December 1902 – 8 March 1982), who invariably signed his name R. A. Butler and was familiarly known as Rab, was a British Conservative politician. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... David Patrick Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir (1900-1967) was an important British politician and jurist. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... Oliver Lyttelton, 1st Viscount Chandos (1893-1972) was a British businessman who was brought into government during the Second World War, holding a number of ministerial posts. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations was a British Cabinet office existing between 1947 and 1966, responsible for dealing with British relationship with members of the Commonwealth of Nations (its former colonies). ... James Gray Stuart, 1st Viscount Stuart of Findhorn CH MVO MC PC (9 February 1897 - 20 February 1971) was a Scottish Tory politician. ... The Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief minister in the government of the United Kingdom with responsibilites for Scotland, at the head of the Scotland Office (formerly The Scottish Office). ... George Edward Peter Thorneycroft, Baron Thorneycroft (1909-1994) was a British Conservative politician. ... The President of the Board of Trade the title of a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. ... Professor Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell (April 5, 1886 - July 3, 1957) was a physicist who became an influential scientific adviser to the British government and a close associate of Winston Churchill. ... Paymaster-General is a ministerial position in UK. Former holders of this post include: Lord John Russell 1830-1834 Sir Edmund Knatchbull 1834-1835 Sir Henry Brook Parnell 1835-1841 Edward John Stanley 1841 Sir Edmund Knatchbull 1841-1845 William Bingham Baring 1845-1846 Thomas Babington Macaulay 1846-1848 The... Walter Turner Monckton, 1st Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, GCVO, KCMG, MC, PC (1891-1965) was a British politician. ... Henry Frederick Comfort Crookshank, 1st Viscount Crookshank (1893-1961), known as Harry Crookshank was a British Conservative politician. ... Minister of Health redirects here. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Frederick James Leathers, 1st Viscount Leathers (1883 - 1965) was a British industrialist and public servant. ...

Changes

  • March 1952: Lord Salisbury succeeds Lord Ismay as Commonwealth Relations Secretary. Salisbury remains also Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords. Lord Alexander of Tunis succeeds Churchill as Minister of Defence.
  • May 1952: Harry Crookshank succeeds Lord Salisbury as Lord Privy Seal, remaining Leader of the House of Commons. Salisbury remains Commonwealth Relations Secretary and Leader of the House of Lords. Crookshank's successor as Minister of Health is not in the Cabinet.
  • November 1952: Lord Woolton becomes Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Lord Salisbury succeeds Lord Woolton as Lord President. Lord Swinton succeeds Lord Salisbury as Commonwealth Relations Secretary.
  • September 1953: Florence Horsbrugh, the Minister of Education, Sir Thomas Dugdale, the Minister of Agriculture, and Gwilym Lloyd George, the Minister of Food, enter the cabinet. The Ministry for the Co-ordination of Transport, Fuel, and Power, is abolished, and Lord Leathers leaves the Cabinet.
  • October 1953: Lord Cherwell resigns as Paymaster General. His successor is not in the Cabinet.
  • July 1954: Alan Lennox-Boyd succeeds Oliver Lyttelton as Colonial Secretary. Derick Heathcoat Amory succeeds Sir Thomas Dugdale as Minister of Agriculture.
  • October 1954: Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe, now Lord Kilmuir, succeeds Lord Simonds as Lord Chancellor. Gwilym Lloyd George succeeds him as Home Secretary. The Food Ministry is merged into the Ministry of Agriculture. Sir David Eccles succeeds Florence Horsbrugh as Minister of Education. Harold Macmillan succeeds Lord Alexander of Tunis as Minister of Defence. Duncan Sandys succeeds Macmillan as Minister of Housing and Local Government. Osbert Peake, the Minister of Pensions and National Insurance, enters the Cabinet.

Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, KG, OM, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCVO, DSO, MC, LL.D, PC (10 December 1891 - 16 June 1969) was a British military commander and field marshal, notably during the Second World War as the commander of the 15th Army... Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Earl of Swinton, (1884-1972), known as Sir Philip Lloyd-Greame until 1924 and as The Viscount Swinton from 1935 until 1955, was a prominent British Conservative politician from the 1920s until the 1950s. ... Florence Gertrude Horsbrugh, Baroness Horsbrugh (13 October 1889 – 6 December 1969) was a Scottish Conservative Party politician. ... The Right Honourable Sir Thomas Lionel Dugdale, 1st Baron Crathorne, PC (20 July 1897-26 March 1977) was a British Conservative politician. ... The Minister of Agriculture is a position in several cabinet governments. ... Gwilym Lloyd George, 1st Viscount Tenby, (4 December 1894 - 1967) was a British politician and cabinet minister. ... The Minister of Food was a British government job separated from that of the Minister of Agriculture from 1939 until 1954. ... Alan Tindal Lennox-Boyd, 1st Viscount Boyd of Merton CH PC (November 18, 1904–March 8, 1983), was a Conservative Party British politician. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... The Right Honourable Derick Heathcoat Amory, 1st Viscount Amory (26 December 1899–20 January 1981) was a British Conservative politician. ... David McAdam Eccles, 1st Viscount Eccles PC KCVO (September 18, 1904–February 24, 1999) was a British peer. ... Duncan Edwin Sandys, Baron Duncan-Sandys, CH PC [1] (24 January 1908 – 26 November 1987) was a British politician and a minister in successive Conservative governments. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Osbert Peake, 1st Viscount Ingleby PC (30 December 1897–11 October 1966) was a British Conservative politician. ... The Secretary of State for Work and Pensions is a position in the UK cabinet, responsible for the Department for Work and Pensions. ...

In popular culture and the media

  • In a November 2002 BBC poll of the "100 Greatest Britons", he was proclaimed "The Greatest of Them All" based on approximately a million votes from BBC viewers.[97]
  • Churchill was rated as one of the most influential leaders in history by Time magazine.[citation needed]

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... // In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to determine whom the general public considers the 100 Greatest Britons of all time. ... In common usage, leadership generally refers to: the position or office of an authority figure, such as a President [1] a group of influential people, such as a union leadership [2] guidance or direction, as in the phrase the emperor is not providing much leadership capacity or ability to lead... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

Bibliography

Title (US Title) (Year of publication)

  • The Story of the Malakand Field Force (1898)
  • The River War (1899)
  • Savrola (1900)
  • London to Ladysmith (1900)
  • Ian Hamilton’s March (1900)
  • Mr. Brodrick’s Army (1903)
  • Lord Randolph Churchill (1906)
  • For Free Trade (1906)
  • My African Journey (1908)
  • Liberalism and the Social Problem (1909)
  • The People’s Rights (1910)
  • The World Crisis (1923-1931)
  • My Early Life (1930)
  • India (1931)
  • Thoughts and Adventures (Amid These Storms) (1932)
  • Marlborough: His Life and Times (1933-1938)
  • Great Contemporaries (1937)
  • Arms and the Covenant (While England Slept) (1938)
  • Step by Step 1936-1939 (1939)
  • Addresses Delivered in the Year 1940 (1940)
  • Broadcast Addresses (1941)
  • Into Battle (Blood Sweat and Tears) (1941)
  • The Unrelenting Struggle (1942)
  • The End of the Beginning (1943)
  • Onwards to Victory (1944)
  • The Dawn of Liberation (1945)
  • Victory (1946)
  • Secret Sessions Speeches (1946)
  • War Speeches 1940-1945 (1946)
  • The Second World War (1948-1954)
  • The Sinews of Peace (1948)
  • Painting as a Pastime (1948)
  • Europe Unite (1950)
  • In the Balance (1951)
  • The War Speeches 1939-1945 (1952)
  • Stemming the Tide (1953)
  • A History of the English-Speaking Peoples (1956-1958)
  • The Unwritten Alliance (1961)

The Story of the Malakand Field Force: An Episode of Frontier War was an 1897 book written by Winston Churchill; it was his first published work of non-fiction. ... The River War: An Account of the Reconquest of the Sudan was a 1899 book written by Winston Churchill while he was still an officer in the British army, a first-hand account of the conquest of the Sudan by the English-Egyptian force under Lord Kitchener. ... My Early Life: A Roving Commission is a 1930 book by Winston Churchill. ... The Second World War is a six-volume history of the period from the end of the First World War to July 1945, written by Sir Winston Churchill. ... A contemporary cover of History of the English Speaking Peoples. ...

References

  1. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953. Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Jenkins, Roy (2001). Churchill. London: Macmillan. 0-333-78290-9. 
  3. ^ PM record breakers. Number 10 Downing Street. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  4. ^ http://www.winstonchurchill.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=638
  5. ^ Douglas J. Hall. Lady Randolph in Winston's Boyhood. The Churchill Centre. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  6. ^ Forty Ways to Look at Winston Churchill - randomhouse.com
  7. ^ John Mather, M.D.. Leading Churchill Myths: He stuttered. The Churchill Centre. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  8. ^ http://wvutoday.wvu.edu/news/page/5871/
  9. ^ Weiss, Deso (1964). Cluttering. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 58. LC 64-25326. 
  10. ^ a b Russell, Douglas S. (1995-10-28). Lt. Churchill: 4th Queen's Own Hussars. Churchill Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  11. ^ Brian Lamb. "Churchill: A Life, by Martin Gilbert". Booknotes /CSPAN December 22, 1991. 
  12. ^ Churchill: A Life, New York, 1991, ISBN 0805023968
  13. ^ "On the character and achievement of Sir Winston Churchill". The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, Vol 23, No. 2 May, 1957 (May, 1957): pp 173-194. 
  14. ^ "Churchill Remembered: Recollections by Tony Benn MP, Lord Carrington, Lord Deedes and Mary Soames". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Vol 11, 2001 (2001): p 404. Retrieved on 2007-06-17. 
  15. ^ Churchill, Winston S. 1951 The Second World War, Volume 5: Closing the Ring. Houghton Miffin Edition. Bantam Books, New York No ISBN or other number provided. P. 606 “Prime Minister to Foreign Secretary 5. Feb (19)44. Your minute about raising certain legations to the status of embassy. I must say that Cuba has as good a claim as some other places –“la perla de Las Antillas.” Great offence will be given if all the others have it and this large, rich, beautiful island, the home of the cigar, is denied. Surely Cuba has much more claim than Venezuela. You will make a bitter enemy if you leave them out, and after a bit you will be forced to give them what you have given to the others.”
  16. ^ T. E. C. Jr. M.D (5 November 1977). "Winston Churchill's Poignant Description of the Death of his Nanny". PEDIATRICS Vol. 60 No.: pp. 752. 
  17. ^ R. V. Jones. "Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill. 1874-1965". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Vol. 12, Nov., 1966 (Nov., 1966): pp. 34-105. 
  18. ^ Sir Winston S. Churchill. The Story Of The Malakand Field Force - An Episode of Frontier War. arthursclassicnovels.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  19. ^ a b "Two opposition views of Afghanistan: British activist and Dutch MP want to know why their countries are participating in a dangerous adventure", Spectrazine, 20 March 2006. Retrieved on 2007-03-17. 
  20. ^ Churchill, Winston (October 2002). My Early Life. Eland Publishing Ltd, p. 143. ISBN 0907871623. 
  21. ^ "Churchill On The Frontier - Mamund Valley III", UK Commentators, 11 December 2004. Retrieved on 2007-03-17. 
  22. ^ WINTER 1896-97 (Age 22) - "The University of My Life". Sir Winston Churchill. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  23. ^ FinestHour (pdf). Journal of the Churchill Center and Societies, Summer 2005. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  24. ^ (p37 "The Aristocratic Adventurer by David Cannadine originally an essay entitled Churchill: The Aristocratic Adventurer" in "Aspects of Aristocracy" )
  25. ^ Roy Jenkins Churchill (Macmillan, 2001), pages 74-76 ISBN 0-333-78290-9
  26. ^ Roy Jenkins Churchill (Macmillan, 2001), page 86 ISBN 0-333-78290-9
  27. ^ (Cannadine op cit 27)
  28. ^ See Cannadine op cit p3
  29. ^ Roy Jenkins Churchill (Macmillan, 2001), pages 102-103 ISBN 0-333-78290-9
  30. ^ Roy Jenkins Churchill (Macmillan, 2001), page 101 ISBN 0-333-78290-9
  31. ^ Cannadine op cit 47
  32. ^ e.g. Cannadine op cit p 41, Robert Rhodes James - Churchill: A Study in Failure p34-35
  33. ^ Jeffrey Wallin with Juan Williams (2001-09-04). Cover Story: Churchill's Greatness.. Churchill Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  34. ^ Paul Addison, 'Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer (1874–1965)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, May 2007 http://0-www.oxforddnb.com.catalogue.ulrls.lon.ac.uk:80/view/article/32413, accessed 10 Sept 2007
  35. ^ Churchill Howled Down (HTML). Churchill the Evidence (1922). Retrieved on November 14, 1922.
  36. ^ a b Hall, Douglas J. (1950). All the Elections Churchill Ever Contested (HTML). Churchill and... Politics. The Churchill Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  37. ^ James op cit 207
  38. ^ James op cit 206
  39. ^ H Henderson The Interwar Years and other papers. Clarendon Press
  40. ^ Picknett, Lynn, Prince, Clive, Prior, Stephen & Brydon, Robert (2002). War of the Windsors: A Century of Unconstitutional Monarchy, p. 78. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 1-84018-631-3.
  41. ^ Canadine op cit p52
  42. ^ James op cit 260
  43. ^ The Gathering Storm p37
  44. ^ James op cit 259
  45. ^ Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: The Prophet of Truth * 1922-1939. (c)1976 by C&T Publications, Ltd.: p.618
  46. ^ Ibid.: p. 390
  47. ^ speech on 18th March 1931 quoted in James op cit pg 254
  48. ^ 247 House of Commons Debates 5s col 755
  49. ^ Hugh Martin Battle p229
  50. ^ James op cit p262
  51. ^ letter quoted in A J P Taylor Beaverbrook p 304
  52. ^ Robert Rhodes James, Churchill: A Study in Failure (Pelican, 1973), p. 343.
  53. ^ for full discussion see R Basset"Telling the truth to the People: the myth of the Baldwin "confession' Cambridge Journal November 1948
  54. ^ James op cit p258
  55. ^ James op cit285-6
  56. ^ Picknett, et al., p. 75.
  57. ^ Lord Lloyd and the decline of the British Empire J Charmley p 1,2, 213ff
  58. ^ James op cit p329 quoting Churchill's speech in the Commons
  59. ^ James op cit p 408
  60. ^ A J P Taylor Beaverbrook Hamish Hamilton 1972 p375
  61. ^ for a history of Focus see E Spier Focus Wolff 1963
  62. ^ Harold Nicholson's letter to his wife on 13th March summed up the situation " If we send an ultimatum to Germany she ought in all reason to climb down. But then she will not climb down and we shall have war... The people of this country absolutely refuse to have a war. We would be faced with a general strike if we suggested such a thing. We shall therefore have to climb down ignominiously " Diaries and Letters 1930-1939 p 249
  63. ^ James op cit p333-337
  64. ^ A P Herbert for example wrote "I did think he rather enjoyed a war and after three years in the trenches in Gallipoli and France, I did not" A P Herbert Independent Member p108
  65. ^ The Gathering Storm p 276
  66. ^ Frederick Smith, 2nd Earl of Birkenhead Walter Monckton Weidenfield and Nicholson 1969 p129
  67. ^ Middlemas K R and Barnes J Stanley Baldwin Weidenfield and Nicholson 1969 p999
  68. ^ letter to G Ross cited in A J P Taylor Beaverbrook Hamish Hamilton 1972 p 372
  69. ^ The Gathering Storm pp170-1. Others including Citrine who chaired the meeting wrote that Churchill did not make such a speech. Citrine Men and Work Hutchinson 1964 p357
  70. ^ James op cit 349-351 where the text of the statement is given
  71. ^ Alistair Cook 'Edward VIII' in Six Men Bodley Head 1977.
  72. ^ H Macmillan The Blast of War Macmillan 1970
  73. ^ The Gathering Stormp171
  74. ^ A J P Taylor English History (1914-1945) Hamish Hamilton 1961 p404
  75. ^ James op cit p353
  76. ^ Picknett, et al., pp. 149–50.
  77. ^ Current Biography 1942, p. 155
  78. ^ Brendon, Piers. The Churchill Papers: Biographical History. Churchill Archives Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  79. ^ Self, Robert (2006). Neville Chamberlain: A Biography, p. 431. Ashgate. ISBN 9-780754-656159.
  80. ^ Stokesbury, James L. (1980). A Short History of WWII. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 171. 0-688-03587-6. 
  81. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1941/411226a.html
  82. ^ Books About Winston Churchill. Chartwell Booksellers. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  83. ^ Michael R. Beschloss, (2002) ‘’The Conquerors’’ : pg. 131
  84. ^ Stokesbury, James L. (1980). A Short History of WWII. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 159. 0-688-03587-6. 
  85. ^ Churchill, Winston (1989). The Second World War. London: Penguin, 852. 0-14-012836-0. 
  86. ^ Taylor, Frederick; Dresden: Tuesday, February 13, 1945; US review, NY: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-000676-5; UK review, London: Bloomsbury, ISBN 0-7475-7078-7. pp. 262–4. There were an unknown number of refugees in Dresden, so the historians Matthias Neutzner, Götz Bergander and Frederick Taylor have used historical sources and deductive reasoning to estimate that the number of refugees in the city and surrounding suburbs was around 200,000 or less on the first night of the bombing.
  87. ^ Picknett, et al., p. 190.
  88. ^ Remembrance Day 2003. Churchill Society London. Retrieved on 2007-04-25.
  89. ^ a b Churchill, Winston. Sinews of Peace (Iron Curtain). Churchill Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  90. ^ Hennessy, p. 205
  91. ^ Richards, Michael. Alcohol Abuser. Churchill Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  92. ^ Montague Brown, p. 213
  93. ^ Freedom of Information Act document, Department of State of the USA.
  94. ^ Picknett, et al., p. 252.
  95. ^ Sir Winston Churchill's Funeral Train. Southern E-Group. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  96. ^ New grave honours Churchill. BBC News Online (1998-05-08). Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  97. ^ Poll of the 100 Greatest Britons

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College name Churchill College Motto Forward Named after Sir Winston Churchill Established 1960 Location Storey’s Way Admittance Men and women Master Sir David Wallace Undergraduates 440 Graduates 210 Sister college Trinity College, Oxford Official website Boat Club website Churchill College Main Entrance Churchill College is one of the constituent... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... 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Primary sources

  • Churchill, Winston. The World Crisis (six volumes, 1923–31), 1-vol edition (2005); on World War I
  • Churchill, Winston. The Second World War (six volumes, 1948–53)
  • Gilbert, Martin, ed. Winston S. Churchill: Companion 15 vol (14,000 pages) of Churchill and other official and unofficial documents. Part 1: I. Youth, 1874-1900, 1966, 654 pp. (2 vol); II. Young Statesman, 1901-1914, 1967, 796 pp. (3 vol); III. The Challenge of War, 1914-1916, 1971, 1024 pp. (3 vol); IV. The Stricken World, 1916-1922, 1975, 984 pp. (2 vol); Part 2: The Prophet of Truth, 1923-1939, 1977, 1195 pp. (3 vol); II. Finest Hour, 1939-1941, 1983, 1328 pp. (2 vol entitled The Churchill War Papers); III. Road to Victory, 1941-1945, 1986, 1437 pp. (not published, 4 volumes are anticipated); IV. Never Despair, 1945-1965, 1988, 1438 pp. (not published, 3 volumes anticipated). See the editor's memoir, Martin Gilbert, In Search of Churchill: A Historian's Journey, (1994).
  • James, Robert Rhodes, ed. Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches, 1897-1963. 8 vols. London: Chelsea, 1974, 8917 pp.
  • Sir Winston Churchill, His life through his paintings, David Coombs, Pegasus, 2003
  • Quotations database, World Beyond Borders.
  • The Oxford Dictionary of 20th century Quotations by Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-860103-4)

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

Secondary sources

  • Michael R. Beschloss, (2002) The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941-1945 pg. 131.
  • Geoffrey Best. Churchill: A Study in Greatness (2003)
  • Blake, Robert. Winston Churchill. Pocket Biographies (1997), 110 pages
  • Blake, Robert and Louis William Roger, eds. Churchill: A Major New Reassessment of His Life in Peace and War Oxford UP, 1992, 581 pp; 29 essays by scholars
  • John Charmley, Churchill, The End of Glory: A Political Biography (1993). revisionist; favors Chamberlain; says Churchill weakened Britain
  • John Charmley. Churchill's Grand Alliance: The Anglo-American Special Relationship 1940-57 (1996)
  • Richard Harding Davis, Real Soldiers of Fortune 1906, early biography. Project Gutenberg etext
  • Martin Gilbert Churchill: A Life (1992) (ISBN 0-8050-2396-8); one volume version of 8-volume life (8900 pp); amazing detail but as Rasor complains, "no background, no context, no comment, no analysis, no judgments, no evaluation, and no insights."
  • Sebastian Haffner, Winston Churchill 1967
  • P. Hennessy, Prime minister: the office and its holders since 1945 2001
  • Christopher Hitchens, "The Medals of His Defeats," The Atlantic April 2002.
  • James, Robert Rhodes. Churchill: A Study in Failure, 1900-1939 (1970), 400 pp.
  • Roy Jenkins. Churchill: A Biography (2001)
  • François Kersaudy, Churchill and De Gaulle 1981 ISBN 0-00-216328-4.
  • Christian Krockow, Churchill: Man of the Century by 2000 ISBN 1-902809-43-2.
  • John Lukacs. Churchill : Visionary, Statesman, Historian Yale University Press, 2002.
  • William Manchester, The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill, Visions of Glory 1874-1932, 1983; ISBN 0-316-54503-1; The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill, Alone 1932-1940, 1988, ISBN 0-316-54512-0; no more published
  • Robert Massie Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War (ISBN 1-84413-528-4); ch 40-41 on Churchill at Admiralty
  • A. Montague Browne, Long sunset 1995
  • Henry Pelling, Winston Churchill (first issue) 1974, (ISBN 1-84022-218-2), 736pp; comprehensive biography
  • Rasor, Eugene L. Winston S. Churchill, 1874-1965: A Comprehensive Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press. 2000. 710 pp. describes several thousand books and scholarly articles.
  • Stansky, Peter, ed. Churchill: A Profile 1973, 270 pp. essays for and against Churchill by leading scholars

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Speeches

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Persondata
NAME Churchill, Winston
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, The Rt Hon. Sir Winston Churchill
SHORT DESCRIPTION English statesman and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
DATE OF BIRTH 30 November 1874
PLACE OF BIRTH Blenheim Palace, Woodstock,
Oxfordshire, England
DATE OF DEATH 24 January 1965
PLACE OF DEATH Hyde Park Gate, London, England

For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Blenheim Palace is a large and monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. ... Map sources for Woodstock at grid reference SP4416 Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Hyde Park Gate is situated in London, England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


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Winston Churchill (8688 words)
Winston Churchill, the son of Randolph Churchill, a Conservative politician, was born in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, on 30th November, 1874.
Churchill continued to be criticized for meddling in military matters and tended to take too much notice of the views of his friends such as Frederick Lindemann rather than his military commanders.
Winston Churchill and the Death of the Duke of Kent
First World War.com - Who's Who - Sir Winston Churchill (1473 words)
Churchill's career was anything but predictable: he supported the Zionist movement in Palestine (1921-22), during the Abdication crisis (1926) he was loyal to Edward VIII, and during the 1945 election campaign he tried to brand Labour as a totalitarian party.
Winston Churchill was the son of conservative politician Lord Randolph Churchill and his American wife, Jennie Jerome, and a direct descendant from the first Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722).
In 1924 Churchill was elected to Parliament, and appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer.
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