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Encyclopedia > Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer

Winslow Homer (February 24, 1836September 29, 1910) was an North American landscape painter and printmaker, most famous for his marine subjects. Largely self-taught, he is considered one of the foremost painters in 19th century North America, and a preeminent figure in North American art. Winslow Homer, 19th century photograph This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Winslow Homer, 19th century photograph This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Landscape painting refers to the art of creating a picture from a landscape. ... Printmaking is a process for producing a work of art in ink; the work (called a print) is created indirectly, through the transfer of ink from the surface upon which the work was originally drawn or otherwise composed. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Homer was apprenticed to a Boston commercial lithographer at the age of 19. By 1857 his freelance illustration career was underway and he contributed to magazines such as Ballou's Pictorial and Harper's Weekly. His early works, mostly commercial engravings, are characterized by clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light and dark, and lively figure groupings — qualities that remained important throughout his career. Nickname: Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Settled 1630 Incorporated (city) 1822 Government  - Governor Deval Patrick (D) Area  - City  89. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Ballous Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion, a 19th-century American periodical in the same vein as Harpers Weekly. ... An issue of Harpers Magazine from 1905 Another issue, from November 2004 Harpers Magazine (or simply Harpers) is a monthly general-interest magazine covering literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts from a progressive, moderate left perspective in a fashion often not found in the ordinary news...

Rowing Home. 1890.
Rowing Home. 1890.

In 1859 he opened a studio in New York City, and began his painting career. Harper's sent Homer to the front lines of the American Civil War (1861 - 1865), where he sketched battle scenes and mundane camp life. His initial sketches were of the camp and army of the famous Union officer, Major General George B. McClellan at the banks of the Potomac River in October, 1861. Although the drawings did not get much attention at the time, they mark Homer's transition from illustrator to painter. Back at his studio after the war, Homer set to work on a series of war-related paintings, among them Sharpshooter on Picket Duty, and Prisoners from the Front, which is noted for its objectivity and realism. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1027x682, 145 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1027x682, 145 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Early landscapes and watercolors

After exhibiting at the National Academy of Design, Homer traveled to Paris, France in 1867 where he remained for a year. He practiced landscape painting while continuing to work for Harper's. Though his interest in depicting natural light parallels that of the impressionists, there is no evidence of direct influence. The National Academy of Design, in New York City, now called simply The National Academy, is an honorary association of American artists, with a museum and a school of fine arts. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists, who began exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. ...


Throughout the 1870s he painted mostly rural or idyllic scenes of farm life, children playing, and young adults courting. Homer gained acclaim as a painter in the late 1870s and early 1880s. His 1872 composition, Snap-the-Whip, was exhibited at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Of his work at this time, Henry James wrote: // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Opening day ceremonies at the Centennial Exhibition The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official worlds fair in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ...


"We frankly confess that we detest his subjects...he has chosen the least pictorial range of scenery and civilization; he has resolutely treated them as if they were pictorial...and, to reward his audacity, he has incontestably succeeded".[1]


The same straightforward sensibility which allowed Homer to distill art from these potentially sentimental subjects also yielded the most unaffected views of African American life at the time.[2] An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


Homer was a member of the The Tile Club, a group of artists and writers who met frequently to exchange ideas and organize outings for painting. Homer's nickname in The Tile Club was The Obtuse Bard. Other well known Tilers were painters William Merritt Chase, Arthur Quartley, and the sculptor Augustus Saint Gaudens. A nickname used by american artist Winslow Homer (1836-1910) in The Tile Club, an informal association of friends. ... William Merritt Chase (November 1, 1849 - October 25, 1916) was an American painter known as an exponent of Impressionism and as a teacher. ... Early Moonlight Naragansett Bay 1877 Arthur Quartley (1839-1886) is an American painter known for his marine seascapes. ... Augustus Saint Gaudens, 1905 Augustus Saint-Gaudens (Dublin, March 1, 1848 - Cornish, New Hampshire, August 3, 1907), was the Irish-born American sculptor of the Beaux Arts generation who most embodied the ideals of the American Renaissance. ...

Cloud Shadows. 1890.

In 1873 Homer started painting with watercolors. His impact on the medium would be revolutionary.[3] Homer's watercolor paintings exhibit a fresh, spontaneous, loose, yet natural style. Thereafter, he seldom traveled without paper, brushes and water based paints. Homer once remarked, Cloud Shadows by Winslow Homer (1890) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Cloud Shadows by Winslow Homer (1890) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Watercolor is a painting technique making use of water-soluble pigments that are either transparent or opaque and are formulated with gum to bond the pigment to the paper. ...

"You will see, in the future I will live by my watercolors".

England

In 1875 Homer quit working as a commercial illustrator. He traveled widely, spending two years (18811882) in the English coastal village of Cullercoats, Northumberland, where he rekindled his boyhood interest in the sea, and painted the local fisherfolk. Many of the paintings at Cullercoats took as their subjects young women mending nets or looking out to sea; they are imbued with a solidity, sobriety, and earthy heroism which was new to Homer's art, and they presage the direction of his future work. 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cullercoats is an urban area of North East England, now absorbed into the Tyneside conurbation sits between Tynemouth and Whitley Bay. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ...


Maine and maturity

Sunlight on the Coast. 1890. Toledo Museum of Art.
Sunlight on the Coast. 1890. Toledo Museum of Art.

Back in the U.S., he moved to Prout's Neck, Maine (in Scarborough) and painted the seascapes for which he is best known. Notable among these dramatic struggle-with-nature images are Banks Fisherman, Eight Bells, The Gulf Stream, Rum Cay, Mending the Nets, and Searchlight, Harbor Entrance, Santiago de Cuba. Although Homer never taught, these works strongly influenced succeeding generations of American painters for their direct and energetic interpretation of man's stoic relationship to an often neutral and sometimes harsh wilderness (See Lost on the Grand Banks, collection of Bill Gates). Robert Henri called Homer's work an "integrity of nature". (Robert Henri, The Art Spirit, HarperCollins, 1984). Image File history File links Winslow_Homer_Sunlight_on_the_Coast. ... Image File history File links Winslow_Homer_Sunlight_on_the_Coast. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... The Toledo Museum of Art is an internationally known art museum located in the Old West End neighborhood of Toledo, Ohio, United States. ... Prouts Neck is a Peninsula in the Town of Scarborough in the State of Maine in the United States. ... Scarborough is a town in Cumberland County on the southern coast of Maine. ... The Gulf Stream is an 1899 oil on canvas by Winslow Homer. ... Robert Henri, by Gertrude Kasebier (1900) Snow in New York 1902, oil on canvas National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC Robert Henri (June 25, 1865 - July 12, 1929) was an American painter notable for his teaching and leadership of the Ashcan School movement in art. ...


In the winter Homer ventured to warmer locations in Florida, Cuba, and the Bahamas. Additionally he found inspiration in a number of summer trips to the North Woods Club, near the hamlet of Minerva, New York in the Adirondack Mountains. It was on these fishing vacations that he experimented freely with the watercolor medium, producing works of the utmost vigor and subtlety, hymns to solitude. In terms of quality and invention, Homer's achievements as a watercolorist are unparalleled: "Homer had used his singular vision and manner of painting to create a body of work that has not been matched."[4] Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Minerva is a town located in Essex County, New York. ... The Adirondack mountain range is located in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, St. ...


Homer died at the age of 74 in his Prout's Neck studio and was interred in the Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His painting, Shoot the Rapids, remains unfinished. Mount Auburn Cemetery Mount Auburn Cemetery Hunnewell family obelisk Civil War memorial Founded in 1831 as Americas first garden cemetery, Mount Auburn Cemetery is an Elysium where, traditionally, chaste classical monuments were set in rolling landscaped terrain. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - City  7. ...

After the Hurricane. 1899. Art Institute of Chicago.
After the Hurricane. 1899. Art Institute of Chicago.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x1452, 287 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Winslow Homer ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x1452, 287 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Winslow Homer ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Art Institute of Chicago is a fine art museum located in Chicago, Illinois. ...

References

  1. ^ Quoted by Updike, John: "Epic Homer", Still Looking: Essays on American Art, page 58. Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
  2. ^ Updike, John, page 69, 2005. "Among his feats may be listed the best, least caricatural portraits of postbellum African Americans."
  3. ^ Here, again, the critics were puzzled: "A child with an ink bottle could not have done worse." Rough Notes on the Exhibition of the American Water Color Society for 1881, " Andrews' American Queen", page 110. February 12, 1881.
  4. ^ Walsh, Judith: "Innovation in Homer's Late Watercolors", Winslow Homer, page 283. National Gallery of Art, 1995.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Winslow Homer
  • Winslow Homer in the National Gallery of Art This Web Feature traces the artist's career from the late 1850s until his death in 1910, and includes zoomable images with high resolution details.
  • White Mountain paintings by Winslow Homer
  • Winslow Homer Artwork Examples on AskART.
  • "Winslow Homer : Making Art, Making History" Exhibition held at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute in 2005. The exhibition website showcases the range of Homer's work--oil paintings, watercolors, drawings and etchings, as well as approximately 120 wood engravings and other reproductions from the Clark's collections.
  • Winslow Homer biography, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Winslow Homer (1203 words)
"The Homer sesquicentennial (he was born in 1836 and died in 1910) is being celebrated with "Winslow Homer Watercolors," organized by Helen Cooper at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Her catalogue is a landmark in Homer studies.
Homer had great powers of visual analysis; he could hardly look at a scene without breaking it down and resolving it as structure, and some of his paintings of the Adirondack woods, with their complicated shuttle of vertical trunks against a fluid background of deep autumnal shade, are demonstration pieces of sinewy design.
Winslow Homer in the Adirondacks, by David Tatham.
Lore Degenstein Gallery - "Winslow Homer" (776 words)
Homer's exposure to the world of print media began with his apprenticeship in Bufford's lithography shop in Boston, where he was confronted with the role of the artist in the new application of the inclusion of pictures with printed stories.
Homer's involvement with the process was most likely limited to his drawing on the white, smooth surface of the hard wooden block that would have been cut by an engraver who eliminated all but the line which was then used in printing the image.
Curiously, Homer's intentions did not appear to be directed toward social commentary on either the reconstruction at the end of the war or on the events of the industrial revolution, both of which would have engendered strong persuasive narrative illustrations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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