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Encyclopedia > Winfield Scott Hancock
Winfield Scott Hancock
February 14, 1824February 9, 1886 (aged 61)

General Winfield Scott Hancock
Nickname Hancock the Superb
Place of birth Montgomeryville, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Place of death Governors Island, New York, U.S.
Allegiance United States of America
Years of service 1844 – 1886
Rank Major General
Commands II Corps, Army of the Potomac
Battles/wars Mexican–American War
American Civil War
Other work Democratic candidate for President of the United States, 1880

Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. He served with distinction in the Army for four decades, including service in the Mexican-American War and as a Union general in the American Civil War. Known to his Army colleagues as "Hancock the Superb,"[1] he was noted in particular for his personal leadership at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. One military historian wrote, "No other Union general at Gettysburg dominated men by the sheer force of their presence more completely than Hancock."[2] As another wrote, "his tactical skill had won him the quick admiration of adversaries who had come to know him as the 'Thunderbolt of the Army of the Potomac.'"[3] His military service continued after the Civil War, as Hancock participated in the military Reconstruction of the South and the Army's presence at the Western frontier. is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 461 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (666 × 866 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Montgomeryville is a census-designated place (CDP) in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article is about Governors Island in New York State. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 18,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... A General is a high rank in the United States military. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Historic Southern United States. ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ...


After the Civil War, Hancock's reputation as a soldier and his dedication to conservative constitutional principles made him a quadrennial Presidential possibility. His noted integrity was a counterpoint to the corruption of the era, for as President Rutherford B. Hayes said, "[i]f, when we make up our estimate of a public man, conspicuous both as a soldier and in civil life, we are to think first and chiefly of his manhood, his integrity, his purity, his singleness of purpose, and his unselfish devotion to duty, we can truthfully say of Hancock that he was through and through pure gold."[4] This nationwide popularity led the Democrats to nominate him for President in 1880.[5] Although he ran a strong campaign, Hancock was defeated by Republican James Garfield by the closest popular vote margin in American history.[6] Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... The U.S. presidential election of 1880 was largely seen as a referendum on the Republicans relaxation of Reconstruction efforts in the southern states. ... GOP redirects here. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ...

Contents

Early life and family

Winfield Scott Hancock and his identical twin brother Hilary Baker Hancock were born on February 14, 1824, in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania, a hamlet just northwest of Philadelphia in present-day Montgomery Township.[7] The twins were the sons of Benjamin Franklin Hancock and Elizabeth Hoxworth Hancock.[8][9] Winfield was named after Winfield Scott, a prominent general in the War of 1812 and later the Mexican-American War and the commanding general of the United States Army at the start of the Civil War.[7] For other uses, see Twin (disambiguation). ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Montgomery Township is a township located in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...


The Hancock and Hoxworth families had lived in Montgomery County for several generations, and were of English, Scottish and Welsh descent.[10] Benjamin Hancock was a schoolteacher when his sons were born. A few years after their birth, he moved the family to Norristown, the county seat, and began to practice law.[7] Benjamin was also a deacon in the Baptist church and participated in municipal government (as an avowed Democrat).[7] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Norristown is a home rule municipality in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 6 miles (10 km) northwest of the city limits of Philadelphia, on the Schuylkill River. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


Hancock was at first educated at Norristown Academy, but removed to the public schools when the first one opened in Norristown in the late 1830s.[11] In 1840, Joseph Fornance, the local Congressman, nominated Hancock to the United States Military Academy at West Point.[12] Hancock's progress at West Point was average, and at graduation in 1844 he was assigned to the infantry.[13] Norristown Academy is a public academy established in 1804 in Norristown Pennsylvania. ... The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ... Joseph Fornance (October 18, 1804 - November 24, 1852) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... USMA redirects here. ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ...


Starting a military career

Mexican War

Hancock's namesake and commander in Mexico, General Winfield Scott
Hancock's namesake and commander in Mexico, General Winfield Scott

Hancock was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 6th U.S. Infantry regiment, and initially was stationed in Indian Territory in the Red River Valley. The region was quiet at the time, and Hancock's time there was uneventful.[14] Upon the outbreak of war with Mexico in 1846, Hancock worked to secure himself a place at the front.[15] Initially assigned to recruiting duties in Kentucky, he proved so adept at signing up soldiers that his superiors were reluctant to release him from his post.[16] By July 1847, however, Hancock was permitted to join his regiment in Puebla, Mexico, where they made up a part of the army led by his namesake, General Winfield Scott.[16] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... The 6th Infantry Regiment (“The Regulars”) was formed in 1812. ... The Red River is one of several rivers with that name, and of two rivers with that name in the United States. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Nickname: Location of Puebla in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Puebla Founded 1531 Government  - Mayor Enrique Doger (PRI) Area  - City 546 km²  (211 sq mi) Elevation 2,175 m (7,136 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,485,941  - Density 5,741/km² (14,869. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ...


Scott's army moved farther inland from Puebla unopposed and attacked Mexico City from the south. During that campaign in 1847, Hancock first encountered battle at Contreras and Churubusco.[17] He was brevetted to first lieutenant for gallant and meritorious service in those actions.[18] Hancock was wounded in the knee at Churubusco and developed a fever.[1] Although he was well enough to lead his regiment at Molino del Rey, fever kept Hancock from participating in the final breakthrough of Mexico City, something he would regret for the rest of his life.[19] After the final victory, Hancock remained in Mexico with the 6th Infantry until the treaty of peace was signed in 1848.[20] Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Gabriel Valencia Strength 8,500 20,000 Casualties 60 killed and wounded 700 killed 843 surrendered Gen Frontera dead Gen Salas, Nicolas Mendoza captured The Battle of Contreras (also known, particularly in Mexico, as the Battle of... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Manuel Rincón Strength 8,497 2,641 Casualties 133 dead 865 wounded 40 missing 263 dead 1,261 captured 20 missing. ... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... The Battle of Molino del Rey turned out to be one of the bloodiest fights of the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo #, Mariano Monterde School Commandant, Juan N. Perez commander Remants Leon Brigade) Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). ...


Marriage and peacetime

Almira Russell, around the time she married Hancock
Almira Russell, around the time she married Hancock

Hancock served in a number of assignments as an army quartermaster and adjutant, mostly in Fort Snelling, Minnesota and St. Louis, Missouri.[21] It was in St. Louis that he met Almira ("Allie") Russell and they married on January 24, 1850.[22] Ally gave birth to two children, Russell in 1850 and Ada in 1857, but both children died before their parents.[23] Hancock was promoted to captain in 1855 and assigned to Fort Myers, Florida.[24] Hancock's young family accompanied him to his new posting, where Allie Hancock was the only woman on the post.[25] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 517 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (920 × 1067 pixel, file size: 921 KB, MIME type: image/png) Published circa 1860 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 517 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (920 × 1067 pixel, file size: 921 KB, MIME type: image/png) Published circa 1860 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Quartermaster is a term usually referring to a military unit which specializes in supplying and provisioning troops, or to an individual who does the same. ... Adjutant is a military rank or appointment. ... Fort Snellings round tower A view of the grounds of Fort Snelling taken from the round tower Fort Snelling is a former military fortification located at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers in Hennepin County, Minnesota. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Please see Captain (military) for other versions of this rank Captain is a rank in the United States armed forces that ranks between a First Lieutenant and Major (O-3 in the United States Army, U.S. Air Force, and United States Marines), or a rank between a Commander and... Fort Myers is the county seatGR6 and commercial center of Lee County, Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Hancock's tour in Florida coincided with the end of the Third Seminole War. His duties were primarily those of a quartermaster, and Hancock did not see action in that campaign.[26] As the situation in Florida began to settle down, Hancock was reassigned to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.[26] He served in the West during the partisan warfare of "Bleeding Kansas," and in the Utah Territory, where the 6th Infantry arrived after the Mormon War.[8] Following the resolution of that conflict, Hancock was stationed in southern California in November 1858.[27] He remained there, joined by Allie and the children, until the Civil War broke out in 1861, serving as a captain and assistant quartermaster under future Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston.[1] In California, Hancock became friendly with a number of southern officers, most significantly Lewis A. Armistead of Virginia.[28] At the outbreak of the Civil War, Armistead and the other southerners left to join the Confederate States Army, while Hancock remained in the service of the United States.[29] Osceola, Seminole leader, detail from an 1838 lithograph The Seminole Wars were three wars or conflicts in Florida between the Seminole Native American tribe and the United States. ... Army Quartermaster Corps Branch Insignia The United States Army Quartermaster Corps is a combat service support (CSS) branch of the United States Army. ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro... The Utah Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1850 and 1896. ... The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and their neighbors in the northwestern region of the U.S. state of Missouri. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Lewis Addison Armistead (February 18, 1817 - July 5, 1863) was a brigadier general in the Army of the Confederate States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ...


Civil War

Joining the Army of the Potomac

"Hancock stands the most conspicuous figure of all the general officers who did not exercise a separate command. He commanded a corps longer than any other one, and his name was never mentioned as having committed in battle a blunder for which he was responsible. He was a man of very conspicuous personal appearance.... His genial disposition made him friends, and his personal courage and his presence with his command in the thickest of the fight won for him the confidence of troops serving under him. No matter how hard the fight, the 2d corps always felt that their commander was looking after them."
Personal Memoirs, Ulysses S. Grant[30]

Hancock returned east to assume quartermaster duties for the rapidly growing Union Army, but was quickly promoted to brigadier general on September 23, 1861, and given an infantry brigade to command in the division of Brig. Gen. William F. "Baldy" Smith, Army of the Potomac.[1] He earned his "Superb" nickname in the Peninsula Campaign, in 1862, by leading a critical counterattack in the Battle of Williamsburg; army commander Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan telegraphed to Washington that "Hancock was superb today" and the appellation stuck.[2] McClellan did not follow through on Hancock's initiative, however, and Confederate forces were allowed to withdraw unmolested.[31] The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... William F. Baldy Smith William Farrar Smith (February 17, 1824 – February 28, 1903), was a civil engineer, a police commissioner, and Union general in the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... The Battle of Williamsburg, also known as the Battle of Fort Magruder, took place on May 5, 1862 in York County and Williamsburg, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ...


In the Battle of Antietam, Hancock assumed command of the 1st Division, II Corps, following the mortal wounding of Maj. Gen. Israel B. Richardson in the horrific fighting at "Bloody Lane." Hancock and his staff made a dramatic entrance to the battlefield, galloping between his troops and the enemy, parallel to the Sunken Road.[32] His men assumed that Hancock would order counterattacks against the exhausted Confederates, but he carried orders from McClellan to hold his position.[33] He was promoted to major general of volunteers on November 29, 1862.[1] He led his division in the disastrous attack on Marye's Heights in the Battle of Fredericksburg the following month and was wounded in the abdomen. At the Battle of Chancellorsville, his division covered Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's withdrawal and Hancock was wounded again.[34] His corps commander, Maj. Gen. Darius N. Couch, transferred out of the Army of the Potomac in protest of actions Hooker took in the battle and Hancock assumed command of II Corps, which he would lead until shortly before the war's end.[2] Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Israel B. Richardson (1815 – 1862) was a United States Army officer during the Mexican-American War and Civil War. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Darius Nash Couch (July 23, 1822 – February 12, 1897) was a United States Army officer, naturalist, and a Union major general in the American Civil War. ...


Gettysburg

Monument to General Hancock on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg
Monument to General Hancock on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg

Hancock's most famous service was as a new corps commander at the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1 to July 3, 1863.[2] After his friend, Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds, was killed early on July 1, Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, the new commander of the Army of the Potomac, sent Hancock ahead to take command of the units on the field and assess the situation. Hancock thus was in temporary command of the "left wing" of the army, consisting of the I, II, III, and XI Corps. This demonstrated Meade's high confidence in him, because Hancock was not the most senior Union officer at Gettysburg at the time.[35] Hancock and the more senior XI Corps commander. Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard, argued briefly about this command arrangement, but Hancock prevailed and he organized the Union defenses on Cemetery Hill as more numerous Confederate forces drove the I and XI Corps back through the town. He had the authority from Meade to withdraw the forces, so he was responsible for the decision to stand and fight at Gettysburg.[36] Meade arrived after midnight and overall command reverted to him. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1805 pixel, file size: 894 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Equestrian statue of Winfield S. Hancock at Gettysburg National Military Park. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1805 pixel, file size: 894 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Equestrian statue of Winfield S. Hancock at Gettysburg National Military Park. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Fulton Reynolds (September 20, 1820 – July 1, 1863) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the American Civil War. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Daniel Sickles and staff after the Battle of Gettysburg There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Corps) during the American Civil War. ... The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ... Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Jubal Earlys attack on East Cemetery Hill, July 2, 1863, engraving from The Century Magazine. ...


On July 2, Hancock's II Corps was positioned on Cemetery Ridge, roughly in the center of the Union line, while Confederate General Robert E. Lee launched assaults on both ends of the line.[37] On the Union left, Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's assault smashed the III Corps and Hancock sent in his 1st Division, under Brig. Gen. John C. Caldwell, to reinforce the Union in the Wheatfield. As Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill's corps continued the attack toward the Union center, Hancock rallied the defenses and rushed units to the critical spots.[37] In one famous incident, he sacrificed a regiment, the 1st Minnesota, by ordering it to advance and attack a Confederate brigade four times its size, causing it to suffer 87% casualties.[38] While costly to the regiment, this heroic sacrifice bought time to organize the defensive line and saved the day for the Union army.[38] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A strip of land in Gettysburg thats located between Cemetery Hill and Little Round Top. ... // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... John C. Caldwell John Curtis Caldwell (April 17, 1833 – August 31, 1912) was a teacher, a Union general in the American Civil War, and an American diplomat. ... Map of battle, July 2. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... The First Minnesota Volunteer Infantry was a volunteer regiment during the American Civil War that is famous for charging a Confederate brigade on July 2, 1863, during the Battle of Gettysburg, preventing a serious breach in the Union army defensive line on Cemetery Ridge. ...


On July 3, Hancock continued in his position on Cemetery Ridge and thus bore the brunt of Pickett's Charge.[39] During the massive Confederate artillery bombardment that preceded the infantry assault, Hancock was prominent on horseback in reviewing and encouraging his troops. When one of his subordinates protested, "General, the corps commander ought not to risk his life that way," Hancock is said to have replied, "There are times when a corps commander's life does not count."[40] During the infantry assault, his old friend, now Brig. Gen. Lewis A. Armistead, leading a brigade in Maj. Gen. George Pickett's division, was wounded and died two days later. Hancock could not meet with his friend because he had just been wounded himself, a severe injury caused by a bullet striking the pommel of his saddle, entering his inner right thigh along with wood fragments and a large bent nail.[41] Helped from his horse by aides, and with a tourniquet applied to stanch the bleeding, he removed the saddle nail himself and, mistaking its source, remarked wryly, "They must be hard up for ammunition when they throw such shot as that."[42] News of Armistead's mortal wounding was brought to Hancock by a member of his staff, Captain Henry H. Bingham. Despite his pain, Hancock refused evacuation to the rear until the battle was resolved. He had been an inspiration for his troops throughout the three-day battle. Hancock later received the Thanks of the U.S. Congress for "... his gallant, meritorious and conspicuous share in that great and decisive victory."[1] is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Lewis Addison Armistead (February 18, 1817 - July 5, 1863) was a brigadier general in the Army of the Confederate States of America. ... George Edward Pickett (January 28[1] or January 16, 1825 – July 30, 1875) was a career U.S. Army officer who became a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... A tourniquet can be defined as a constricting or compressing device used to control venous and arterial circulation to an extremity for a period of time. ... Henry Harrison Bingham (December 4, 1841 – March 22, 1912) was a Union officer in the American Civil War and Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...


Virginia and the end of the war

Hancock, surrounded by three of his division commanders: Francis C. Barlow, David B. Birney, and John Gibbon during the Wilderness campaign.
Hancock, surrounded by three of his division commanders: Francis C. Barlow, David B. Birney, and John Gibbon during the Wilderness campaign.

Hancock suffered from the effects of his Gettysburg wound for the rest of the war.[2] After recuperating in Norristown, he performed recruiting services over the winter and returned in the spring to field command of the II Corps for Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 1864 Overland Campaign, but he never regained full mobility and his former youthful energy.[43] Nevertheless, he performed well at the Battle of the Wilderness and commanded a critical breakthrough assault of the Mule Shoe at the "Bloody Angle" in the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, shattering the Confederate Stonewall Division.[44] His corps suffered enormous losses during a futile assault Grant ordered at Cold Harbor.[45] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 529 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (913 × 1035 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 529 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (913 × 1035 pixel, file size: 1. ... Francis C. Barlow Francis Channing Barlow (October 19, 1834 – January 11, 1896) was a lawyer, politician, and Union general during the American Civil War. ... David B. Birney David Bell Birney (May 29, 1825 – October 18, 1864) was a businessman, lawyer, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... John Gibbon John Gibbon (April 20, 1827 – February 6, 1896) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 61,025 Casualties 18,400 11,400 For the French and Indian War battle, see Battle of the Wilderness 1755. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 100,000 52,000 Casualties 18,000 12,000 The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania, was the second battle in Lieut. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 62,000 Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ...


After Grant's army slipped past Lee's army to cross the James River, Hancock found himself in a position in which he might have ended the war. His corps arrived to support Baldy Smith's assaults on the lightly held Petersburg defensive lines, but he deferred to Smith's advice because Smith knew the ground and had been on the field all day, and no significant assaults were made before the Confederate lines were reinforced. One of the great opportunities of the war was lost.[8] After his corps participated in the assaults at Deep Bottom, Hancock was promoted to brigadier general in the regular army, effective August 12, 1864.[1] The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 660 km (410 miles) long including its Jackson River source and drains a watershed comprising 27,019 km² (10,432 square miles). ... Nickname: Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Government  - Mayor Annie M. Mickens Area  - City  23. ... The First Battle of Deep Bottom was fought from July 27 to July 29, 1864, at Deep Bottom in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Siege of Petersburg of the American Civil War. ... The United States Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Hancock's only significant military defeat occurred during the Siege of Petersburg. His II Corps moved south of the city, along the Weldon Railroad, tearing up track. On August 25, Confederate Maj. Gen. Henry Heth attacked and overran the faulty Union position at Reams's Station, shattering the II Corps, capturing many prisoners.[46] Despite a later victory at Hatcher's Run, the humiliation of Reams's Station contributed, along with the lingering effects of his Gettysburg wound, to his decision to give up field command in November.[47] He left the II Corps after a year in which it had suffered over 40,000 casualties, but had achieved significant military victories. His first assignment was to command the ceremonial First Veterans Corps.[47] He performed more recruiting, commanded the Middle Department, and relieved Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan in command of forces in the now-quiet Shenandoah Valley.[8] He was promoted to brevet major general in the regular army for his service at Spotsylvania, effective March 13, 1865.[1] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March... The Battle of the Weldon Railroad refers to two actions during the American Civil War. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry Heth Henry Heth (December 16, 1825 – September 27, 1899) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Winfield S. Hancock Henry Heth Strength II Corps Heths Division, III Corps Casualties 2,750 814 {{{notes}}} The Second Battle of Reams Station was fought in the American Civil War on August 25, 1864, in Dinwiddie County, Virginia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Post-war military service

Trial of Lincoln's assassins

The execution of the Lincoln assassination conspirators, July 7, 1865.

At the close of the war, Hancock was assigned to supervise the execution of the Lincoln assassination conspirators. Lincoln had been assassinated on April 14, 1865, and by May 9 of that year, a military commission had been convened to try the accused.[48] The actual assassin, John Wilkes Booth, was already dead, but the trial of his co-conspirators proceeded quickly, resulting in convictions. President Andrew Johnson ordered the executions to be carried out on July 7. Hancock was directed to supervise the executions of those condemned to death.[49] Although he was reluctant to execute some of the less-culpable conspirators, especially Mary Surratt, Hancock carried out his orders, later writing that "every soldier was bound to act as I did under similar circumstances."[50] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1405x1090, 409 KB)Execution of the four persons condemned as conspirators (Mary E. Surratt, Lewis T. Powell, David E. Herold, and George A. Atzerodt), July 7,1865. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1405x1090, 409 KB)Execution of the four persons condemned as conspirators (Mary E. Surratt, Lewis T. Powell, David E. Herold, and George A. Atzerodt), July 7,1865. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Assassination of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mary Surratt Mary Elizabeth Eugenia Jenkins Surratt (May/June 1823 in Waterloo, Maryland, USA – July 7, 1865 in Washington, D.C), was a member of the Abraham Lincoln assassination conspiracy and the first woman executed by the United States federal government, for her role in the conspiracy. ...


Service on the Plains

After the executions, Hancock was assigned command of the newly organized Middle Military Department, headquartered in Baltimore.[51] In 1866, on Grant's recommendation, Hancock was promoted to major general and was transferred, later that year, to command of the Military Department of the Missouri, which included the states of Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico.[52] Hancock reported to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and took up his new posting. Soon after arriving, he was assigned by General Sherman to lead an expedition to negotiate with the Cheyenne and Sioux, with whom relations had worsened since the Sand Creek massacre.[53] The negotiations got off to a bad start, and after Hancock ordered the burning of a Cheyenne village, relations became worse than when the expedition had started.[54] There was little loss of life on either side, but the mission could not be called a success.[55] There was also some disagreement between Hancock and one of his subordinates, Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer, which resulted in Custer's conviction after a court-martial of being absent without leave.[55] Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ... “General Sherman” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in... Custer redirects here. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... For other uses of Desertion, see Abandonment. ...


Reconstruction

Andrew Johnson thought Hancock was the ideal Reconstruction general.
Andrew Johnson thought Hancock was the ideal Reconstruction general.

Hancock's time in the West was brief. President Johnson, unhappy with the way Republican generals were governing the South under Reconstruction, sought replacements for them.[56] The general who offended Johnson the most was Philip Sheridan, and Johnson soon ordered General Grant to switch the assignments of Hancock and Sheridan, believing that Hancock, a Democrat, would govern in a style more to Johnson's liking.[57] Although neither man was pleased with the change, Sheridan reported to Fort Leavenworth and Hancock to New Orleans.[57] PD image from http://www. ... PD image from http://www. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Hancock's new assignment found him in charge of the Fifth Military District, encompassing Texas and Louisiana. Almost immediately upon arriving, Hancock ingratiated himself with the white conservative population by issuing his General Order Number 40 of November 29, 1867. In that order, written while traveling to New Orleans, Hancock expressed sentiments in support of President Johnson's policies, writing that if the residents of the district conducted themselves peacefully and the civilian officials perform their duties, then "the military power should cease to lead, and the civil administration resume its natural and rightful dominion."[58] Hancock's order encouraged white Democrats across the South who hoped to return to civilian government more quickly, but discomforted blacks and Republicans in the South who feared a return to the antebellum ways of conservative white dominance.[59] The 5th Military District was a temporary administrative unit set up during the Reconstruction period following the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

"The great principles of American liberty are still the lawful inheritance of this people, and ever should be. The right of trial by jury, the habeas corpus, the liberty of the press, the freedom of speech, the natural rights of persons and the rights of property must be preserved. Free institutions, while they are essential to the prosperity and happiness of the people, always furnish the strongest inducements to peace and order."
Winfield Scott Hancock, General Order Number 40 November 29, 1867.[60]

Hancock's General Order Number 40 was quickly condemned by Republicans in Washington, especially by the Radicals, while President Johnson wholeheartedly approved.[61] Heedless of the situation in Washington, Hancock soon put his words into action, refusing local Republican politicians' requests to use his power to overturn elections and court verdicts, while also letting it be known that open insurrection would be suppressed.[61] Hancock's popularity within the Democratic party grew to the extent that he was considered a potential presidential nominee for that party in the 1868 election.[62] Although Hancock collected a significant number of delegates at the 1868 convention, his presidential possibilities went unfulfilled. Even so, he was henceforth identified as a rare breed in politics: one who believed in the Democratic party's principles of states' rights and limited government, but whose anti-secessionist sentiment was unimpeachable.[63] is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Frémont (left), 1856 Republican parade banner The Radical Republicans were the remaining faction of American politicians within the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction following an 1864 exodus of pro-Lincoln Republicans into the creation of the National Union Party. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Return to the Plains

Following General Grant's 1868 presidential victory, the Republicans were firmly in charge in Washington. As a result, Hancock found himself transferred once again, this time away from the sensitive assignment of reconstructing the South and into the relative backwater that was the Department of Dakota.[64] The Department covered Minnesota, Montana, and the Dakotas. As in his previous Western command, Hancock began with a conference of the Indian chiefs, but this time was more successful in establishing a peaceful intent.[65] Relations worsened in 1870, however, as an army expedition committed a massacre against the Blackfeet.[66] Relations with the Sioux also became contentious as a result of white encroachment into the Black Hills, in violation of the Treaty of Fort Laramie.[67] Still, war was averted, for the time being, and most of Hancock's command was peaceful. Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... The Montana Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1864 and 1889. ... Dakota Territory was the name of the northernmost part of the Louisiana Purchase of the United States. ... The Marias Massacre is a now little-known massacre that took place in Montana during the late-19th century Indian Wars between the United States government and the American Indians. ... For other uses, see Blackfoot (disambiguation). ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... Treaty signing by William T. Sherman and the Sioux at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. ...


Command in the East and political ambitions

Governors Island, Hancock's command post in New York

In 1872, General Meade died, leaving Hancock the army's senior major general. This entitled him to a more prominent command, and President Grant, still desirous to keep Hancock from a Southern post, assigned him command of the Department of the Atlantic, headquartered at Governor's Island, New York City.[68] The vast department covered the settled northeast area of the country and, with one exception, was militarily uneventful. The exception was the army's involvement in the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. When railroad workers went on strike to protest wage cuts, the nation's transportation system was paralyzed. The governors of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland asked President Hayes to call in federal troops to re-open the railways. Once federal troops entered the cities, most of the strikers melted away, but there were some violent clashes.[69] Image File history File links Govisland. ... Image File history File links Govisland. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and civil engineer involved in coastal construction, including several lighthouses. ... Governors Island, shown in red, in Upper New York Bay Governors Island is a 172 acre (696,000 m²) island in Upper New York Bay, approximately one half mile from the southern tip of Manhattan, of which it is legally a part, in New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Great Railroad Strike of 1877 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias, as well as by federal troops. ...


All the while Hancock was stationed in New York, he did his best to keep his political ambitions alive. He received some votes at the Democrats' 1876 convention, but was never a serious contender as New York governor Samuel J. Tilden swept the field on the second ballot.[70] The Republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, won the election, and Hancock refocused his ambition on 1880. The electoral crisis of 1876 and the subsequent end to Reconstruction in 1877 convinced many observers that the election of 1880 would give the Democrats their best chance at victory in a generation.[71] Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... The Florida Case Before the Electoral Commission by Cornelia Adele Strong Fassett The Electoral Commision was a fifteen-member body that was used to resolve disputes in U.S. presidential elections, best known for its use in the 1876 election between Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes. ...


Election of 1880

Hancock after the war
Hancock after the war

The U.S. presidential election of 1880 was largely seen as a referendum on the Republicans relaxation of Reconstruction efforts in the southern states. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 493 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1777 × 2161 pixel, file size: 337 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission (Reusing this image) PD Winfield Scott Hancock (* 14. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 493 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1777 × 2161 pixel, file size: 337 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Permission (Reusing this image) PD Winfield Scott Hancock (* 14. ...

Democratic convention

Hancock's name had been proposed several times for the Democratic nomination for president, but he never captured a majority of delegates. In 1880, however, Hancock's chances improved. President Hayes had promised not to run for a second term, and the previous Democratic nominee, Tilden, declined to run again due to poor health.[72] Hancock faced several competitors for the nomination, including Thomas A. Hendricks, Allen G. Thurman, Stephen Johnson Field, and Thomas F. Bayard. Hancock's neutrality on the monetary question, and his lingering support in the South (owing to his General Order Number 40) meant that Hancock, more than any other candidate, had nationwide support.[73] When the Democratic convention assembled in Cincinnati in June 1880, Hancock led on the first ballot, but did not have a majority.[74] By the second ballot, Hancock received the requisite two-thirds, and William Hayden English of Indiana was chosen as his running mate.[75] Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... Allen Granberry Thurman (November 13, 1813_December 12, 1895) was a Democratic Representative and Senator from Ohio. ... Stephen Johnson Field (November 4, 1816 – April 9, 1899) was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from May 20, 1863, to December 1, 1897. ... Thomas Francis Bayard, Sr. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... William Hayden English (August 27, 1822–February 7, 1896) was an American politician. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ...


Campaign against Garfield

Results of the 1880 election
Results of the 1880 election

The Republicans nominated James A. Garfield, a Congressman from Ohio and a skillful politician. Hancock and the Democrats expected to carry the Solid South, but needed to add a few of the Northern states to their total to win the election. The practical differences between the parties were few, and the Republicans were reluctant to attack Hancock personally because of his heroic reputation.[76] The one policy difference the Republicans were able to exploit was a statement in the Democratic platform endorsing "a tariff for revenue only."[77] Garfield's campaigners used this statement to paint the Democrats as unsympathetic to the plight of industrial laborers, a group that would benefit by a high protective tariff. The tariff issue cut Democratic support in industrialized Northern states, which were essential in establishing an Democratic majority.[78] In the end, the Democrats and Hancock failed to carry any of the Northern states they had targeted, with the exception of New Jersey. The popular vote was the closest in American history—fewer than 2,000 votes separated the candidates—but Garfield had a solid electoral majority of 214 to 155.[6] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1182x635, 104 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States presidential election, 1880 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1182x635, 104 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States presidential election, 1880 ... A view inside the Glass Palace during the convention; James Garfield (center, right) is on the podium, waiting to speak. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... The U.S. presidential election of 1880 was largely seen as a referendum on the Republicans relaxation of Reconstruction efforts in the southern states. ... It has been suggested that Tariff in American history be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Later life

Hancock took his electoral defeat in stride and attended Garfield's inauguration.[79] Following the election, Hancock carried on as commander of the Division of the Atlantic. He was elected president of the National Rifle Association in 1881, explaining that "The object of the NRA is to increase the military strength of the country by making skill in the use of arms as prevalent as it was in the days of the Revolution."[80] He was commander-in-chief of the MOLLUS veterans organization from 1879 until his death in 1886. He was the author of Reports of Major General W. S. Hancock upon Indian Affairs, published in 1867.[1] Hancock's last major public appearance was to preside over the funeral of President Grant in 1885, although he also made a less publicized trip that year to Gettysburg.[81] This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a non-profit group for the promotion of marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and personal protection firearm rights... The Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS) was a fraternity comprised of former Union Army officers organized in the wake of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. ...


Hancock died in 1886 at Governors Island, still in command of the Military Division of the Atlantic, the victim of an infected carbuncle, complicated by diabetes.[8][2] He is buried in Montgomery Cemetery in Norristown, Pennsylvania.[1] Although he outlived both of his children, he was survived by the three grandchildren fathered by his son, Russell. Hancock's wife, Almira, published Reminiscences of Winfield Scott Hancock in 1887. For other uses, see Carbuncle (disambiguation). ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Norristown is a home rule municipality in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 6 miles (10 km) northwest of the city limits of Philadelphia, on the Schuylkill River. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


In memoriam

Winfield Scott Hancock is memorialized in a number of statues:

  • An equestrian statue on East Cemetery Hill on the Gettysburg Battlefield.
  • A portrait statue as part of the Pennsylvania Memorial at Gettysburg.
  • An alto-relievo representing Hancock's wounding during Pickett's Charge, on the New York State Monument at Gettysburg.
  • An equestrian statue in Market Square (Pennsylvania Avenue and 7th Street) in Washington, D.C.
  • An equestrian statue atop the Smith Civil War Memorial in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • A monumental bronze bust in Hancock Square, New York City, by sculptor James Wilson Alexander MacDonald.

Gettysburg Map The Gettysburg Battlefield was the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, fought July 1 to July 3, 1863, in and around the borough of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the county seat of Adams County, which had approximately 2,400 residents at the time. ... Greek figure Alto-relievo are figures carved out of a tablet that project at least one half of cross-section from the tablets surface. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Depending upon the criteria, Fairmount Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is the largest municipal public park in the world at over 9,100 acres (37 km²). This figure includes all parkland within the city limits, as all 65 city parks are considered part of Fairmount Park and overseen by the Fairmount... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

In popular media

Hancock was an important character in the historical novels about the Civil War by the Shaara family: The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and Gods and Generals and The Last Full Measure by Jeffrey Shaara. In the films Gettysburg (1993) and Gods and Generals (2003), based on the first two of these novels, Hancock is portrayed by Brian Mallon[82] and is depicted in both films in a very favorable light. A number of scenes in the novel Gods and Generals that depict Hancock and his friend Lewis Armistead in Southern California before the war have been omitted from the film. A historical novel a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... The Killer Angels front cover The Killer Angels (1974) is a historical novel by Michael Shaara that was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1975. ... Michael Shaara Michael Shaara (June 23, 1928 - May 5, 1988) was a writer of science fiction, sports fiction, and historical fiction. ... For other uses, see Gods and Generals (disambiguation). ... The Last Full Measure (published May 19, 1998 by Ballantine Books; ISBN 0345404912) is the sequel to The Killer Angels and Gods and Generals. ... Jeffrey M. Shaara (born 1952) is an American novelist, the son of Pulitzer Prize winner Michael Shaara. ... Gettysburg is a 1993 movie that dramatizes the decisive Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Gods and Generals (disambiguation). ... Brian Mallon is an Irish-American film and theater actor. ...


References

  • Cluff, Mary Lynn, "Winfield Scott Hancock", Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Foote, Shelby, The Civil War, A Narrative: Fredericksburg to Meridian, Random House, 1958, ISBN 0-394-49517-9.
  • Grant, Ulysses S., Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Charles L. Webster & Company, 1885–86, ISBN 0-914427-67-9.
  • Hancock, A.R., Reminiscences of Winfield Scott Hancock, Charles L. Webster, 1887, ISBN 1-58218-056-3 (reprinted by Digital Scanning).
  • Jamieson, Perry D., Winfield Scott Hancock: Gettysburg Hero (Civil War Campaigns and Commanders Series), McWhiney Foundation Press, 2003, ISBN 1-893114-39-2.
  • Jordan, David M., Winfield Scott Hancock: A Soldier's Life, Indiana University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-253-36580-5.
  • Kopel, David, et al., The Hero of Gettysburg: Winfield Scott Hancock's shot straight., National Review Online, July 2, 2004.
  • Sears, Stephen W., Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam, Houghton Mifflin, 1983, ISBN 0-89919-172-X.
  • Tagg, Larry, The Generals of Gettysburg, Savas Publishing, 1998, ISBN 1-882810-30-9.
  • Trefousse, Hans L., Andrew Johnson, a biography, W.W. Norton & Co., 1991, ISBN 0393317420.
  • Tucker, Glenn, Hancock the Suberb, Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., 1960.
  • Walker, Francis A., Life of General Hancock, 1894.
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.

Shelby Dade Foote, Jr. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Francis Amasa Walker was born in Boston, Massachusetts (July 2,1840–January 5, 1897) and was a United States economist and educator. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Eicher, pp. 277–78.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Tagg, pp. 33–35.
  3. ^ Tucker, p. 15.
  4. ^ Jordan, p. 319.
  5. ^ Tucker, pp. 300–301.
  6. ^ a b Leip, David. 1880 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (August 19, 2007).
  7. ^ a b c d Jordan, p. 5.
  8. ^ a b c d e Cluff, pp. 922–23.
  9. ^ Walker, p. 7.
  10. ^ Jenkins, Howard M. (1886). "Genealogical Sketch of General W.S. Hancock". Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography X: 100.  Retrieved September 8, 2007
  11. ^ Jordan, p. 6.
  12. ^ Tucker, pp. 18–21; Walker, p. 10.
  13. ^ Jordan, pp. 10–11; Walker, pp. 12–15.
  14. ^ Jordan, p. 13; Walker, p. 17.
  15. ^ Jordan, p. 13.
  16. ^ a b Jordan, p. 14; Walker, p. 18.
  17. ^ Jordan, pp. 15–16.
  18. ^ Jordan, p. 16; Walker, p. 20.
  19. ^ Jordan, pp. 16–17.
  20. ^ Jordan, p. 19.
  21. ^ Tucker, p. 44.
  22. ^ Walker, pp. 21–22.
  23. ^ Walker, p. 22.
  24. ^ Jordan, p. 24.
  25. ^ Jordan, p. 25; Hancock, pp. 24–27.
  26. ^ a b Jordan, p. 25.
  27. ^ Jordan, pp. 26–27.
  28. ^ Jordan, pp. 28–32.
  29. ^ Jordan, pp. 33–34.
  30. ^ Grant, Ulysses S., Personal Memoirs, 1885, Vol. II, pp. 539–540.
  31. ^ Walker, pp. 41–42.
  32. ^ Walker, pp. 51–52.
  33. ^ Sears, p. 257.
  34. ^ Walker, pp. 81–91
  35. ^ Jordan, p. 81.
  36. ^ Tucker, pp. 131–134
  37. ^ a b Jordan, pp. 89–94.
  38. ^ a b Jordan, p. 93.
  39. ^ Jordan, pp. 96–99.
  40. ^ Foote, p. 545.
  41. ^ Jordan, p. 98.
  42. ^ Foote, p. 561.
  43. ^ Jordan, p. 103.
  44. ^ Jordan, pp. 126–133.
  45. ^ Jordan, pp. 136–139.
  46. ^ Jordan, pp. 159–164.
  47. ^ a b Jordan, pp. 169–173
  48. ^ Trefousse, pp. 211–212; Jordan, pp. 176–177.
  49. ^ Jordan, p. 177.
  50. ^ Jordan, pp. 179–180; Tucker, p. 272.
  51. ^ Jordan, p. 182.
  52. ^ Jordan, pp. 183–84.
  53. ^ Jordan, pp. 185–89.
  54. ^ Jordan, p. 194; Walker, p. 296.
  55. ^ a b Jordan, pp. 198–99.
  56. ^ Trefousse, pp. 289–90.
  57. ^ a b Jordan, pp. 200–201.
  58. ^ Jamieson, pp. 152–53.
  59. ^ Jordan, pp. 204–05; Tucker, pp. 279–284.
  60. ^ Jordan, p. 203.
  61. ^ a b Jordan, pp. 206–08; Walker, pp. 301–303.
  62. ^ Jordan, 213–228; Warner, p. 204.
  63. ^ Jordan, p. 212; Walker pp. 301–302.
  64. ^ Jordan, p. 229.
  65. ^ Jordan, pp. 220–21.
  66. ^ Jordan, p. 232.
  67. ^ Jordan, pp. 233–34.
  68. ^ Jordan, p. 235; Tucker, p. 292.
  69. ^ Jordan, pp. 242–50.
  70. ^ Jordan, p. 239.
  71. ^ Robinson, Lloyd, The Stolen Election: Hayes versus Tilden - 1876, Agberg, Ltd. 1968, pp. 199–213.
  72. ^ Jordan, pp. 255–59.
  73. ^ Jordan, p. 262.
  74. ^ Walker, p. 306.
  75. ^ Walker, p. 306; Jordan, p. 281.
  76. ^ Jordan, pp. 292–96; Walker, p. 307.
  77. ^ Jordan, p. 297.
  78. ^ Jordan, pp. 297–301.
  79. ^ Walker, p. 311.
  80. ^ Kopel, National Review.
  81. ^ Jordan, pp. 312–13.
  82. ^ Brian Mallon - IMDB entry www.imdb.com. Retrieved 6 August 2006.

is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
Samuel J. Tilden
Democratic Party presidential candidate
1880
Succeeded by
Grover Cleveland

  Results from FactBites:
 
Winfield Scott Hancock - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1557 words)
Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer who served with distinction as a general in the American Civil War and ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States in 1880.
Hancock was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania, one of twin brothers, and named after the famous general Winfield Scott.
Hancock thus was in temporary command of the "left wing" of the army, consisting of the I, II, III, and XI Corps, which demonstrated Meade's high confidence in him, because Hancock was not the most senior Union officer at Gettysburg at the time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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