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Encyclopedia > Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott
June 13, 1786May 29, 1866

General Winfield Scott
Nickname Old Fuss and Feathers
Place of birth Dinwiddie County, Virginia, USA
Place of death West Point, New York, USA
Allegiance United States of America
Years of service 1808 – 1861
Rank Brevet Lt. Gen.
Commands U.S. Army
Battles/wars War of 1812
Mexican-American War
Black Hawk War
Seminole Wars
American Civil War
Other work Lawyer
Military governor of Mexico City
Whig candidate for President of the United States, 1852

Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" and the "Grand Old Man of the Army", he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history and most historians rate him the ablest American commander of his time. Over the course of his fifty-year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War, conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy. June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Standing_Winfield_Scott. ... Dinwiddie County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Combatants United States Britain Canadian militia Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... Combatants United States Sauk Nation Commanders Henry Atkinson Henry Dodge Adam Snyder Isaiah Stillman Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength 2,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War... Osceola, Seminole leader, detail from an 1838 lithograph The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between the Seminole Native American tribe and the United States. ... This article is becoming very long. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... There are a number of uses of Winfield Scott. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... This is list of candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States. ... The phrase Grand Old Man of the Army in the United Kingdom refers to General Sir Anthony Blaxland Stransham, GCB, of the Royal Marines, who served the United Kingdom in a series of colonial wars in the 19th century. ... Pre-Colonial America For details, see the main Pre-Colonial America article. ... This is a list of historians. ... Combatants United States Britain Canadian militia Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... Combatants United States Sauk Nation Commanders Henry Atkinson Henry Dodge Adam Snyder Isaiah Stillman Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength 2,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War... Osceola, Seminole leader, detail from an 1838 lithograph The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between the Seminole Native American tribe and the United States. ... This article is becoming very long. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President...


A national hero after the Mexican War, he served as military governor of Mexico City. Such was his stature that, in 1852, the United States Whig Party passed over its own incumbent President of the United States, Millard Fillmore, to nominate Scott in the U.S. presidential election. Scott lost to Democrat Franklin Pierce in the general election, but remained a popular national figure, receiving a brevet promotion in 1856 to the rank of lieutenant general, becoming the first American since George Washington to hold that rank. Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the 14th President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ...

Contents

Early life

Scott was born on his family's farm in Dinwiddie County, near Petersburg, Virginia. He was educated at the College of William & Mary and was a lawyer and a Virginia militia cavalry corporal before being directly commissioned as captain in the artillery in 1808. Scott's early years in the U.S. Army were tumultuous. His commission as a colonel was suspended for one year following a court-martial for insubordination in criticizing his commanding general. For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... Dinwiddie County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... Location Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Virginia Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Mayor Annie M. Mickens Geographical characteristics Area     City 60. ... The College of William and Mary in Virginia is a public, liberal_arts university located in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker Militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Corporal is a rank in use in some form by most militaries, police forces or other uniformed organizations around the world. ... Captain is a nautical term, an organizational title, and a rank in various uniformed organizations. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


War of 1812

During the War of 1812 Scott was captured during the Battle of Queenston Heights in 1812, but was released in a prisoner exchange. Upon release, he returned to Washington to pressure the Senate to take punitive action against British prisoners of war in retaliation for the British executing thirteen American POWs of Irish extraction captured at Queenston Heights (the British considered them British subjects and traitors). The Senate wrote the bill after Scott's urging but President James Madison refused to enforce it, believing that the summary execution of prisoners of war to be unworthy of civilized nations. In March 1814, Scott was brevetted brigadier general. In July 1814, Scott commanded the First Brigade of the American army in the Niagara campaign, winning the battle of Chippewa decisively. He was wounded during the bloody but indecisive Battle of Lundy's Lane, along with the American commander, Major General Jacob Brown, and the British/Canadian commander, Lieutenant General Gordon Drummond. As the American army retreated across the Niagara, Scott commanded the American forces at Fort Erie, to another American victory. Scott's success on the Niagara, combined with American naval victories at Lake Champlain and Lake Erie, guaranteed a stalemate on the northern frontier. Scott's wounds from Lundy's Lane were so severe that he did not serve on active duty for the remainder of the war. Combatants United States Britain Canadian militia Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Isaac Brock † Roger Sheaffe Stephen Van Rensselaer Strength 1,300 regulars, militia, and natives 6,000 regulars and militia Casualties 14 dead 77 wounded 100 dead 300 wounded 925 captured The Battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory of the War of 1812 which... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... The Niagara campaign was the final campaign to invade Canada during the War of 1812. ... The Battle of Chippewa (sometimes spelled Chippawa) was a decisive victory for American militia units which allowed for the invasion of Canada along the Niagara River. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Gordon Drummond Phineas Riall Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Strength At start: 2,200, 5 guns Reinforcements: 1,800, 3 guns At start: 2,000, 3 guns Reinforcements: 1,000, 6 guns Casualties 84 dead 559 wounded 193 missing 42 captured 171 dead 572 wounded 110... Jacob Jennings Brown (May 9, 1775-February 24, 1828) was an American army officer in the War of 1812. ... Lieutenant-General Sir Gordon Drummond holds the honour of being the first Canadian-born officer to command the military and the civil government. ... Fort Erie was the first British fort to be constructed as part of a network developed after the Seven Years War (or in the United States the French and Indian War) was concluded by the Treaty of Paris (1763) at which time all of New France had been ceded to... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the eleventh largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, it is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ...


Scott earned the nickname of "Old Fuss and Feathers" for his insistence of military appearance and discipline in the U.S. Army, which consisted mostly of volunteers. In his own campaigns, General Scott preferred to use a core of U.S. Army Regulars whenever possible. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ...

A younger Winfield Scott
A younger Winfield Scott

Image File history File links Younger_Scott. ... Image File history File links Younger_Scott. ...

Nullification and the Trail of Tears

Scott's signature
Scott's signature

In the administration of President Andrew Jackson, Scott marshaled United States forces for use against the state of South Carolina in the Nullification Crisis. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35... The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson around the question of whether a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress. ...


In 1838, following the orders of President Andrew Jackson, he assumed command of the "Army of the Cherokee Nation", headquartered at Fort Cass and Fort Butler, and carried out the initial removal of Cherokee Indians from Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Alabama—what later became known as the Trail of Tears. For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Fort Cass, established in 1835, was an important site during the Cherokee removal known as the Trail of Tears. ... Fort Butler was an important site during the Cherokee removal known as the Trail of Tears. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... This monument at the New Echota Historic Site honors Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears. ...


He also helped defuse tensions between officials of the state of Maine and the British Canada province of New Brunswick in the undeclared and bloodless Aroostook War in March 1839. Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... Combatants United States of America British Empire/Canada Strength 3,000–10,000 3,000–10,000 Casualties 38 incidental deaths The Aroostook War, also called the Pork and Beans War, the Lumberjacks War or the Northeastern Boundary Dispute, was an undeclared, confrontation in 1838-39 between Americans and...


As a result of his success, Scott was appointed major general (then the highest rank in the United States Army) and general-in-chief in 1841, serving until 1861.


During his time in the military, Scott also fought in the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War. Combatants United States Sauk Nation Commanders Henry Atkinson Henry Dodge Adam Snyder Isaiah Stillman Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength 2,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War... Osceola, Seminole leader, detail from an 1838 lithograph The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between the Seminole Native American tribe and the United States. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Scott as tactician

After the War of 1812, Scott translated several Napoleonic manuals into English. Upon direction of the War Department, Scott published Abstract of Infantry Tactics, Including Exercises and Manueuvres of Light-Infantry and Riflemen, for the Use of the Militia of the United States in 1830 for the use of the American militia. Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


In 1840, Scott wrote Infantry Tactics, Or, Rules for the Exercise and Maneuvre of the United States Infantry. This three-volume work was the standard drill manual for the U.S. Army until William J. Hardee's Tactics were published in 1855. William J. Hardee (1817-1873) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


General Scott was very interested in the professional development of the cadets of the U.S. Military Academy.[1]


Mexican War

Winfield Scott around the time he was running for President.
Winfield Scott around the time he was running for President.

During the Mexican-American War, Scott commanded the southern of the two United States armies (Zachary Taylor commanded the northern army). In this campaign, Scott displayed a U.S. military doctrine that would be used in every subsequent war: to get on the enemy's flanks by using seapower. Landing at Veracruz, Scott, assisted by his colonel of engineers, Robert E. Lee, and perhaps inspired by William H. Prescott's History of the Conquest of Mexico, followed the approximate route taken by Hernán Cortés in 1519 and assaulted Mexico City. Scott's opponent in this campaign was Mexican president and general Antonio López de Santa Anna. Despite high heat, rains, and difficult terrain, Scott won the battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras/Padierna, Churubusco, and Molino del Rey, then assaulted the fort of Chapultepec on September 13, 1847, after which the city surrendered. When a large number of men from the controversial Saint Patrick's Battalion were captured during Churubusco, Scott gave orders for them to be hanged en masse during the battle of Chapultepec, specifying that the moment of execution should occur just after the U.S. flag was raised atop the Mexican citadel. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 481 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (616 × 768 pixel, file size: 150 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 481 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (616 × 768 pixel, file size: 150 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. ... Veracruz is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... // For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... William Hickling Prescott (May 4, 1796 - January 29, 1859) was a historian. ... Hernán(do) Cortés, Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Strength 8,500 12,000 Casualties 417 4,000 Gen Ciriaco Vasquez dead Gens. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Gabriel Valencia Strength 8,500 20,000 Casualties 60 killed and wounded 700 killed 843 surrendered Gen Frontera dead Gen Salas, Nicolas Mendoza captured The Battle of Contreras (also known, particularly in Mexico, as the Battle of... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Manuel Rincón Strength 8,497 2,641 Casualties 133 killed 865 wounded 998 total total 263 dead 1,261 captured Gens Rincon & Anaya captured The Battles of Churubusco took place on August 20, 1847, in the... Battle of Molino del Rey Conflict Mexican-American War Date September 8, 1847 Place Mexico City, D.F. Result U.S. victory The Battle of Molino del Rey turned out to be one of the bloodiest fights of the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo # Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Saint Patricks Battalion (Spanish: Batallón de San Patricio) was a unit of several hundred Irishmen, Germans, and other European Catholics who deserted the United States Army and fought as part of the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican-American War of 1846 to 1848. ...


As military commander of Mexico City, he was held in high esteem by Mexican civil and American authorities alike. However, Scott's vanity, as well as his corpulence, led to a catch phrase that was to haunt him for the remainder of his political life. Complaining about the division of command between himself and General Taylor, in a letter written to Secretary of War William Marcy, Scott stated he had just risen from "at about 6 PM as I sat down to take a hasty plate of soup". The Polk administration, wishing to sabotage Scott's reputation, promptly published the letter, and the phrase appeared in political cartoons and folk songs for the rest of his life. The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... William Learned Marcy (December 12, 1786–July 4, 1857) was an American statesman. ...


Another example of Scott's vanity was his reaction to losing at chess to a young New Orleans lad named Paul Morphy in 1846. Scott did not take his defeat by the eight-year-old chess prodigy gracefully. Paul Morphy Paul Charles Morphy (June 22, 1837 - July 10, 1884), The Pride and Sorrow of Chess, was an American chess player. ... Chess prodigies are children who play chess so well that they are able to beat Masters and even Grandmasters, often at a very young age. ...


Politics

See also: U.S. presidential election, 1852
The Game-cock & the Goose, A Whig Party cartoon favoring Winfield Scott.
The Game-cock & the Goose, A Whig Party cartoon favoring Winfield Scott.

In the 1852 presidential election, the Whig Party declined to nominate its incumbent president, Millard Fillmore, who had succeeded to the presidency on the death of Mexican War hero General Zachary Taylor. Seeking to repeat their electoral success, the Whigs pushed Fillmore aside and nominated Scott, who faced Democrat Franklin Pierce. Scott's anti-slavery reputation undermined his support in the South, while the Party's pro-slavery platform depressed turnout in the North, and Scott's opponent was a Mexican War veteran as well. Pierce was elected in an overwhelming win, leaving Scott with the electoral votes of only four states. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1257x753, 202 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States presidential election, 1852 ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1257x753, 202 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): United States presidential election, 1852 ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the 14th President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ...


Despite his faltering in the election, Scott was still a wildly popular national hero. In 1855, by a special act of Congress, Scott was given a brevet promotion to the rank of lieutenant general, making him only the second person in American history, after George Washington, ever to hold that rank. Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ...


In 1859, Scott traveled to the Pacific Northwest to settle a dispute with the British over San Juan Island, which had escalated to the so-called Pig War. The old general established a good rapport with the British, and was able to bring about a peaceful resolution. The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the United States. ... A forest on San Juan Island San Juan Island is the second-largest and most populous of the San Juan Islands in northwestern Washington, USA. Washington State Ferries serves Friday Harbor, which is San Juan Islands major population center, the San Juan County seat, and the only incorporated town... The Pig War (also called the Pig Episode, the San Juan Boundary Dispute or the Northwestern Boundary Dispute) was a confrontation in 1859 between American and British authorities, resulting from a dispute over the boundary between the United States and Great Britain. ...


Civil War

See also: Anaconda Plan
1861 cartoon of Scott's "Anaconda Plan"
1861 cartoon of Scott's "Anaconda Plan"

As Union general-in-chief at the beginning of the American Civil War, the elderly Scott knew he was unable to go into battle himself. He offered the command of the Federal army to Colonel Robert E. Lee. However, when Virginia left the Union in April 1861, Lee resigned and the command of the Federal field forces defending Washington, D.C. passed to Major General Irvin McDowell. 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ... Image File history File links Scott-anaconda. ... Image File history File links Scott-anaconda. ... 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ... This article is becoming very long. ... // For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ...


Scott did not believe that a quick victory was possible for Federal forces. He devised a long-term plan to defeat the Confederacy by occupying key terrain, such as the Mississippi River and key ports on the Atlantic Coast and the Gulf of Mexico, and then moving on Atlanta. This Anaconda Plan was derided in the press; however, in its broad outlines, it was the strategy the Union actually used, particularly in the Western Theater and in the successful naval blockade of Confederate ports. In 1864, it was continued by General Ulysses S. Grant and executed by General William Tecumseh Sherman in his Atlanta Campaign and March to the Sea. Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest named river in North America, with a length of 2320 miles (3733 km) from Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... “General Sherman” redirects here. ... Palisades and chevaux-de-frise in front of the Potter House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. ... Engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie depicting Shermans March Shermans March to the Sea is the name commonly given to the Savannah Campaign, conducted in late 1864 by Major General William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ...

Engraving of Winfield Scott
Engraving of Winfield Scott

Scott was unable to implement his war plan because he was physically incapable of travel to the front lines. As a result he felt unable to reprimand his new commander in the field, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan for his increasingly insubordinate behavior. This, combined with political pressure from McClellan's supporters in the House and Senate, resulted in Scott's resignation on November 1, 1861. McClellan then succeeded him as general-in-chief. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by...


General Scott lived to see the Union victory in the Civil War. He died at West Point, New York, and is buried in West Point Cemetery. West Point Cemetery is an historic cemetery on the grounds of the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York. ...


Legacy

Scott served under every president from Jefferson to Lincoln, a total of fourteen administrations, and was an active-duty general for thirteen of them (47 years). Papers belonging to Scott can be found at the William L. Clements Library at the University of Michigan. This article is becoming very long. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865). ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...


Scott County in the state of Iowa is named in Winfield Scott's honor, as he was the presiding officer at the signing of the peace treaty ending the Black Hawk War; Scott County, Minnesota, and Scott County, Tennessee, and Winfeld, Tennessee were also named for him. Fort Scott, Kansas, a former Army outpost, was also named for him, and the towns of Scott Depot and Winfield in West Virginia. Scott Township in Mahaska County, Iowa, was formerly called Jackson before residents formally petitioned to change the township's name in light of their strong support of Scott in the 1852 presidential campaign.[2] In addition, Cerro Gordo County, Iowa, and Buena Vista County, Iowa, were named for battles where Scott led his troops to victory. Lake Winfield Scott, near Suches, is Georgia's highest lake. A paddle steamer named the Winfield Scott launched in 1850. The saying "Great Scott!" may have originated from a soldier under Winfield Scott.[3] Scott County is a county located in the state of Iowa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants United States Sauk Nation Commanders Henry Atkinson Henry Dodge Adam Snyder Isaiah Stillman Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength 2,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War... Scott County is a county located in the U.S. state of Minnesota. ... Scott County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. ... Fort Scott is a city located 88 miles (158 km) south of Kansas City, on the Marmaton River. ... Mahaska County is a county located in the state of Iowa. ... Cerro Gordo County is a county located in the U.S. state of Iowa. ... Buena Vista County is a county located in the state of Iowa. ... Suches, Georgia is an unincorporated area located in Union County, Georgia. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship or boat propelled by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ... The Winfield Scott was a vessel that crashed into Anacapa Island in 1853. ...


References

  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.

Notes

  1. ^ Waugh, John, The Class of 1846: From West Point to Appomattox: Stonewall Jackson, George McClellan, and Their Brothers, Ballantine Books, 1999, ISBN 0-345-43403-X.
  2. ^ History of Scott Township
  3. ^ World Wide Words website

Further reading

  • Eisenhower, John S.D., Agent of Destiny: The Life and Times of General Winfield Scott, University of Oklahoma Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8061-3128-4.
  • Elliott, Charles Winslow, Winfield Scott: The Soldier and the Man, 1937.
  • Johnson, Timothy D., "Winfield Scott: The Quest for Military Glory, University Press of Kansas, 1998, ISBN 0-7006-0914-8.
  • Peskin, Allan, Winfield Scott and the Profession of Arms, 2003.

John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower (born August 3, 1922) is the son of U.S. president and WWII Allied commander Dwight D. Eisenhower. ...

External links

Preceded by
Alexander Macomb
Commanding General of the United States Army
1841–1861
Succeeded by
George B. McClellan
Preceded by
Zachary Taylor
Whig Party presidential nominee
1852 (lost)
Succeeded by
Millard Fillmore

  Results from FactBites:
 
Winfield Scott - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1834 words)
Scott lost to Democrat Franklin Pierce in the general election, but remained a popular national figure, receiving a brevet promotion in 1856 to the rank of lieutenant general, becoming the first American since George Washington to hold that rank.
Scott served every president from Jefferson to Lincoln, a total of fourteen administrations, and was an active-duty general for thirteen of them (47 years).
Scott County in the state of Iowa is named in Winfield Scott's honor, as he was the presiding officer at the signing of the peace treaty ending the Black Hawk War.
Winfield Scott Hancock - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1623 words)
Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer who served with distinction as a general in the American Civil War and ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States in 1880.
Hancock was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania, one of twin brothers, and named after the famous general Winfield Scott.
Hancock would serve under Scott and become a general himself, graduating from the U.S. Military Academy in 1844, and rising to the rank of major general by the end of his military career.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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