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Encyclopedia > Wine (software)
Wine
Wine logo
Developed by Wine authors
Latest release 0.9.57 / 7 March 2008
OS Microsoft Windows, Unix and Unix-like systems
Genre Compatibility layer
License GNU Lesser General Public License
Website winehq.org

Wine is a software application which aims to allow Unix-like computer operating systems on the x86 architecture to execute programs that were originally written for Microsoft Windows. Wine also provides a software library known as Winelib which developers can compile Windows applications against in order to port them to Unix-like systems.[1] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... Code complete redirects here. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Windows redirects here. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... In software engineering, a compatibility layer allows binaries for an emulated system to run on a host system. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) or LGPL is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others. ... Windows redirects here. ... In computer science, a library is a collection of subprograms used to develop software. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ...


The name 'Wine' derives from the recursive acronym Wine Is Not an Emulator. While the name sometimes appears in the forms "WINE" and "wine", the project developers have agreed to standardize on the form "Wine".[citation needed] A recursive acronym (or occasionally recursive initialism) is an abbreviation which refers to itself in the expression for which it stands. ...


The Wine developers released the first beta version of Wine (version 0.9) on October 25, 2005 after 12 years of development. The Wine developers have listed approximately 95 bugs that need to be fixed before version 1.0 can be released.[2] Released under terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), Wine is free software. A software release refers to the distribution, whether public or private, of an initial or new and upgraded version of a computer software product. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working correctly or produces an incorrect result. ... The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) or LGPL is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ...

Contents

History

A screenshot of Microsoft Word 2003 running under Wine.

Bob Amstadt (the initial project leader) and Eric Youngdale started the Wine project in 1993 as a way to run Windows applications on Linux. Inspired by Sun Microsystems' Public Windows Initiative and Wabi [3] (an attempt to get windows API fully reimplemented on the public domain, a project later shot down by Microsoft in 1996[4]) for the Solaris operating system, it originally targeted Windows 3.x (16-bit) application software, although it currently focuses primarily on the dominant 32-bit applications. The project originated in discussions on Usenet in comp.os.linux in June 1993.[5] Alexandre Julliard has led the project since 1994. Image File history File links Wordinwine. ... Image File history File links Wordinwine. ... Microsoft Word is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... A 16 bit application is any software written for MS-DOS, OS/2 1. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... Image:AlexandreJulliard. ...


Rather than acting as a full emulator, Wine implements a compatibility layer, providing alternative implementations of the DLLs that Windows programs call, and processes to substitute for the Windows NT kernel. This article is about emulators in computer science. ... In software engineering, a compatibility layer allows binaries for an emulated system to run on a host system. ... This article is about dynamic libraries implemented by Microsoft. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ...


The Wine developers write the software primarily for Linux, but the Mac OS X, FreeBSD and Solaris ports are currently well-maintained.[6] Wine is available for other BSD distributions like OpenBSD and NetBSD through the ports collection of OpenBSD and NetBSD pkgsrc respectively. Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ...


The project has proved time-consuming and difficult for the developers, mostly because of incomplete and incorrect documentation of the Windows API[citation needed]. While Microsoft has documented most Win32 functions, some areas such as file formats and protocols have no official Microsoft specification. There are also undocumented low-level functions and obscure bugs[citation needed] that Wine must duplicate precisely in order to allow some applications to work properly. Consequently, the Wine team has had to reverse engineer many function calls and file formats in such areas as thunking. In general terms, documentation is any communicable material (such as text, video, audio, etc. ... The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is the name given by Microsoft to the core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... In computer science, a subroutine (function, method, procedure, or subprogram) is a portion of code within a larger program, which performs a specific task and can be relatively independent of the remaining code. ... A file format is a particular way to encode information for storage in a computer file. ... For other senses of this word, see protocol. ... A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working as intended, or produces an incorrect result. ... Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ... The term thunk is a contrived word from computer science, and has no known root. ...


The involvement of Corel for a time assisted the project, chiefly by employing Julliard and others to work on it. Corel had an interest due to the porting of WordPerfect Office, its office suite, to Linux. However, after Microsoft made major investments in the company, Corel cancelled all Linux-related projects and the Wine effort stopped.[7] CodeWeavers now employs Julliard and many other Wine developers to work on Wine and on CrossOver, CodeWeavers' supported version of Wine utilizing some additional proprietary components. Corel Corporation is a computer software company headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. ... WordPerfect Office is an Office applications suite. ... In computing, an office suite, sometimes called an office application suite or productivity suite is a software suite intended to be used by typical clerical and knowledge workers. ... CodeWeavers is a company that sells a proprietary version of Wine called CrossOver Office, for running Windows applications on GNU/Linux. ... CrossOver (before version 6. ...


The Wine project originally released Wine under the same MIT License as the X Window System, but owing to concern about proprietary versions of Wine not contributing their changes back to the core project, work as of March 2002 has used the LGPL for its licensing. The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ...


Functionality

As of mid-2007, Wine runs some software with good stability and most software with minor issues. Most native Microsoft Windows DLLs necessary for the execution of 32-bit Windows binaries have compatible Wine counterparts. The developers of the Direct3D portions of Wine have continued to implement new features such as pixel shaders to increase game support.[8] Wine can also use native DLLs directly, thus increasing functionality, but then a license for Windows is needed unless the DLLs were distributed with the application itself. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... Vertex and pixel (or fragment) shaders are computer programs that run on a graphics card, executed once for every vertex or pixel in a specified 3D mesh. ...


winecfg is a GUI configuration utility included with Wine. winecfg makes configuring Wine easier by making it unnecessary to edit the registry directly.


64-bit applications

Wine cannot currently run 64-bit Windows applications; however, it can run on 64-bit operating systems. Since almost all Windows applications are currently available in 32-bit versions, support for 64-bit Windows applications is a low priority, planned for after version 1.0.


On a 64-bit Linux system, support for 32-bit Windows applications is handled by linking with 32-bit versions of Wine's shared library dependencies. In computer science, a library is a collection of subprograms used to develop software. ...


Usage

In a 2007 survey by desktoplinux.com of 38500 Linux desktop users, 31.5% of respondents reported using Wine to run Windows applications. [9] This plurality was larger than all virtualization programs combined, as well as larger than the 27.9% who reported not running Windows applications. In computing, virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources. ...


Third-party applications

Some applications can be made to work with Wine, however doing so requires more tweaking than simply installing the application, such as manually configuring Wine to use certain Windows DLLs. The Wine project does not integrate such workarounds into the Wine codebase, instead preferring to focus solely on improving Wine's implementation of the Windows API. While this approach focuses Wine development on long-term compatibility, it makes it difficult for users to run applications which can run using workarounds. Consequently, many third party applications have been created to ease the use of these applications which don't work "out of the box" within Wine itself. The Wine wiki maintains a page of current and obsolete third party applications. [10]


Wine-Doors is an application-management tool for the GNOME desktop which adds functionality to Wine. Wine-Doors is an alternative to WineTools which aims to improve upon WineTools' features and extend on the original idea with a more modern design approach.[11] This article is about the mythical creature. ...


WineBot is an application-management tool which should act in a similar way as native Linux package managers like apt/dpkg/rpm. The project aims for data compatibility with Wine-Doors, in addition to providing a platform to track the hacks necessary to install certain applications and provide a framework for automated regression testing for the Wine project. [12]


Other versions of Wine

The core Wine development aims at a correct implementation of the Windows API as a whole and has sometimes lagged in some areas of compatibility with certain applications. Direct3D, for example, remained unimplemented until 1998,[13] although newer releases have had an increasingly complete implementation.[14]


CodeWeavers markets CrossOver specifically for running Microsoft Office and other major Windows applications including some games. CodeWeavers employs Alexandre Julliard to work on Wine and contributes most of its code to the Wine project under the LGPL. CodeWeavers also released a new version called Crossover Mac for Intel-based Apple Macintosh computers on January 10, 2007.[2]. CrossOver (before version 6. ... Microsoft Office is an office suite from Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X operating systems. ... CrossOver (before version 6. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


TransGaming Technologies produces the proprietary Cedega software. Formerly known as WineX, Cedega represents a fork from the last MIT-licensed version of Wine. TransGaming optimises Cedega for running Windows computer games and runs on a subscription business model. TransGaming Inc. ... Cedega (formerly known as WineX) is TransGaming Technologies proprietary fork of Wine (from when the license of Wine wasnt the LGPL but the X11 license), which is designed specifically for running games written for Microsoft Windows under Linux. ... In software, a project fork or branch happens when a developer (or a group of them) takes code from a project and starts to develop independently of the rest. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... The subscription business model is a business model that was pioneered by magazines and newspapers, but is now used by a myriad of businesses and websites. ...


Transgaming has also produced Cider, a Wine library for Apple-Intel architecture Macintoshes. Instead of being an end-user product, Cider (like Winelib) is a wrapper allowing developers to adapt their games to run natively on Intel Mac OS X without any changes in source code. To distinguish their computers from other PC makers, Apple creates their own Intel chip product badges, rather than use the ones created by Intel. ... A wrapper can refer to several things: In computer science: a wrapper pattern (such as a driver wrapper) is a design pattern where a piece of code allows classes to work together that normally could not because of incompatible interfaces. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


Other projects using Wine source code include:

  • ReactOS, a project to write an operating system compatible with Windows NT down to the device driver level.
  • Darwine, a port of the Wine libraries to Darwin and Mac OS X. Darwine originally aimed at compiling Windows source code to Mach-O binaries. With the advent of Apple-Intel architecture, Darwine began running Win32 binaries in x86 Darwin and has approached version parity with the Wine trunk. The Darwine project also continues progress on PowerPC by combining Wine with the QEMU x86 emulator.
  • Odin, a project to run Win32 binaries on OS/2 or convert them to OS/2 native format. The project also provides the Odin32 API to compile Win32 programs for OS/2.
  • E/OS, a project attempting to allow any program designed for any operating system to be run without the need to actually install any other operating system.
  • Rewind, a defunct MIT-licensed fork of the last MIT-licensed version of Wine.
  • Parallels, a proprietary product that uses some Wine code for its DirectX handling.

ReactOS is a project to develop an operating system that is binary-compatible with application software and device drivers for Microsoft Windows NT version 5. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ... Darwine is a port of the WINE libraries to Darwin and Mac OS X. The intention is to make it possible to compile Win32 source code to Mach-O/PowerPC binaries. ... Darwin is a free and open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Inc. ... Mach-O, short for Mach object file format, is a file format for executables and object code. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... It has been suggested that Qemu-Launcher be merged into this article or section. ... In computing, Odin is a project to run Microsoft Windows programs on OS/2 or convert them to OS/2 native format. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... E/OS, or Emulator Operating System, is a virtual machine emulation system released under version 2. ... Rewind is an open source project to implement a compatibility layer for the Microsoft Windows API on UNIX with X11. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Microsoft and Wine

Internet Explorer 6 running under Wine.
Internet Explorer 6 running under Wine.

Microsoft has generally not made public statements about Wine. However, the Microsoft Update software will block updates to Microsoft application software running in Wine-based environments. On February 16, 2005, Ivan Leo Puoti discovered that Microsoft had started checking the Windows registry for the Wine configuration key and would block the Windows Update for any component. Puoti wrote, ". . . even if this is only an initial attempt, they appear to want to discriminate against Wine users. While this may be acceptable for operating system components/updates, this is probably a violation of anti-trust law for all other downloads. It's also the first time Microsoft has acknowledged the existence of Wine."[15] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (971 × 741 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/png) // A screenshot of Internet Explorer 6 in Ubuntu 7. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (971 × 741 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/png) // A screenshot of Internet Explorer 6 in Ubuntu 7. ... The current Microsoft Update icon The previous Windows Update icon Microsoft Update is a website where users can download updates for various Microsoft Windows-related products. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Windows registry is a directory which stores settings and options for the operating system for Microsoft Windows 32-bit versions, 64-bit versions and Windows Mobile. ... Antitrust is also the name for a movie, see Antitrust (movie) Antitrust or competition laws legislate against trade practices that undermine competitiveness or are considered to be unfair. ...


The Windows Genuine Advantage (WGA) system also checks for existence of Wine registry keys, and the WGA FAQ states that WGA, by design, will not run in Wine, as Wine does not constitute "genuine Windows" as described in the WGA FAQ.[16] Despite this, some reports have circulated of the WGA system working in Wine.[17] In the case of Internet Explorer 7, Microsoft has disabled the WGA requirements. Windows Genuine Advantage Notification in Windows XP Windows Genuine Advantage Notification in Windows Vista Windows Genuine Advantage (WGA) is an anti-piracy system enacted by Microsoft that enforces Microsoft Windows online validation of the authenticity of several recent Microsoft operating systems when accessing several Microsoft Windows services, such as Windows... FAQ is an abbreviation for Frequently Asked Question(s). The term refers to listed questions and answers, all supposed to be frequently asked in some context, and pertaining to a particular topic. ... Windows Internet Explorer 7, commonly abbreviated IE7, is a web browser released by Microsoft in late 2006 for Windows Vista, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. ...


See also

Free software Portal

Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... CrossOver (before version 6. ... Cedega (formerly known as WineX) is TransGaming Technologies proprietary fork of Wine (from when the license of Wine wasnt the LGPL but the X11 license), which is designed specifically for running games written for Microsoft Windows under Linux. ... Cygwin (pronounced ) is a collection of free software tools originally developed by Cygnus Solutions to allow various versions of Microsoft Windows to act similar to a Unix system. ... Darwine is a port of the WINE libraries to Darwin and Mac OS X. The intention is to make it possible to compile Win32 source code to Mach-O/PowerPC binaries. ... ReactOS is a project to develop an operating system that is binary-compatible with application software and device drivers for Microsoft Windows NT version 5. ...

References

  1. ^ Winelib. Wine HQ. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  2. ^ Wine 1.0 bugs
  3. ^ [1] Wine project status Sep 29 1993, 4:27 pm
  4. ^ Sun Uses ECMA as Path to ISO Java Standardization (Computergram International, 7 May 1999)
  5. ^ WABI available on linux or not. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  6. ^ Wine FAQ.
  7. ^ That's All Folks: Corel Leaves Open Source Behind. NewsForge.
  8. ^ DirectX-Shaders-The official wine wiki.
  9. ^ 2007 Desktop Linux Market survey (2007-08-21). Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
  10. ^ http://wiki.winehq.org/ThirdPartyApplications
  11. ^ http://www.wine-doors.org
  12. ^ http://winebot.sandbox.cz/tracker
  13. ^ Wine Traffic #208 (2004), kernel-traffic.org.
  14. ^ Wine Status - DirectX DLLs.
  15. ^ Puoti, Ivan Leo (2005). Microsoft genuine downloads looking for Wine (mailing list). Retrieved on 2006-01-23.
  16. ^ Genuine Windows FAQ. Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-01-30. “When WGA validation detects WINE running on the system, it will notify users that they are running non-genuine Windows, and it will not allow genuine Windows downloads for that system.”
  17. ^ Slashdot.; WGA running in Wine.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Wine Development HQ - The official homepage of Wine.
  • Wine newsgroup (Google web interface)
  • Wine Help Forums - Wine Help and Discussion Forums
  • Wine-Review - A blog with reviews, guides, howto's, help links, and Videos of Wine Apps & Games
  • Jeremy White's Wine Answers - Slashdot interview with Jeremy White of CodeWeavers
  • Jeremy White interview on the "Mad Penguin" web-site
  • Appointment of the Software Freedom Law Center as legal counsel to represent the Wine project
  • Wine on Freshmeat
  • Wine History on WineHQ
  • Wine Begginings a collection of messages researching where Wine's development began
  • Wine: Where it came from, how to use it, where it's going a work by Dan Kegel
  • Running Adobe Photoshop on Wine
Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Slashdot, often abbreviated as /.[1], is a science, science fiction, and technology-related news website owned by SourceForge, Inc. ... The Software Freedom Law Center logo, a pun on the Ctrl key of most keyboards The Software Freedom Law Center (SFLC) was launched in February 2005 with Eben Moglen as Chairman. ... Freshmeat is a website that allows computer users to keep track of the latest software releases and updates as well as write/read reviews and articles, send or receive comments to or from the author, and many other features. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wine HQ (722 words)
Wine does not require Microsoft Windows, as it is a completely free alternative implementation of the Windows API consisting of 100% non-Microsoft code, however Wine can optionally use native Windows DLLs if they are available.
Wine provides both a development toolkit for porting Windows source code to Unix as well as a program loader, allowing many unmodified Windows programs to run on x86-based Unixes, including Linux, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, and Solaris.
The Wine team would especially like to thank Lars Mathiassen and the members of the Party Poker Strategy Guide for their recent donations that sponsored the event.
Wine: Information from Answers.com (1313 words)
The recursive acronym Wine resembles that of LAME (Lame Ain't an MP3 Encoder), GNU (Gnu's Not Unix), and the colloquial acronym for PINE (Pine Is Not Elm).
Wine is free software, released under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL).
The Wine project originally released Wine under the same MIT License as the X Window System, but owing to concern about proprietary versions of Wine not contributing their changes back to the core project, work as of March 2002 has used the LGPL for its licensing.
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