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Encyclopedia > Wine
A glass of red wine
A glass of red wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermentation of grape juice.[1] The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients.[2] Although other fruits like apples and berries can also be fermented, the resultant "wines" are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example, apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit or country wine. Others, such as barley wine and rice wine (e.g. sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these cases, the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content, rather than production process.[3] The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.[4] Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast which consume the sugars found in the grapes and convert them into alcohol. Various varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the types of wine produced.[5] Wine is an alcoholic beverage. ... Download high resolution version (428x800, 53 KB) Red wine. ... Download high resolution version (428x800, 53 KB) Red wine. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... Fermenting must. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Apfelwein Apfelwein (German, apple wine) is the German form of cider, produced from apples. ... Elderberry Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from brewed elderberries. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fruit wine. ... Barley wine or Barleywine is a style of strong ale originating in England in the nineteenth century (derived from the March or October beers of the 18th century) but now brewed worldwide. ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Ginger Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from a fermented blend of ground ginger and raisins that was first distilled in England. ... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Fermenting must. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


Wine has a long history dating back about 8,000 years and is thought to have originated in present day Georgia or Iran.[6][7] Wine is thought to have appeared in Europe about 6,500 years ago in present-day Bulgaria and Greece and was very common in classical Greece and Rome. Wine has also played an important role in religion since ancient times. The Greek God Dionysos and the Roman God Liber represented wine. Wine has also played an important role in ceremonies in the Christian religion such as mass. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Bacchus by Caravaggio Dionysus, the name of a god, is occasionally confused with one of several historical figures named Dionysius. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ...


The word "wine" derives from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or "(grape) vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o- (cf. Ancient Greek οῖνος oînos).[8] Similar words for wine or grapes are found in the Semitic languages (cf. Arabic ﻭﻳﻦ wayn) and in Georgian (ğvino), and the term is considered an ancient wanderwort.[9] Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, c. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A Wanderwort (plural Wanderwörter, German for wandering word, ) is a word that was spread among numerous languages and cultures, usually in connection with trade, so that it becomes impossible to establish its original etymology, or even its original language. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of wine
Wine boy at a symposium.
Wine boy at a symposium.

Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest wine production came from sites in Georgia and Iran, dating from 6000 to 5000 BC.[10][11] The archaeological evidence becomes clearer, and points to domestication of grapevine, in Early Bronze Age sites of the Near East, Sumer and Egypt from around the third millennium BC.[12] The history of wine spans thousands of years and is closely intertwined with the history of agriculture, cuisine, civilization and man himself. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 630 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,860 × 1,770 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 630 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,860 × 1,770 pixels, file size: 2. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term...


The very oldest known evidence suggesting wine production in Europe and second oldest in the world comes from archaeological sites in Greece and is dated to 6,500 years ago.[13][14][15] The same archaeological sites in Greece also contain remnants of the world’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes.[16] In fact, several Greek sources as well as Pliny the Elder describe how the ancient Greeks used partly dehydrated gypsum before fermentation and some type of lime after fermentation to reduce acidity. The Greek writer Theophrastus is actually the oldest known source to describe this aspect of Greek wine making.[17][18] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ...


In Egypt, wine became a part of recorded history, playing an important role in ancient ceremonial life. Wine was possibly introduced into Egypt by the Ancient Greeks.[19] Traces of wine were also found in China, dating from the second and first millennium BC[20] Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ...


Wine was common in classical Greece and Rome.[21] The Ancient Greeks introduced vines such as Vitis vinifera[22] and made wine in their numerous colonies in Italy,[23] Sicily,[24] southern France,[25] and Spain.[22] Dionysus was the Greek god of wine and revelry, and wine was frequently referred to in the works of Homer and Aesop. Many of the major wine producing regions of Western Europe today were established by the Romans.[26] Wine making technology improved considerably during the time of the Roman Empire. Many grape varieties and cultivation techniques were known. Barrels were developed for storing and shipping wine.[26] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Vitis vinifera L. For thousands of years, the fruit and plant of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, have been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ...


Since Roman times, wine (potentially mixed with herbs and minerals) was assumed to serve medicinal purposes as well. During Roman times it was not uncommon to dissolve pearls in wine for better health. Cleopatra created her own legend by promising Marc Anthony she would "drink the value of a province" in one cup of wine, after which she drank an expensive pearl with a cup of wine.[18] Another medieval application was the use of snake-stones (banded Agate resembling the figural rings on a snake) dissolved in wine against snake bites, which shows an early understanding of the effects of alcohol on the central nervous system in such situations.[18] For other uses, see Agate (disambiguation). ...


In medieval Europe, the Christian Church was a staunch supporter of wine which was necessary for the celebration of the Catholic Mass. In places such as Germany, beer was banned and considered pagan and barbaric while wine consumption was viewed as civilized and a sign of conversion.[27] Wine was also forbidden in the Islamic civilization, but after Geber and other Muslim chemists pioneered the distillation of wine, it was used for other purposes, including cosmetic and medical uses.[28] In fact the 10th century Persian philosopher and scientist Al Biruni described a number of recipes where herbs, minerals and even gemstones are mixed with wine for medicinal purposes. Wine was so revered and its effect so feared that elaborate theories were developed which gemstone-cups would best counteract its negative side effects.[18] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Make-up redirects here. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ...


Grape varieties

Wine grapes on a vine
Wine grapes on a vine

Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species, Vitis vinifera. When one of these varieties, such as Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, or Merlot, for example, is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75 or 85%) the result is a varietal, as opposed to a blended wine. Blended wines are in no way inferior to varietal wines; some of the world's most valued and expensive wines from the Bordeaux, Rioja or Tuscany regions are a blend of several grape varieties of the same vintage. This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1060x1600, 209 KB) Wine grapes File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible Weinberg Viticulture User talk:Fir0002 Aglianico User:Fir0002/FPCandidates User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/Featured Pictures Wikipedia:Featured pictures thumbs 03 Wikipedia:Featured picture... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1060x1600, 209 KB) Wine grapes File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible Weinberg Viticulture User talk:Fir0002 Aglianico User:Fir0002/FPCandidates User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/Featured Pictures Wikipedia:Featured pictures thumbs 03 Wikipedia:Featured picture... In botanical nomenclature, variety is a rank below that of species: As such, it gets a ternary name (a name in three parts). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Vitis vinifera L. For thousands of years, the fruit and plant of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, have been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Varietal describes wines made from a single named grape variety. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... The Vintagers, after a miniature of the Dialogues de Saint Gregoire (thirteenth century)—manuscript of the Royal Library of Brussels. ...


Wine can also be made from other species or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. Vitis labrusca, Vitis aestivalis, Vitis rupestris, Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes, usually grown for eating in fruit form or made into grape juice, jam, or jelly, but sometimes made into wine, eg. Concord wine (Vitis labrusca species). This article is about a biological term. ... Binomial name Vitis labrusca L. Vitis labrusca (Fox grape) is a species of grape native to the northeastern United States. ... Binomial name Vitis aestivalis Vitis aestivalis is any of several varieties of grape native to the United States. ... Binomial name Vitis rupestris {{{author}}} Vitis rupestris is a kind of grape native to the Southern and Western United States. ... Binomial name Vitis rotundifolia Some muscadines in a bowl; the green ones are scuppernongs Muscadines (Vitis rotundifolia) are a grapevine species native to the present-day southeastern United States that has been extensively cultivated since the 16th Century. ... Binomial name Vitis riparia Vitis riparia Michx, also commonly known as River Bank Grape or Frost Grape, is a native American climbing or trailing vine, widely distributed from Quebec to Texas, and Montana to New England. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Concord grapes are a variety of grape used as both a table grapes and wine grapes. ...


Hybrids are not to be confused with the practice of grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. In the late 19th century, Europe's vineyards were devastated by the bug, leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country of the world except for Chile and Argentina, which have yet to be exposed to the insect.[29] Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, family Phylloxeridae, superfamily Aphidoidea) is a serious pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America. ...


The variety of grape(s), aspect (direction of slope), elevation, and topography of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, the climate and seasonal conditions under which grapes are grown, and the local yeast cultures all together form the concept of "terroir." The range of possibilities lead to great variety among wine products, which is extended by the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes. Many small producers use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir.[30] In geography, aspect generally refers to the direction to which a mountain slope faces. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Terroir was originally a French term in wine and coffee appreciation used to denote the special characteristics of geography that bestowed individuality upon the food product. ...


However, flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency is more important. Producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using wine making technology such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin film evaporation, and spinning cone.[31] In the United States, table wine is used as a legal definition to differentiate standard wine from stronger (higher alcohol content) fortified wine or sparkling wine[1]. In the European Union it is meant to designate the lowest quality level of wine produced, one that qualifies for neither an appellation... Microoxygenation is a process increasingly used in winemaking to smooth out wine and make it more palatable or more marketable (or both). ...


Classification

A glass of white wine
A glass of white wine

Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in various regions of the world. France has an appellation system which ranges from Vin de Table ("table wine"), through Vin de Pays and Vin Délimité de Qualité Superieure (VDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC)[32] and which is based on the concept of terroir [33] (or region of origin) and wine quality. Germany developed a similar system in 2002[34] though this has not yet developed the authority of the French system.[35] Spain[36] and Italy also have a classification which is based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product.[37] New World wine, that is wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe, tend to be classified by grape rather than by quality or region of origin, though there have been subjective attempts to classify by quality,[38] most successfully by Langton's.[39] Download high resolution version (401x800, 58 KB) White wine. ... Download high resolution version (401x800, 58 KB) White wine. ... The classification of wine is normally divided into five categories, with the distinctions among the classes based primarily on major differences in their manner of vinification. ... In the United States, table wine is used as a legal definition to differentiate standard wine from stronger (higher alcohol content) fortified wine or sparkling wine[1]. In the European Union it is meant to designate the lowest quality level of wine produced, one that qualifies for neither an appellation... Vin de pays is the third highest ranking in the French wine system, after VDQS, preceding Vin de table. ... VDQS is an acronym in French standing for Vin Délimité de Qualité Superieure (Delimited Wine of Superior Quality), the second highest ranking of wine, after AOC under the French ranking system. ... Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC), which translates as term of controlled origin is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut National des Appellations dOrigine (INAO). ... Terroir was originally a French term in wine and coffee appreciation used to denote the special characteristics of geography that bestowed individuality upon the food product. ... New World wines are those wines produced outside the traditional wine-growing areas of Europe and North Africa. ...


Wines are usually named either by their grape variety or by their place of production. Generally speaking, European wines are named both after the place of production (e.g. Bordeaux, Rioja, Chianti, Cotnari) and the grapes used (e.g. Pinot, Riesling, Chardonnay, Merlot). Wines from everywhere except Europe are generally named for the grape variety. More and more, however, market recognition of particular regions and wineries is leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. Examples of recognized locales include: Margret River, Napa Valley, Barossa Valley, Willamette Valley, Cafayate, Marlborough, Walla Walla, etc. Rioja Wine Rioja is a wine from a region named after the Rio Oja in Spain, a tributary of the Ebro. ... Valdelsa (part of Chianti Colli Fiorentini sub-area). ... Cotnari is a village and the center of the eponymous commune in Iaşi County, Romania, in the informal region of Moldova; the commune also includes the village of Cârjoaia. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... Riesling is a white grape variety and varietal appellation of wines grown historically in Germany (see German wine), Alsace (France), Austria, and northern Italy. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Napa County is in north-central California Napa Valley is most famous for its wine. ... It has been suggested that Barossa Shiraz be merged into this article or section. ... The Willamette Valley The Willamette Valley The Willamette Valley is the region in northwest Oregon in the United States that surrounds the Willamette River as it proceeds northward from its emergence from mountains near Eugene to its confluence with the Columbia River. ... Cafayate is a town located at the central zone of the Valles Calchaquíes in the province of Salta, Argentina. ... Marlborough is one of the regions of New Zealand, located in the northeast of the South Island. ... Walla Walla County is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington. ...


Some blended wine names are marketing terms, and the use of these names is governed by trademark or copyright law, rather than a specific wine law or a patent on the actual varietal blend or process used to achieve it. For example, Meritage (pronounced to rhyme with "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, and may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec, while the dôle is made from the Pinot Noir and Gamay grapes. Use of the term Meritage is protected by licensing agreements by The Meritage Association. “(TM)” redirects here. ... The copyright symbol is used to give notice that a work is covered by copyright. ... Meritage is a word used to distinguish wines that are made in the style of Bordeaux but without infringing on that regions legally protected appellation. ... Old vine Cabernet Sauvignon at Chateau Montelena in Napa Valley. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon. ... Petit verdot is a variety of red wine grape, principally in classic Bordeaux blends. ... Malbec is a black, mellow grape variety originally grown in France, in the Loire Valley and Cahors. ...


Vintages

Main article: Vintage

A vintage wine is one made from grapes that were all, or primarily, grown in a single specified year, and are accordingly dated as such. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include many subtle color, palate, nose, body and aging differences. Many wines, particularly good quality red table wines, can improve in flavor with age if properly stored.[40] Consequently, it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion of wine that is not from the labeled vintage. The Vintagers, after a miniature of the Dialogues de Saint Gregoire (thirteenth century)—manuscript of the Royal Library of Brussels. ... The Vintagers, after a miniature of the Dialogues de Saint Gregoire (thirteenth century)—manuscript of the Royal Library of Brussels. ...


In the United States for a wine to be vintage dated (and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA), such as "New Zealand" or "Napa Valley") it must contain at least 95% of its volume from wines harvested in that year.[41] If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA, such as "Napa County", it must contain at least 85% of its volume from wines harvested in that year.[41] An American Viticultural Area (AVA) is a delimited grape-growing region distinguishable by geographic features, with boundaries defined by the United States governments Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). ... Napa County is in north-central California Napa Valley is most famous for its wine. ... Napa County is in north-central California Napa Valley is most famous for its wine. ...


Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each and every bottle will have a similar taste. Climatic factors can have a dramatic impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality.[42] Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Superior vintages, from reputable producers and regions, will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. Some vintage wines are only made in better-than-average years.


Non-vintage wines can be blended from a number of vintages for consistency, a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and also maintain sales even in bad vintage years.[43][44]


Recent research suggests vintage year may not be as significant to wine quality as currently thought[45], though wine connoisseurs continue to place a great importance on vintage. The Vintagers, after a miniature of the Dialogues de Saint Gregoire (thirteenth century)—manuscript of the Royal Library of Brussels. ...


Tasting

Main article: Wine tasting
Judging colour is the first step in tasting a wine
Judging colour is the first step in tasting a wine

Wines may be classified by their primary impression on the drinker's palate. They are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar. However, a technically dry wine might taste sweet when it is not. For example, fennel might taste sweet, but does not contain much sugar. Wine degustation is the tasting of wine. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 575 pixelsFull resolution (1364 × 980 pixel, file size: 717 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This version has been released by me to Wikimedia under the GNU Free Documentation License v1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 575 pixelsFull resolution (1364 × 980 pixel, file size: 717 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This version has been released by me to Wikimedia under the GNU Free Documentation License v1. ... The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and vertebrate animals. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... The sweetness of a wine is defined by the level of residual sugar (or RS) in the final liquid after the fermentation has ceased. ... The sweetness of a wine is defined by the level of residual sugar (or RS) in the final liquid after the fermentation has ceased. ...


Specific flavors may also be sensed, due to the highly complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. Tasters will also distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and blackcurrant) and flavors that are imparted by other factors in wine making, either intentional or not. The most typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those that are imparted by aging in oak casks, and virtually every element of chocolate, vanilla, or coffee is actually a factor of oak and not the native grape.[46] For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ...


Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism, as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty, barnyard, band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol),[47] and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide).[48] Some varietals can also have mineral flavor, due to the fact that some salts are soluble in water (as limestone), and thus absorbed by the vine. Isoamyl acetate is an organic compound that is the ester formed from isoamyl alcohol and acetic acid. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , Flash point 100°C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references 4-ethylphenol, often abbreviated to 4-EP is a phenolic compound with the molecular formula C8H10O. In wine it is... R-phrases S-phrases , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references 4-Ethylguaiacol, often abbreviated to 4-EG, is a phenolic compound with the molecular formula C9H12O2. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...


Wine aroma is the result of the interaction between components of the grapes and those produced during winemaking process, fermentation and aging.[49] Being served at room temperature increases the vaporization of aroma compounds, making the wine more aromatic. For some red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais, the volatility of the wine makes it better served chilled.[50] Illustration of Chinon, circa 1892 For other uses, see Chinon (disambiguation). ... A Beaujolais label Beaujolais is a historical province and a wine-producing region in France. ...


Collecting

Château Margaux, a first growth from the Bordeaux region of France, is highly collectible.
Château Margaux, a first growth from the Bordeaux region of France, is highly collectible.

At the highest end, rare, super-premium wines are amongst the most expensive of all food, and outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle. Such wines are considered by some as Veblen goods. The most common wines purchased for investment include Bordeaux, cult wines and Port. The reasons for these choices over thousands of other products and regions are: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x1220, 402 KB) Beschreibung 1994er Château Margaux, Premier Grand Cru Classé Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Château Margaux List of Appellation dOrigine... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x1220, 402 KB) Beschreibung 1994er Château Margaux, Premier Grand Cru Classé Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Château Margaux List of Appellation dOrigine... The vineyard of Château Margaux stands as the producer of one of the worlds greatest and most sought-after red wines. ... First Growth (French Premier Cru) status refers to the greatest wines of the Bordeaux region. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... Luxury cars are often stated to be desirable due to their price, which generates a certain amount of status. ... Bordeaux with sub-wine regions A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France. ... Cult wines are those for which dedicated groups of committed enthusiasts will pay large sums of money. ... A glass of tawny port. ...

  1. They have a proven track record of holding well over time.
  2. Their plateau drinking window (the period for maturity and approachability) is of many, many years, when the taster will be able to enjoy the wine at its best.
  3. There is a record of quality and consensus amongst experts as to the uniqueness of the wines.

Investment in fine wine has attracted a number of fraudsters who play on fine wine's exclusive image and their clients' ignorance of this sector of the wine market.[51] Wine fraud scams often work by charging excessively high prices for the wine, while representing that it is a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. Like any investment, proper research is essential before investing. False labeling is another dishonest practice commonly used. Wine fraud has probably existed since the earliest trading and commerce in wine, but it appears to increase when there is widespread prosperity and the prices of some wines become very high. ... An abstract business cycle The business cycle or economic cycle refers to the ups and downs seen somewhat simultaneously in most parts of an economy. ...


Production

Wine production by country 2005[52]
Rank Country
(with link to wine article)
Production
(tonnes)
1 Flag of France France 5,329,449
2 Flag of Italy Italy 5,056,648
3 Flag of Spain Spain 3,934,140
4 Flag of the United States United States 2,232,000
5 Flag of Argentina Argentina 1,564,000
6 Flag of the People's Republic of China China 1,300,000
7 Flag of Australia Australia 1,274,000
8 Flag of South Africa South Africa 1,157,895
9 Flag of Germany Germany 1,014,700
10 Flag of Chile Chile 788,551
11 Flag of Portugal Portugal 576,500
12 Flag of Romania Romania 575,000

Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator. The world's most southerly vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel,[53] and the most northerly is in Flen, Sweden, just above the 59th parallel.[54] The following is a list of wine producing countries and their volume of wine production for the year 2003 in metric tonnes. ... This list of wine-producing regions catalogues significant growing regions where vineyards are planted. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... The area known as Central Otago in Otago, New Zealand, includes the middle of the region but generally also most of the north-western portion (the Queenstown-Lakes District). ... The South Island The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. ... Flen is a Municipality in Södermanland County, in central Sweden. ...


Exporting countries

The 15 largest exporting nations (2005 figures) – Italy, France, Spain, Australia, Chile, the United States, Germany, South Africa, Portugal, Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria, Hungary, Croatia and Argentina. California produces about 90% of the wine in the United States. In 2000, Great Britain imported more wine from Australia than from France for the first time in history. This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Top ten wine exporting countries in 2005
Rank Country Hectolitres
×1000
1 Flag of Italy Italy 15,100
2 Flag of Spain Spain 14,439
3 Flag of France France 13,900
4 Flag of Australia Australia 7,019
5 Flag of Chile Chile 4,209
6 Flag of the United States United States 3,482
7 Flag of Germany Germany 2,970
8 Flag of South Africa South Africa 2,818
9 Flag of Portugal Portugal 2,800
10 Flag of Moldova Moldova 2,425
TOTAL 78,729
2003 Export market shares
Rank Country Market share
1 Flag of France France 22%
2 Flag of Italy Italy 20%
3 Flag of Spain Spain 16%
4 Flag of Australia Australia 8%
5 Flag of Chile Chile 6%
6 Flag of the United States United States 5%
7 Flag of Portugal Portugal 4%
8 Flag of Germany Germany 4%

Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ...

Uses

Wine yearly consumption, per capita:      less than 1 litre.      from 1 to 7 litres.      from 7 to 15 litres.      from 15 to 30 litres.      More than 30 litres.
Wine yearly consumption, per capita:      less than 1 litre.      from 1 to 7 litres.      from 7 to 15 litres.      from 15 to 30 litres.      More than 30 litres.

Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage, but as a flavor agent (primarily in stocks and braising) in which its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. Red, white and sparkling wines are the most popular, and are also known as light wines, because they only contain approximately 10-14% alcohol. (Alcohol percentages are usually by volume.) The apéritif and dessert wines contain 14-20% alcohol, and are fortified to make them richer and sweeter than the light wines. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 30 KB) Summary Wine yearly consumption, per capita: less than 1 litre. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 30 KB) Summary Wine yearly consumption, per capita: less than 1 litre. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... See the individual entries for: Austrian cuisine British cuisine Bulgarian cuisine Croatian cuisine Czech cuisine Danish cuisine Finnish cuisine French cuisine German cuisine Greek cuisine Hungarian cuisine Italian cuisine Lithuanian cuisine Polish cuisine Romanian cuisine Russian cuisine Spanish cuisine Ukrainian cuisine Categories: Cuisine | European cuisine | Western cuisine | Food and drink... For cuisine, see Cuisine of the Mediterranean. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... For other uses, see Stock (disambiguation). ... Braising (from the French braiser) is cooking with moist heat, typically in a covered pot with a small amount of liquid which results in a particular flavor. ... Sour redirects here. ... Look up Sweet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Campari apéritif. ... Dessert wines (or pudding wines) are sweet wines typically served with dessert, such as Sauternes and Tokaji Aszú. Despite the name, they are often best appreciated alone, or with fruit or bakery sweets. ...


The labels on certain bottles of wine suggest that they need to be set aside for an hour before drinking to breathe, while other wines are recommended to be drunk as soon as they are opened. Decanting is a controversial subject in wine. In addition to aeration, decanting removes some of the bitter sediments from the bottle. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines benefit more from the aeration.[55] Decantation is a process for the separation of mixtures, carefully pouring a solution from a container, leaving the precipitate (sediments) in the bottom of the container. ...


During aeration, the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Wines that are older generally fade (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration.[56] Breathing, however, does not benefit all wines, and should not therefore be taken to the extreme. In general, wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it may be aerated, if at all.


Religious uses

See also: Kosher wine, Christianity and alcohol, and Islam and alcohol

The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. Libations often included wine, and the religious mysteries of Dionysus involved wine as a sacrament of entheogen, a fact denounced by Justin Martyr as a diabolical mockery of Christ: A bottle of Kosher wine, pasteurised to be Yayin Mevushal Kosher wine (Hebrew: ) is wine produced according to Judaisms religious law, specifically, the Jewish dietary laws regarding wine. ... Jesus making wine in The Marriage at Cana, a 14th century fresco from the Visoki Dečani monastery. ... In Islam, Alcohol is forbiden to drink, but is allowed to be used for medical and other purposes. ... Libation scene, Greek red figure cup, c. ... Maened The Dionysian Mysteries probably began as an ancient initiation society, or family of similar societies, centred on a primeval nature god (and his consort), apparently associated with horned animals, serpents and solitary predators (primarily big cats), later known to the Greeks in the eclectic figure of Dionysus. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ...

when they tell that Bacchus, son of Jupiter, was begotten by intercourse with Semele, and that he was the discoverer of the vine; and when they relate, that being torn in pieces, and having died, he rose again, and ascended to heaven; and when they introduce wine into his mysteries, do I not perceive that the devil has imitated the prophecy announced by the patriarch Jacob, and recorded by Moses? Dialogue with Trpypho ch. 64 Jupiter may refer to: Jupiter (god) – a Roman god Jupiter (planet) – a planet Jupiter Symphony – a symphony by Mozart, (Symphony No. ... Stimula redirects here. ...

Wine plays an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. The Kiddush, a blessing said before starting the first and second Shabbat or festival meals and Havdallah, a blessing said after the Shabbat or festival are required to be said over wine if available. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder, it is also required to drink four cups of wine.[57] In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem, the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service.[58] A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Adonai elohaynu melech ha-olam, boray p’ree hagafen" (Praised be the Eternal, Ruler of the universe, who makes the fruit of the vine). Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Shabbat, or Shabbos (Ashkenazic pronunciation) (שבת shabbāṯ, rest), is a day of rest that is observed once a week, from sundown on Friday until nightfall on Saturday, by practitioners of Judaism, as well as by many secular Jews. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... Havdalah, also spelled Habdalah or Havdala, is a Jewish ceremony that formally concludes the Shabbat (weekly day of rest) and Yom Tov (Jewish holidays). ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


In Christianity, wine or grape juice is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist, Lord's Supper, or Communion, which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper when Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me." Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary between denominations, with Roman Catholics believing that the bread and wine are miraculously changed into the real body and blood of Christ. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... For the painting by Leonardo da Vinci, see The Last Supper (Leonardo). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Wine was used in the rite by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in 1869. Methodist minister-turned-dentist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. The substitution of grape juice for wine spread quickly over much of the United States in Protestant rites, although the beverage is usually called wine in accordance with scriptural references. [59] Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice. There remains an ongoing debate between some American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can or should be used in moderation for the Eucharist or as a regular beverage. For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... X-rays can reveal if a person has cavities Dentistry is the practical application of knowledge of dental science (the science of placement, arrangement, function of teeth) to human beings. ... Thomas Bramwell Welch (December 31, 1925 - 1903) the discoverer of the pasteurization process to prevent the fermentation of grape juice. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Concord grapes being cooked down into grape juice for use in making jelly. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination...


The use of wine is forbidden under Islam. Iran used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic revolution in 1979.[60] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Health effects

Red table wine
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 80 kcal   360 kJ
Carbohydrates     2.6 g
- Sugars  0.6 g
Fat 0.0 g
Protein 0.1 g
Alcohol 10.6 g
10.6 g alcohol is 13 vol%.
100 g wine is 100 mL (3.4 fl oz.)
Sugar and alcohol content can vary.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
See also: Alcohol consumption and health

The health effects of wine (and alcohol in general) are the subject of considerable ongoing study.[61] In the USA, a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by '60 Minutes', and other news reports on the French paradox. The French paradox refers to the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France than in the USA despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. Epidemiologists suspect that this difference is attributed to the high consumption of wines by the French, however this suspicion is based on limited scientific evidence. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity, in which he reported his finding that drinking alcohol in moderation was associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking... Health effects, health impacts or health risks are an important consideration in many areas, such as hygiene, pollution studies, workplace safety, nutrition and health sciences in general. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... This article is about the CBS news magazine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ...


Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease.[62] This means that abstainers and heavy drinkers have an elevated risk, whilst moderate drinkers have a lower risk.[63] Population studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective, though the association is considerably stronger for wine. These studies have found a protective effect from both red wine as well as white wine, though evidence from laboratory studies suggests that red wine may possess superior health benefits including prevention of cancer due to the fact red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine due to the production process.[64] The shape of the trend of a country’s trade balance following a devaluation. ...


A chemical called resveratrol is thought to be at least partly responsible for red wines' health benefits, as it has been shown to exert a range of both cardioprotective as well as chemoprotective mechanisms in animal studies.[65] Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection, which includes exposure to yeast during fermentation. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process, it generally contains lower levels of resveratrol.[66] Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols, antioxidants, and flavonoids.[67] Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Fermenting must. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ...


Red wines from South of France (Bordeaux, Cotes du Rhone and Bourgogne) and Sardinia Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins - the compounds in grape seeds responsible for making red wine good for the heart. Wines from France and Sardinia have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels.[68] Proanthocyanidin (also known as OPC, pycno-genol, leukocyanidin and leucoanthocyanin) is a a class of bioflavonoids. ...


A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus.[69] Interestingly, wine has traditionally been used to treat wounds in some parts of the world.[70]


Whilst evidence from both laboratory studies as well as epidemiology (observational studies) suggests wines' cardioprotective effect, no evidence from controlled experiments - of which long-term studies are still ongoing - currently exists to determine the specific effect of wine or other alcohol on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Moreover, excessive consumption of alcohol including wine can cause some diseases including cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism.[71] Also the American Heart Association cautions people "not to start drinking ... if they do not already drink alcohol. Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation".[72] Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ...


Based on the UK unit system for measuring alcoholic content, the average bottle of wine contains 9.4 units.[73]


Sulphites Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. Additionally, many wine producers add sulphur dioxide in order to help preserve the wine. The level of added sulphites varies, and some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content. [74] Sulfites are sulfur-based compounds often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation,) dried fruits, and dried potato products. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...


Sulphites in wine are not a problem for most people, although some people, particularly people with asthma, can experience adverse reactions to them. Sulphur Dioxide is also added to many other foods though, for example in dried apricots and Orange Juice. Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ...


Packaging & Storage

Assorted wine corks
Assorted wine corks
See also: Cork (material), Alternative wine closures, Wine bottle, and Box wine

Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using a cork. Recently a growing number of wine producers have begun sealing their product with alternative closures such as screwcaps or synthetic plastic "corks." Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags, which are typically packaged further within cardboard boxes, similar to the packaging of breakfast cereal. One advantage of boxed-wine is that it can stay fresh for up to a month after opening, while bottled wine will start to oxidize immediately after opening. The contents of boxed wine are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. In addition to being less expensive, alternative closures prevent cork taint, although alternative closures can also cause other types of wine spoilage. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1232, 758 KB) Summary A picture, of corks. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1232, 758 KB) Summary A picture, of corks. ... For other uses, see Cork. ... Vinova synthetic wine closure Another type of wine closure Alternative wine closures are substitutes used in the wine industry for sealing wine bottles in place of traditional cork closures. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A 4 litre cask of Australian red wine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cork. ... A screwcap is a type of closure that is gaining increasing support as an alternative to cork for sealing wine bottles. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A box wine (or wine cask[1]) is a wine packaged in a bag, usually made of aluminium PET film or other plastics, and protected by a box, usually made of standard corrugated cardboard. ... 2,4,6-trichloroanisole Cork taint is a broad term referring to a set of undesirable smells or tastes found in a bottle of wine, especially spoilage that can only be detected after bottling, aging and opening. ...


Wine cellars offer the opportunity to protect alcoholic beverages from potentially harmful external influences, providing darkness and a constant temperature. Wine is a natural, perishable food product. Left exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity, all types of wine, including red, white, sparkling, and fortified, can spoil. When properly stored, wines not only maintain their quality but many actually improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they mature. A Wine cellar is a storage room for wine in bottles or barrels, or more rarely in carboys, amphoras or plastic containers. ...


Professions

  • Cooper: Someone who makes wooden barrels, casks, and other similar wooden objects.
  • Négociant: A wine merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers, and sells them under his own name. Sometimes, this term is simply a synonym for wine merchant.
  • Vintner: A wine merchant or producer.
  • Sommelier: A person in a restaurant who specializes in wine, and is usually in charge of assembling the wine list, staff education and making wine suggestions to customers
  • Winemaker: A person who makes wine. May or may not be formally trained.
  • Garagista: One who makes wine in a garage (or basement, or home, etc.) An amateur wine maker. Also used in a derogatory way, when speaking of small scale operations of recent inception, or without pedigree(ie. small scale winemakers of Bordeaux).
  • Oenologist: Wine scientist or wine chemist, student of oenology. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist, but often instead uses a consultant oenologist
  • Viticulturist: A person who specializes in the science of the grapevines themselves. Can also be someone who manages a vineyard (decides how to prune, how much to irrigate, how to deal with pests, etc.)

Assembly of a barrel in progress A cooper readies, or rounds off, the end of a barrel using a coopers hand adze at the Van Ryn Brandy Cellar near Stellenbosch, South Africa Traditionally, a cooper is someone who makes wooden staved vessels of a conical form, of greater length than... A négociant is a wine merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells the result under its own name. ... The term vintner is applied to wine merchants as well as (erroneously) winemakers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term vintner is applied to wine merchants as well as winemakers. ... The garagistes refers to a group of innovative winemakers in Bordeaux. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... The term vintner is applied to wine merchants as well as winemakers. ... Oenology is the study of wines in general. ... Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) refers to the cultivation of grapes, often for use in the production of wine. ...

Film and television

  • A Good Year, 2006. Ridley Scott directs Russell Crowe in an adaptation of Peter Mayle's novel.
  • Mondovino, USA/France 2004: A documentary film directed by American film maker, Jonathan Nossiter, explaining the impact of globalization on the various wine-producing regions.
  • Sideways, 2004: A comedy/drama film, directed by Alexander Payne, with the tagline: "In search of wine. In search of women. In search of themselves." Wine, particularly Pinot Noir, plays a central role.
  • A Walk in the Clouds 1995, is a love story set in a traditional vineyard showcasing different moments in the production of wine.
  • French Kiss, 1995. Meg Ryan and Kevin Kline act in this romantic comedy. Kline's character wants to have his own vineyard since he comes from a family of winemakers. The character has even made his own aroma sampling kit.
  • Falcon Crest, USA 1981-1990: A CBS primetime soap opera about the fictional Falcon Crest winery and the family who owned it, set in the fictional Tuscany Valley of California. The series was very popular and a wine named Falcon Crest even went on the market.
  • Crush, USA 2007:Produced & Directed by Bret Lyman. A documentary short that explores the 2006 grape harvest and crush in California's wine country. Features Winemaker Richard Bruno.
  • The Judgement of Paris, USA 2008: film currently in production; story based on journalist George M. Taber's account of the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976.
  • Bottle Shock, USA 2008?: film currently in production; story about the birth of the Napa wine industry.
  • Oz & James Great Wine Adventure, UK: "Wine ponce" Oz Clark tries to teach motor head James May about wine. The fist series saw them traveling in a classic Jaguar through the wine regions of France and the second series saw them in a recreational vehicle traveling through California.

A Good Year is a 2006 romantic comedy film set in Provence, in southeastern France. ... Peter Mayle (born 1939) is a British-born author most famous for his series of books detailing life in Provence, France. ... Mondovino (Italian for World of Wine) is a 2004 documentary film written and directed by American film maker Jonathan Nossiter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... Sideways is a 2004 Academy Award-winning and Golden Globe Award-winning comedy/drama film, co-written and directed by Alexander Payne. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... A Walk in the Clouds is a 1996 romance film directed by Alfonso Arau and produced by the Zucker brothers. ... For other uses, see French kiss (disambiguation). ... Kevin Delaney Kline (born October 24, 1947) is an Academy Award- and Tony Award-winning American stage and film actor. ... Falcon Crest is an American primetime television soap opera which aired on the CBS network for nine seasons, from December 4, 1981 to May 17, 1990. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Bret Mathew Lyman (born October 5, 1970) is a film director, producer, and editor. ... Journalist and entrepreneur George M. Taber was a reporter and editor with Time magazine in the United States and Europe for 21 years, working in Brussels, Bonn, Houston, Washington, DC, and New York. ... French wines were generally believed by most people to be the very best wines in the world until 1976. ...

References

  1. ^ Wine, Encyclopedia Britannica online, Retrieved 24 February 2007.
  2. ^ H. Johnson Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 11-16 Simon & Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671791826
  3. ^ Barley Wine, The Brewer's Corner, Retrieved February 24 2007.
  4. ^ George, Rosemary, The Simon & Schuster Pocket Wine Label Decoder, 1989.
  5. ^ Introduction to Wine. 2basnob.com.
  6. ^ 8,000-year-old wine unearthed in Georgia. The Independent. Retrieved on 2003-12-28.
  7. ^ World's Earliest Wine. Archeology, vol. 49 (1996), Retrieved 24 February 2004.
  8. ^ Wine etymology, etymonline.com, Retrieved 24 February 2007.
  9. ^ Bretcher, T., etal, John Enjoys his Glass of Wine - Are there any English Words at all?, eHistLing Vol. 1.
  10. ^ 8,000-year-old wine unearthed in Georgia. The Independent. Retrieved on 2003-12-28.
  11. ^ World's Earliest Wine. Archeology, vol. 49 (1996), Retrieved 24 February 2004.
  12. ^ Verango, Dan. "White wine turns up in King Tutankhamen's tomb", USA Today, 2006-05-29. Retrieved on 2007-09-06. 
  13. ^ Ancient Mashed Grapes Found in Greece Discovery News.
  14. ^ Mashed grapes find re-write history of wine Zeenews
  15. ^ 6500 year old Mashed grapes found
  16. ^ Ancient Mashed Grapes Found in Greece Discovery News.
  17. ^ Caley, Earle (1956). Theophrastis On Stone. Ohio State University. Online version: Gypsum/lime in wine
  18. ^ a b c d Wine Drinking and Making in Antiquity: Historical References on the Role of Gemstones Many classic scientists such as Al Biruni, Theophrastus, Georg Agricola, Albertus Magnus as well as newer authors such as George Frederick Kunz describe the many talismanic, medicinal uses of minerals and wine combined.
  19. ^ year old Mashed grapes found World’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes
  20. ^ Wine Production in China 3000 years ago.
  21. ^ The history of wine in ancient Greece at greekwinemakers.com
  22. ^ a b Introduction to Wine Laboratory Practices and Procedures, Jean L. Jacobson, Springer, p.84
  23. ^ The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Brian Murray Fagan, 1996 Oxford Univ Pr, p.757
  24. ^ Wine: A Scientific Exploration, Merton Sandler, Roger Pinder, CRC Press, p.66
  25. ^ Medieval France: an encyclopedia, William Westcott Kibler, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, p.964
  26. ^ a b R. Phillips A Short History of Wine pg 37 Harper Collins 2000 ISBN 0060937378
  27. ^ R. Phillips A Short History of Wine pg 62-63 Harper Collins 2000 ISBN 0060937378
  28. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources.
  29. ^ J. Robinson Jancis Robinson's Wine Course pg 97 Abbeville Press Publisher 2003 ISBN 0789208830
  30. ^ H. Johnson & J. Robinson The World Atlas of Wine pg 22-23 Mitchell Beazley ISBN 1840003324
  31. ^ M. Citriglia High Alcohol is a Wine Fault... Not a Badge of Honor WineGeeks.com
  32. ^ Wine classification. terroir-france. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  33. ^ Terroir revisited: towards a working definition. wineanorak. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  34. ^ ABOUT GERMAN WINE. German wine society. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  35. ^ German Wine Guide: Wine Laws and Classifications. The Winedoctor. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  36. ^ Land of wines. Wines from Spain. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  37. ^ Wine Classification - by Region or by Wine Type?. Wine Intro. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  38. ^ Towards an Australian Wine Classification. Nicks Wine Merchants. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  39. ^ Langton’s Australian Wine Classification IV. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  40. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica: wine
  41. ^ a b Title 27, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §4.27
  42. ^ A primer on wine vintages Frenchscout.com
  43. ^ Platman, Clive. "WINE: Lovely bubbly", Birmingham Post, 2002-10-02. Retrieved on 2007-10-24. 
  44. ^ "Change to Vintage Date Requirements." Federal Register 70:84 (2 May 2006) p. 25739.
  45. ^ Roman L. Weil, Parker v. Prial: The Death of the Vintage Chart
  46. ^ Major types of wine Frenchscout.com
  47. ^ Brettanomyces Monitoring by Analysis of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol ETS Laboratories Technical Bulletin
  48. ^ Sulfides in Wine ETS Laboratories Technical Bulletin
  49. ^ M. Jose Gomez-Miguez, Manuela Gomez-Miguez, Isabel M. Vicario and Francisco J. Heredia, Assessment of colour and aroma in white wines vinifications: Effects of grape maturity and soil type, Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 79, Issue 3, April 2007, Pages 758-764.
  50. ^ H. Johnson & J. Robinson The World Atlas of Wine pg 44-45 Mitchell Beazley ISBN 1840003324
  51. ^ McCoy, Elin. "Trophy Status and History Trump Taste in Fuss Over Old Wines." Bloomberg.com, March 20, 2007.
  52. ^ FAO production statistics
  53. ^ Courtney, S., New Zealand Wine Regions - Central Otago, 2001, Retrieved 24 February 2007.
  54. ^ Wine History Beer100.com]
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  58. ^ Neusner, Jacob (2000). The Halakhah: An Encyclopaedia of the Law of Judaism. Boston, Massachusetts: BRILL, 82. ISBN 9004116176. 
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  60. ^ Tait, R. End of the vine. The Guardian Unlimited, October 2005.
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  64. ^ Cancer Prevention and Red Wine. MedicineNet. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  65. ^ Beata Olas, Barbara Wachowicz, Joanna Saluk-Juszczak and Tomasz Zielinski, Effect of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, on platelet activation induced by endotoxin or thrombin, Thrombosis Research, Volume 107, Issues 3-4, 15 August 2002, Pages 141-145.
  66. ^ Lucie Fremont, Biological effects of resveratrol, Life Sciences, Volume 66, Issue 8, 14 January 2000, Pages 663-673.
  67. ^ D.W. de Lange, From red wine to polyphenols and back: A journey through the history of the French Paradox, Thrombosis Research, Volume 119, Issue 4, 2007, Pages 403-406.
  68. ^ Corder, R.; W. Mullen, N. Q. Khan, S. C. Marks, E. G. Wood, M. J. Carrier and A. Crozier. "Oenology: Red wine procyanidins and vascular health". Nature 444 (566). doi:10.1038/444566a. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. 
  69. ^ Daglia, M.; A. Papetti, P. Grisoli, C. Aceti, C. Dacarro, and G. Gazzani (2007). "Antibacterial Activity of Red and White Wine against Oral Streptococci". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (13). Retrieved on 2007-07-17. .
  70. ^ Wine has anti-bacterial properties
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Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Georg Agricola Georgius Agricola (March 24, 1494 – November 21, 1555) was a German scholar and man of science. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... George Frederick Kunz (September 29, 1856 – June 29, 1932) was an American mineralogist. ... Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Birmingham Post was originally started under the name Daily Post in Birmingham, England in 1857 by John Frederick Feeney. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with The Straits Times, the Singaporean newspaper. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Batmanglij, Najmieh (2006). From Persia to Napa: Wine at the Persian Table. Washington, DC: Mage Publishers. ISBN 1-933823-00-3. 
  • Edell, M.D., Dean (1999). Eat, Drink and be Merry: America’s Doctor Tells You Why the Health Experts are Wrong. NY: HarperCollins, 191-192. 
  • Stengel, Kilien (2007). Quiz of wine. Dunod. 
  • Foulkes, Christopher (2001). Larousse Encyclopedia of Wine. Larousse. ISBN 2-03-585013-4. 
  • Johnson, Hugh (2003). Hugh Johnson's Wine Companion, 5th edition, Mitchell Beazley. “The Encyclopaedia of Wines, Vineyards and Winemakers” 
  • McCarthy, Ed; Mary Ewing-Mulligan, Piero Antinori (2006). Wine for Dummies. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-470-04579-5. 
  • Stengel, Kilien (2007). Oenologie crus des vins. Villette. ISBN 978-2-86547-080-8. 
  • MacNeil, Karen (2001). The Wine Bible. Workman. ISBN 1-56305-434-5. 
  • Nicholson, Paul T; I. Shaw (2000). Ancient Egyptian materials and technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45257-0. “Grapes and wine in ancient Egypt; includes critique of chemical evidence for wine residues.” 
  • Pigott, Stuart. A Grape by Grape Visual Guide to the Contemporary Wine World. Mitchell Beazley. 
  • Robinson, Jancis (2006). The Oxford Companion to Wine, 3rd edition, Oxford: OUP. ISBN 0-19-860990-6. 
  • Taber, George M. (2005). Judgment of Paris: California vs. France and the Historic 1976 Paris Tasting the Revolutionized Wine. NY: Scribner. 
  • Zraly, Kevin (2006). Windows on the World Complete Wine Course. Sterling. ISBN 1-4027-3928-1. 
  • Zohary, Daniel; Maria Hopf (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World. Oxford: OUP. ISBN 0-19-850356-3. “Authoritative source on evolution and domestication of the grapevine.” 

Najmieh Batmanglij at the farmers market in Dupont Circle, Washington D.C. Introducing people to the pleasures of Persian cuisine has been a lifelong mission for Najmieh Batmanglij. ... Kilien Stengel, born in 1972 in Nevers (France), is a French gastronomic author, and a teacher of gastronomy at the Académie dOrléans-Tours[1]. Aide-mémoire de la gastronomie en France, Editions BPI, 2007. ... Hugh S. Johnson on the cover of Time Hugh Samuel Johnson (1882 - 1942) was an American soldier and public administrator. ... Jancis Mary Robinson (born in Cumbria on April 22, 1950) is a British wine writer and journalist. ... Journalist and entrepreneur George M. Taber was a reporter and editor with Time magazine in the United States and Europe for 21 years, working in Brussels, Bonn, Houston, Washington, DC, and New York. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Wine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6407 words)
Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the juice of fruits, usually grapes.
Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer.
Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex.
Wine (software) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1268 words)
Wine is free software, released under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL).
The Wine project originally released Wine under the same MIT License as the X Window System, but owing to concern about proprietary versions of Wine not contributing their changes back to the core project, work as of March 2002 has used the LGPL for its licensing.
The Wine developers released the first beta version of Wine (version 0.9) on October 25, 2005 after 12 years of development.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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