FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Windows Registry

The Windows registry is a directory which stores settings and options for the operating system for Microsoft Windows 32-bit versions, 64-bit versions and Windows Mobile. It contains information and settings for all the hardware, operating system software, most non-operating system software, users, preferences of the PC, etc. Whenever a user makes changes to Control Panel settings, file associations, system policies, or installed software, the changes are reflected and stored in the registry. The registry also provides a window into the operation of the kernel, exposing runtime information such as performance counters and currently active hardware. This use of registry mechanism is conceptually similar to the way that Sysfs and procfs expose runtime information through the file system (traditionally viewed as a place for permanent storage), though the information made available by each of them differs tremendously. The word directory is used in computing and telephony meaning a repository or database of information. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... “Windows” redirects here. ... Windows Mobile is a compact operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 API. Devices which run Windows Mobile include Pocket PCs, Smartphones, and Portable Media Centers. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals. ... Control Panel in Windows Vista Control Panel in Windows XP Classic View of the Control Panel in Windows XP Default View of the Control Panel in Windows Me Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings... File associations are what the Microsoft Windows operating system uses to open a file with the correct program. ... // Installation (or setup) of a program (including drivers) is the act and the effect of putting the program in a computer system so that it can be executed. ... Sysfs is a virtual file system provided by the 2. ... On Unix-like computer systems, procfs is short for process filesystem: a pseudo-filesystem which is used to access kernel information about processes. ...


The Windows registry was introduced to tidy up the profusion of per-program INI files that had previously been used to store configuration settings for Windows programs.[1] These files tended to be scattered all over the system, which made them difficult to track. An initialization file, or INI file, is a configuration file that contains configuration data for Microsoft Windows based applications. ...

Contents

Structure

Keys and Values

The registry contains two basic kinds of elements: keys and values.


Registry Keys are similar to folders - in addition to values, each key can contain subkeys, which may contain further subkeys, and so on. Keys are referenced with a syntax similar to Windows' path names, using backslashes to indicate levels of hierarchy. E.g. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftwareMicrosoftWindows refers to the subkey "Windows" of the subkey "Microsoft" of the subkey "Software" of the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE key.


Registry Values are name/data pairs stored within keys. Values are referenced separately from keys. Value names can contain backslashes which would lead to ambiguities were they referred to like paths. The Windows API functions that query and manipulate registry values take value names separately from the key path and/or handle that identifies the parent key.


The terminology is somewhat misleading, as the values are similar to an associative array, where standard terminology would refer to the name part of the value as a "key". The terms are a holdout from the 16-bit registry in Windows 3, in which keys could not contain arbitrary name/data pairs, but rather contained only one unnamed value (which had to be a string). In this sense, the entire registry was like an associative array where the keys (in both the registry sense and dictionary sense) formed a hierarchy, and the values were all strings. When the 32-bit registry was created, so was the additional capability of creating multiple named values per key, and the meaning of the names were somewhat distorted[2]. An associative array (also map, hash, dictionary, finite map, lookup table, and in query-processing an index or index file) is an abstract data type composed of a collection of keys and a collection of values, where each key is associated with one value. ...


There are a number of different types of values:

List of Registry Value Types
0 REG_NONE No type
1 REG_SZ A constant string value
2 REG_EXPAND_SZ An "expandable" string value that can contain environment variables
3 REG_BINARY Binary data (any arbitrary data)
4 REG_DWORD/REG_DWORD_LITTLE_ENDIAN A DWORD value, a 32-bit unsigned integer (numbers between 0 and 4,294,967,295 [232 – 1]) (little-endian)
5 REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN A DWORD value, a 32-bit unsigned integer (numbers between 0 and 4,294,967,295 [232 – 1]) (big-endian)
6 REG_LINK symbolic link (UNICODE)
7 REG_MULTI_SZ A multi-string value, which is an array of strings
8 REG_RESOURCE_LIST Resource list
9 REG_FULL_RESOURCE_DESCRIPTOR Resource descriptor
10 REG_RESOURCE_REQUIREMENTS_LIST Resource Requirements List
11 REG_QWORD/REG_QWORD_LITTLE_ENDIAN A QWORD value, a 64-bit integer (either big- or little-endian, or unspecified)

In computer science, a dword is a unit of data that is twice the size of a word and half the size of a qword. ... Signedness is a property of an integer number used by a compiler to indicate if variables of a numeric type are capable of storing both positive and negative numbers, or just positive. ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ... In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ... In computer science, a dword is a unit of data that is twice the size of a word and half the size of a qword. ... Signedness is a property of an integer number used by a compiler to indicate if variables of a numeric type are capable of storing both positive and negative numbers, or just positive. ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ... In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ... In computer science, a qword (quadruple word) is a unit of data that is twice the size of a dword or four times the size of a word. ...

Hives

The Registry is split into a number of logical sections, or "hives".[3] Hives are generally named by their Windows API defintions, which all begin "HKEY". They are abbreviated to a three- or four-letter short name starting with "HK" (e.g. HKCU and HKLM). The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is the name given by Microsoft to the core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... API and Api redirect here. ...


The HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE and HKEY_CURRENT_USER nodes have a similar structure to each other; applications typically look up their settings by first checking for them in "HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareVendor's nameApplication's nameVersionSetting name", and if the setting is not found looking instead in the same location under the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE key. When writing settings back, the reverse approach is used — HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE is written first, but if that cannot be written to (which is usually the case if the logged-in user is not an administrator), the setting is stored in HKEY_CURRENT_USER instead.


HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT

Abbreviated HKCR, HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT stores information about registered applications, including associations from file extensions and OLE object class ids to the applications used to handle these items. On Windows 2000 and above, HKCR is a compilation of HKCUSoftwareClasses and HKLMSoftwareClasses. If a given value exists in both of the subkeys above, the one in HKCUSoftwareClasses is used.[4] Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) is a technology that allows embedding and linking to documents and other objects, developed by Microsoft. ...


HKEY_CURRENT_USER

Abbreviated HKCU, HKEY_CURRENT_USER stores settings that are specific to the currently logged-in user. The HKCU key is a link to the subkey of HKEY_USERS that corresponds to the user; the same information is reflected in both locations. On Windows-NT based systems, each users' settings are stored in their own files called NTUSER.DAT and USRCLASS.DAT inside their own documents and settings subfolder.


HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE

Abbreviated HKLM, HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE stores settings that are general to all users on the computer. On NT-based versions of windows the four subkeys, SAM, SECURITY, SOFTWARE and SYSTEM are found within their respective files located in the %SystemRoot%System32Config folder. The fifth Subkey HARDWARE, is volatile and is created on each windows boot and as such is not stored in a file. Information about system hardware drivers and services are located under the SYSTEM subkey, whilst the SOFTWARE subkey contains software and windows settings.


HKEY_USERS

Abbreviated HKU, HKEY_USERS contains subkeys corresponding to the HKEY_CURRENT_USER keys for each user registered on the machine.


HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG

Abbreviated HKCC, HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG contains information gathered at runtime; information stored in this key is not permanently stored on disk, but rather regenerated at boot time.


HKEY_PERFORMANCE_DATA

This key provides runtime information into performance data provided by either the NT kernel itself or other programs that provide performance data. This key is not displayed in the Registry Editor, but it is visible through the registry functions in the Windows API.


Editing

Manual editing

The Registry Editor in Windows Vista
The Registry Editor in Windows Vista
Windows 3.11 Registry Editor
Windows 3.11 Registry Editor

The registry can be edited manually in Microsoft Windows by running regedit.exe or regedt32.exe in the Windows directory. However, careless registry editing can cause irreversible damage. Thus, performing back-up for registry is highly recommended. Many optimization and "hacking" tools are available to modify this portion of the Windows operating system; it is preferable not to use them unless one has a knowledge of registry workings or wishes to learn more about the registry. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 784 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (992 × 759 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/png) A screenshot of the Registry Editor in Windows Vista. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 784 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (992 × 759 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/png) A screenshot of the Registry Editor in Windows Vista. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Image File history File links Taken with asssistance of Bochs by User:Djegan. ... Image File history File links Taken with asssistance of Bochs by User:Djegan. ... This article is about computer hacking. ...


A simple implementation of the current registry tool appeared in Windows 3.x, called the "Registration Info Editor" or "Registration Editor". This was basically just a database of applications used to edit embedded OLE objects in documents. The Windows 3. ... This article is about computing. ... Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) is a technology that allows embedding and linking to documents and other objects, developed by Microsoft. ...


Windows NT introduced permissions for Registry editing. Windows NT 4 and Windows 2000 were distributed with both the Windows 9x REGEDIT.EXE program and Windows NT 3.x's REGEDT32.EXE program. There are several differences between the two editors on these platforms: Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ...

  • REGEDIT.EXE had a left-side tree view that began at "My Computer" and listed all loaded hives. REGEDT32.EXE had a left-side tree view, but each hive had its own window, so the tree displayed only keys.
  • REGEDIT.EXE represented the three components of a value (its name, type, and data) as separate columns of a table. REGEDT32.EXE represented them as a list of strings.
  • REGEDIT.EXE supported right-clicking of entries in a tree view to adjust properties and other settings. REGEDT32.EXE required all actions to be performed from the top menu bar.
  • REGEDIT.EXE supported searching for key names, values, or data throughout the entire registry, whereas REGEDT32.EXE only supported searching for key names in one hive at a time.
  • Because REGEDIT.EXE was directly ported from Windows 95, it did not support permission editing (permissions do not exist on Windows 9x). Therefore, the only way to access the full functionality of an NT registry was with REGEDT32.EXE.
  • REGEDIT.EXE only supported string (REG_SZ), binary (REG_BINARY), and DWORD (REG_DWORD) values. REGEDT32.EXE supports those, plus expandable string (REG_EXPAND_SZ) and multi-string (REG_MULTI_SZ). Attempting to edit unsupported key types with REGEDIT.EXE on Windows 2000 or Windows NT 4 will result in conversion to a supported type that cannot be reversed.[5]

Windows XP was the first system to integrate these two programs into one, adopting the old REGEDIT.EXE interface and adding the REGEDT32.EXE functionality. The differences listed above are not applicable on Windows XP and newer systems; REGEDIT.EXE is the improved editor, and REGEDT32.EXE is simply a stub that invokes REGEDIT.EXE. Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... A method stub or simply stub in software development is a piece of code used to stand in for some other programming functionality. ...


Command line editing

The registry can be manipulated from the command line with the reg.exe utility. It is included in Windows XP and Windows Vista and can be downloaded separately for previous versions. An alternative location are the Resource Kit CD's or the original Installation CD of Windows. A command line interface or CLI is a method of interacting with a computer by giving it lines of textual commands (that is, a sequence of characters) either from keyboard input or from a script. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ...

 reg.exe Operation [Parameter List] 
 Operation [QUERY|ADD|DELETE|COPY|SAVE|LOAD|UNLOAD|RESTORE|COMPARE|EXPORT|IMPORT] 

Also, a .reg file (a text-based human-readable file format for storing portions of the registry) can be imported from the command line with the following command:

 regedit.exe /s file 

The /s means the file will be silent merged to the Registry. If the /s parameter is omitted the user will be asked to confirm the operation. In Windows 98 and Windows 95 the /s switch also caused regedit.exe to ignore the setting in the registry that allows administrators to disable it. When using the /s switch Regedit does not return an appropriate return code if the operation fails, unlike reg.exe which does. This makes it hard to script, however a possible workaround is to add the following lines into your batch file: Wikibooks has more about this subject: Guide to Windows commands In MS-DOS, OS/2 and Windows, a batch file is a text file containing a series of commands intended to be executed by the command interpreter. ...

 regedit /s file.reg regedit /e test.reg "key" if not exist test.reg goto REGERROR del test.reg 

The default association for .reg files in many versions of Microsoft Windows, starting with Windows 98 does require the user to confirm the merging to avoid user mistake. “Windows” redirects here. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ...


Registry permissions can be manipulated through the command line using the SubInACL.exe tool. The permissions on the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWARE key can be displayed using:

 subinacl /keyreg HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINEsoftware /display 

To set the owner of the key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINEsoftware and all of its subkeys to Administrator:

 subinacl /keyreg HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINEsoftware /setowner=Administrator subinacl /subkeyreg HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINEsoftware /setowner=Administrator 

To grant full access rights to the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINEsoftware key to Administrator:

 subinacl /keyreg HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINEsoftware /grant=Administrator=F 

Programs or scripts

The registry can be edited through the APIs of the Advanced Windows 32 Base API Library (advapi32.dll).[6]

List of Registry API functions
RegCloseKey RegOpenKey RegConnectRegistry RegOpenKeyEx
RegCreateKey RegQueryInfoKey RegCreateKeyEx RegQueryMultipleValues
RegDeleteKey RegQueryValue RegDeleteValue RegQueryValueEx
RegEnumKey RegReplaceKey RegEnumKeyEx RegRestoreKey
RegEnumValue RegSaveKey RegFlushKey RegSetKeySecurity
RegGetKeySecurity RegSetValue RegLoadKey RegSetValueEx
RegNotifyChangeKeyValue RegUnLoadKey

Some programming languages, like Visual Basic, offer built-in runtime library functions that enable programs to store settings in the registry. Another way is to use the Windows Support Tool Reg.exe by executing it from code.[7] This article is about the Visual Basic language shipping with Microsoft Visual Studio 6. ... Windows Support Tool is a utility program for Microsoft Windows available from its installation CD or from backup tools provided with some Windows packages. ...


Many scripting languages such as Perl (with Win32::TieRegistry) and VBScript also enable registry editing from scripts. Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... VBScript (short for Visual Basic Scripting Edition) is an Active Scripting language developed by Microsoft. ...


Locations

The Registry is stored in several files; depending upon the version of Windows, there will be different files and different locations for these files, but they are all on the local machine, except for the Ntuser.dat files. There is one such file per user that contains the information in HKEY_CURRENT_USER; it may be placed on another computer to allow for roaming profiles. The policy file, which is usually stored on a server in the local network, may also be located remotely. If a computer is using Windows Family Server (NT/2000 and later) on a network, users can store their profiles on the server. ...


Windows NT, 2000, XP, Server 2003, and Vista

The following Registry files are stored in %SystemRoot%System32Config:

  • Sam – HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESAM
  • Security – HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESECURITY
  • Software – HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWARE
  • System – HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEM
  • Default – HKEY_USERS.DEFAULT
  • Userdiff - Not associated with a hive. Used only when upgrading operating systems.[8]

The following files are stored in each user's profile folder:

  • %UserProfile%Ntuser.dat – HKEY_USERS<User SID> (linked to by HKEY_CURRENT_USER)
  • %UserProfile%Local SettingsApplication DataMicrosoftWindowsUsrclass.dat (path is localized) – HKEY_USERS<User SID>_Classes (HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareClasses)

Windows 95, 98, and Me

The registry files are named USER.DAT and SYSTEM.DAT and are stored in the %WINDIR% directory. In Windows Me, Classes.dat was added. Also, each user profile (if profiles are enabled) has its own USER.DAT in profile's directory.


Windows 3.11

The registry file is called Reg.dat and is stored in the C:WINDOWS directory.


Policy files

Since Windows 95, administrators can use a special file to be merged into the registry, a policy file. The policy file allows administrators to prevent non-administrator users from changing registry settings like, for instance, the security level of IE and the desktop background wallpaper. The policy file is primarily used in a business with a large number of computers where the business needs to be protected from the users and the users need to be protected from themselves.


The default extension for the policy file is .pol. The policy file filters the settings it enforces by user and by group (a "group" is a defined set of users). To do that the policy file merges into the registry, preventing users from circumventing it by simply changing back the settings. The policy file is usually distributed through a LAN, but can be placed on the local computer.


Policy file editor

The policy file is created by a free tool by Microsoft that goes by the filename poledit.exe for Windows 95/Windows 98 and with a computer management module for NT-based systems. The module will not work in Windows XP Home Edition, but it does work in the Professional edition. The editor requires administrative permissions to be run on systems that uses permissions. The editor can also directly change the current registry settings of the local computer and if the remote registry service is installed and started on another computer it can also change the registry on that computer. The policy editor loads the settings it can change from .adm files, of which one is included, that contains the settings the Windows shell provides. The .adm file is plain text and supports easy localisation by allowing all the strings to be stored in one place. The policy editor has been renamed to Group Policies in newer versions of Windows.


Advantages

Changing from having one or more INI files per program to one centralised registry has its good points: An initialization file, or INI file, is a configuration file that contains configuration data for Microsoft Windows based applications. ...

  • The registry keeps machine configuration separate from user configuration. When a user logs into a Windows NT/2000/XP/Server 2003 computer, the user-based registry settings are loaded from a different path than the system wide settings. This allows programs to more easily keep per-user configuration, as they can just work with the "current user" key, whereas in the past they tended to just keep system-wide per-program settings.
  • Group Policy allows administrators on a Windows-based computer network to centrally manage program and policy settings. Part of this involves being able to set what an entry in the registry will be for all the computers on the network, and affect nearly any installed program — something almost impossible with per-program configuration files each with custom layouts, stored in dispersed locations.
  • Because the registry is accessed through a special API, it is available to scripts and remote management using WMI. Each script does not have to be customised for every application's unique configuration file layouts and restrictions.
  • The registry can be accessed as one item over a network connection for remote management/support, including from scripts, using the standard API.
  • It can be backed up more easily, in that it is just a small number of files in specific locations.
  • Portions of settings like any subset of an application configuration can be saved in a text-based .REG file, which can be edited with any text editor later. .REG files can easily be merged back into the registry both by unattended batch file or by the user just double-clicking on the file without harming any setting that is not explicitly stated in the .REG file. This is very useful for administrators and support personnel who want to preset or preconfigure only a few options like approving the EULA of a certain application.
  • Since accessing the registry does not require parsing, it can be read from and written to more quickly than a text file can be.
  • Registry changes and readings can be tracked via a tool like Winternals' RegMon on value level. This is a big advantage for generating scripts in networks as well as debugging problems.
  • Registry keys are independent of the Windows language, the Windows installation drive and path and even the Windows versions as such. So support personnel can easily give out one set of instructions, without having to handle these things, unlike ,for example, files in the user profile, which can be on different paths on each installation.
  • The registry is constructed as a database, and offers DB-like features such as atomic updates. If two processes attempt to update the same registry value at the same time, one process's change will precede the other's, so one will only last a short time until the second gets written. With changes in a file system, such race conditions can result in interleaved data that doesn't match either attempted update. Windows Vista provides transactional updates to the registry, so the atomicity guarantees can be extended across multiple key and/or value changes, which traditional commit-abort semantics. (Note that NTFS provides such support for the file system as well, so the same guarantees could be obtained with traditional configuration files.)

Local Group Policy Editor in Windows XP Media Center Edition Group policy is a feature of Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems that provides centralized management and configuration of computers and remote users in an Active Directory environment. ... Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is a set of extensions to the Windows Driver Model that provides an operating system interface through which instrumented components provide information and notification. ... A software license is a type of proprietary or gratiuitious license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software &#8212; sometimes called an End User License Agreement (EULA) &#8212; that specifies the perimeters of the permission granted by the owner to the... Current logo of Winternals. ...

Disadvantages

However, the centralized Registry introduces some problems as well:

  • The HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE part is a single point of failure — damage to the Registry can render a Windows system unbootable, in extreme cases to a point that cannot be fixed, and requires a full reinstall of Windows. Because of this potential, Windows stores two copies of the registry files, and will load the backup copies if the primary files fail.
  • The registry does not document itself in the same way a configuration file can, since it does not contain comments.
  • Restoring parts of the registry is hard because the user cannot easily extract data from backed up registry files. Offline reading and manipulation of the registry (for example from a parallel installed Windows or a boot CD) is not trivial (but not impossible).
  • Any application that does not uninstall properly, or does not have an uninstaller, can leave entries in the registry. In some cases this leads to performance or even stability problems, but only if the application registers itself as a class in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT. (Note that user settings usually remain in the registry, which is done by design for three reasons: first, the user might be on a Windows domain with server-based profiles, where the settings move with the user to other computers. Uninstalling the application on one computer does not mean the user does not want to use the program on some other computer on the domain. Second, the uninstall process may only be able to modify the current user's settings anyway, so may be unable to remove entries in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. Third, if the program is installed again later, the user's previous settings will remain. In any case, unused keys in HKCU have negligible impact on system performance.)
  • Since at least 1998,[9] pages at Microsoft Support relating to editing the registry include the disclaimer that the use of the Registry Editor should be done at one's own risk, underlining the severity of a corrupt registry.
  • Applications that make use of the registry to store and retrieve their settings are not conducive for use on portable devices used to carry applications from one system to another. Since the settings are in the registry, and the registry is not on the portable device along with the application, any setting changes are lost and must be re-entered for each new system. A similar problem presents itself if the user gets a new computer or needs to reinstall Windows itself; it is difficult to isolate the portions of the registry that should be moved so that the user can retain their settings.

Reliable system design is the design of systems with high levels of reliability and availability. ...

Windows 9x OS

On Windows 9x computers, an older installation can have a very large registry that slows down the computer's startup and can make the computer unstable. This has led to frequent criticisms that the registry leads to instability. However, as the on-disc structure of the registry is entirely different on the NT line of Operating Systems (including Windows XP and Vista) than Windows 9x series OS,[1] slowdown due to registry bloat now occurs much less frequently.


Alternatives in other operating systems

Other systems use separate configuration files for separate application subsystems, but group them together for ease of management. For instance, system-wide configuration files (information which would appear in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE on Windows) are traditionally stored in files in /etc/ and its subdirectories. Per-user information (information that would be in HKEY_CURRENT_USER) is stored in hidden directories and files (that start with a period) within the user's home directory.


Applications running on Apple Inc.'s Mac OS X operating system typically store settings in property list files which are usually stored in each user's Library folder. An advantage of this is that corruption to one of these files will normally only affect a single application, whereas corruption of one of the Registry hives can have system-wide effects. However, Mac OS X also has a system database called NetInfo that stores system-wide settings such as user account details and network configuration. Apple Inc. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... In the Mac OS X Cocoa, NeXTSTEP, and GNUstep programming frameworks, property list files are files that store serialized objects. ... NetInfo is the system configuration database in NEXTSTEP and Mac OS X. NetInfo replaces most of the Unix system configuration files (they are still present for running the machine in single user mode), most Unix APIs wrap around NetInfo instead. ...


RISC OS also allows applications to be copied into directories easily, as opposed to the separate installation program that typifies Windows applications. If one wishes to remove the application, it is possible to simply delete the folder belonging to the application.[10] This is possible because RISC OS does not support multi-user environments with different settings for each user. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


IBM AIX (a Unix derivant) uses a registry component called Object Data Manager (ODM). The ODM is used to store information about system and device configuration. An extensive set of tools and utilities provides users with means of extending, checking, correcting the ODM database. The ODM stores its information in several files, default location is /etc/objrepos.


The GNOME desktop environment uses a registry-like interface called GConf for storing configuration settings for the desktop and applications. However, in GConf, all application settings are stored in separate files, thereby eliminating a single point of failure. This article is about the mythical creature. ... GConf is a system used by the GNOME desktop environment for storing configuration settings for the desktop and applications. ... Reliable system design is the design of systems with high levels of reliability and availability. ...


The Elektra Initiative provides an alternative back-end for text configuration files for the Linux operating system, similar to the registry. The Elektra Initiative provides an alternative back-end for text configuration files for the GNU/Linux operating system. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


See also

A registry cleaner is a type of program for Microsoft Windows operating system designed to remove redundant or unwanted items from the Windows registry. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Windows 2000 Registry: Latest Features and APIs Provide the Power to Customize and Extend Your Apps. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  2. ^ Chen, R. The Old New Thing, Addison-Wesley, 2007, p. 322.
  3. ^ Registry hives. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  4. ^ Description of the Microsoft Windows registry. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  5. ^ Microsoft's Windows 2000 Security Hardening Guide version 1.3, published May 15, 2003
  6. ^ Reading and Writing Registry Values with Visual Basic. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  7. ^ REG command in Windows XP. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  8. ^ http://www.microsoft.com/technet/archive/ntwrkstn/reskit/23_regov.mspx?mfr=true
  9. ^ Are Windows NT and WIndows 95 Unsupportable?. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  10. ^ RISC OS tour. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mark Russinovich is a software engineer and author who works for Microsoft as a Technical fellow. ... Microsoft Press is the publishing arm of Microsoft, usually releasing books dealing with various current Microsoft technologies. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

  Results from FactBites:
 
Annoyances.org - Introduction to the Registry (0 words)
The Registry is a database of nearly all the settings for Windows and your installed applications.
Note that the Registry is intended to be a little intimidating, because it is possible to screw up your entire system if you don't know what you're doing.
The Registry Editor (regedit.exe) is included with Windows to enable you to view and edit the contents of the Registry.
Backing Up and Restoring the Windows XP Registry (5305 words)
However, what the Registry Hive Files format does is create an image perfect view of the selected key and allow you to import it back into the registry to ensure any problematic changes you made are eliminated.
If you do a lot of registry tweaking and modification of existing values this is an excellent method because it provides a visual record of any modifications that have been made to the registry values.
In effect the prefix hides the registry key from XP so you can see what effect deleting the key would have while still giving you a method of restoring the key that was hidden by the prefix.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m