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Encyclopedia > Windows NT
Windows NT
Company/developer: Microsoft
Source model: Closed source / Shared source
Kernel type: Hybrid kernel
Default user interface: Graphical User Interface
License: Microsoft EULA
Working state: Current

Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. It was originally designed to be a powerful high-level-language-based, processor-independent, multiprocessing, multiuser operating system with features comparable to Unix. It was intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS. NT was the first fully 32-bit version of Windows, whereas its consumer-oriented counterparts, Windows 3.x and Windows 9x, were 16-bit/32-bit hybrids. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008 (beta), and Windows Home Server are the latest versions of Windows, and are based upon the original Windows NT system (as was Windows 2000), although they are not branded as Windows NT releases. Image File history File links NT4_logo. ... It has been suggested that software publisher be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... Shared source is Microsoft’s framework for sharing computer program source code with individuals and organizations, which has been imitated by other companies such as RISC OS Open Limited. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 2007 is the sixth month of that year. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called widgets, along with text labels or text navigation to represent the information and actions available to... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... A software license is a type of proprietary or gratiuitious license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software — sometimes called an End User License Agreement (EULA) — that specifies the perimeters of the permission granted by the owner to the... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... The Windows 3. ... Windows 9x is a term used to describe the DOS-based operating systems Windows 95 and Windows 98, similar versions of Microsoft Windows which were produced in the 1990s. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2008 is the name of the next server operating system from Microsoft. ... Windows Home Server is an upcoming operating system from Microsoft. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ...

Contents

Major features

A main design goal of NT was hardware and software portability. Versions of NT were available for a variety of processor architectures, namely Intel IA-32, MIPS, Alpha, PowerPC, SPARC, Intel i860, and Intel i960. Broad software compatibility was achieved with support for several API "personalities", including the primary Win32 API and limited support for POSIX and OS/2 APIs. For secure multiuser server solutions, NT supported per-object (file, function, and role) access control lists allowing a rich set of security permissions to be applied to systems and services. NT supported Windows network protocols, inheriting the previous OS/2 LAN Manager networking, as well as Unix's TCP/IP networking (for which Microsoft would implement a TCP/IP stack derived from the BSD Unix stack). Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... The Intel i860 (also 80860, and code named N10) was a RISC microprocessor from Intel, first released in 1989. ... Intels i960 (or 80960) was a RISC-based microprocessor design that became popular during the early 1990s as an embedded microcontroller, becoming a best-selling CPU in that field, along with the competing AMD 29000. ... API and Api redirect here. ... Windows API is a set of APIs, (application programming interfaces) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In computer security, an access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. ... The LAN Manager was an advanced Network Operating System (NOS) from Microsoft developed in cooperation with 3COM. It is based on the Operating System/2 (OS/2) and NetBEUI protocol similar to its predecessors MS-NET for MS-DOS and Xenix-NET for MS-Xenix. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the Unix derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s. ...


Windows NT 3.1 was the first version of Windows to utilize 32-bit "flat" virtual memory addressing on 32-bit processors. Its companion product, Windows 3.1, used segmented addressing and switches from 16-bit to 32-bit addressing in pages.


Windows NT 3.1 featured a core kernel providing a system API, running in supervisor mode, and a set of user-space environments with their own APIs which included the new Win32 environment, an OS/2 1.3 text-mode environment and a POSIX environment. The full preemptive multitasking kernel could interrupt running tasks to schedule other tasks, without relying on user programs to voluntarily give up control of the CPU, as in Windows 3.1. In computer terms, supervisor mode is a hardware-mediated flag which can be changed by code running in system-level software. ... Pre-emptive multitasking is a form of multitasking in which processes are not allowed to take an indefinitely long time to complete execution in the CPU. Each process, in turn, is granted a portion of CPU time (usually called a time slice, on the order of milliseconds). ...


Notably, in Windows NT 3.x, several I/O driver subsystems, such as video and printing, were user-mode subsystems. In Windows NT 4, the video, server and printer spooler subsystems were integrated into the kernel. Windows NT's first GUI was strongly influenced by (and programmatically compatible with) that from Windows 3.1; Windows NT 4's interface was redesigned to match that of the brand new Windows 95, moving from the Program Manager to the Start Menu/Taskbar design. For information on the company called UserLand, see UserLand Software. ... A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called widgets, along with text labels or text navigation to represent the information and actions available to... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Program Manager in Windows 3. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In computing, the taskbar is a term for the application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications in Microsoft Windows 95 and later operating systems. ...


NTFS, a journaled, secure file system, was created for NT. NT also allows for other installable file systems, and with versions 3.1 and 3.51, NT could also be installed on DOS's FAT or OS/2's HPFS file systems. Later versions could be installed on a FAT partition gaining speed at the expense of security, but this option is no longer present in Windows Vista. NTFS is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... HPFS or High Performance File System is a file system created specifically for the OS/2 operating system to improve upon the limitations of the FAT file system. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ...


Development

When development started in November 1988, Windows NT (using protected mode) was to be known as OS/2 3.0, the third version of the operating system developed jointly by Microsoft and IBM. In addition to working on three versions of OS/2, Microsoft continued parallel development of the DOS-based and less resource-demanding Windows environment (using real mode). When Windows 3.0 was released in May 1990, it was so successful that Microsoft decided to change the primary application programming interface for the still unreleased NT OS/2 (as it was then known) from an extended OS/2 API to an extended Windows API. This decision caused tension between Microsoft and IBM and the collaboration ultimately fell apart. IBM continued OS/2 development alone while Microsoft continued work on the newly renamed Windows NT. Though neither operating system would be as immediately popular as Microsoft's DOS or Windows products, Windows NT would eventually be far more successful than OS/2. Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... A resource, also referred to as system resource, is any physical or virtual system component of a computer system with limited availability. ... Real mode (also called real address mode in Intels manuals) is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. ... Windows 3. ... API and Api redirect here. ... The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is the name given by Microsoft to the core set of application programming interfaces (APIs) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. ...


Microsoft hired a group of developers from Digital Equipment Corporation led by Dave Cutler to build Windows NT, and many elements of the design reflect earlier DEC experience with Cutler's VMS and RSX-11. The operating system was designed to run on multiple instruction set architectures and multiple hardware platforms within each architecture. The platform dependencies are largely hidden from the rest of the system by a kernel mode module called the HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer). The DEC logo Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... David Neil Cutler, Sr. ... OpenVMS V7. ... RSX-11: A family of real-time operating systems mainly for PDP-11 computers created by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), common in the late 1970s and early 1980s, designed for and much used in process control, but also popular for program development. ... An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), describes the aspects of a computer architecture visible to a programmer, including the native datatypes, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O (if any). ... A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is an abstraction layer, implemented in software, between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer. ...


Windows NT's kernel mode code further distinguishes between the "kernel", whose primary purpose is to implement processor and architecture dependent functions, and the "executive". This has led some writers to refer to the kernel as a microkernel, but the Windows NT kernel no longer meets many of the criteria of a "microkernel", although this was the original goal of chief architect Cutler. Both the kernel and the executive are linked together into the single loaded module ntoskrnl.exe; from outside this module there is little distinction between the kernel and the executive. Routines from each are directly accessible, as for example from kernel-mode device drivers. Graphical overview of a microkernel A microkernel is a minimal computer operating system kernel providing only basic operating system services (system calls), while other services (commonly provided by kernels) are provided by user-space programs called servers. ... Figure of the linking process, where object files and static libraries are assembled into a new library or executable. ...


API sets in the Windows NT family are implemented as subsystems atop the publicly undocumented "native" API; it was this that allowed the late adoption of the Windows API (into the Win32 subsystem). Windows NT was the first operating system to use Unicode internally. The Native API (with capitalized N) is the publicly mostly undocumented application programming interface used internally by the Windows NT family of operating systems produced by Microsoft. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


Releases

Windows NT Releases
Version Marketing Name Editions Release Date RTM Build
NT 3.1 Windows NT 3.1 Workstation (named just Windows NT), Advanced Server July 27, 1993 528
NT 3.5 Windows NT 3.5 Workstation, Server September 21, 1994 807
NT 3.51 Windows NT 3.51 Workstation, Server May 30, 1995 1057
NT 4.0 Windows NT 4.0 Workstation, Server, Server Enterprise Edition, Terminal Server, Embedded July 29, 1996 1381
NT 5.0 Windows 2000 Professional, Server, Advanced Server, Datacenter Server February 17, 2000 2195
NT 5.1 Windows XP Home, Professional, 64-bit Edition 2002, Media Center (original, 2003, 2004 & 2005), Tablet PC (original and 2005), Starter, Embedded, N Edition October 25, 2001 2600
NT 5.1 Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs (WinFLP) (not applicable) July 8, 2006 2600
NT 5.2 Windows Server 2003 Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter, Web, Storage, Small Business Server, Compute Cluster April 24, 2003 3790
NT 5.2 Windows XP (64-bit) 64-bit Edition 2003, Professional x64 Edition March 28, 2003 3790
NT 5.2 Windows Home Server Not Applicable 2007 3790
NT 6.0 Windows Vista Starter, Home Basic, Home Premium, Business, Enterprise, Ultimate, N Editions for Home Basic and Business, x64 editions for all except for Starter Business: November 30, 2006
Consumer: January 30, 2007
6000
NT 6.0 Windows Server 2008 Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter, Web, Storage, Small Business Server 2008 (expected) 6001
NT 6.1 Windows 7 (codename Vienna; formerly Blackcomb) Unknown 2010 Unknown

Note: NT 3.1 to 3.51 incorporated a Windows 3.x-like Program Manager and File Manager. NT 4.0 to 6.0 replaced this with Windows Explorer (including a taskbar and Start menu). Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_kpager. ... Windows NT 3. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows NT 3. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with . ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows NT 4. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs (WinFLP) is an operating system from Microsoft, based on Windows XP, but optimized for older, less powerful hardware. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition released on April 25, 2005 by Microsoft is a variation of the Windows XP operating system for x86-64 personal computers. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Windows Home Server is an upcoming operating system from Microsoft. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Windows Server 2008 is the name of the next server operating system from Microsoft. ... Windows 7 (formerly codenamed Blackcomb, then Vienna) is a future version of Microsoft Windows. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Windows 3. ... Program Manager in Windows 3. ... A screenshot of File Manager displaying a folder and the contents of the C drive. ... Windows Explorer running on Windows Vista Windows Explorer running on Windows XP Windows Explorer is an application that is part of modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that provides a graphical user interface for accessing the file systems. ... In computing, the taskbar is a term for the application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications in Microsoft Windows 95 and later operating systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The first release was given version number 3.1 to match the contemporary 16-bit Windows; magazines of that era claimed the number was also used to make that version seem more reliable than a '.0' release. There were also some issues related to Novell IPX protocol licensing, which was apparently limited to 3.1 versions of Windows software.


The NT version number is no longer used for marketing purposes, but is still used internally, and said to reflect the degree of changes to the core of the operating system.[1] The build number is an internal figure used by Microsoft's developers and beta testers.


Supported platforms

Like Unix, NT was written in C, a mid level language. This means that it can be compiled to run on several processor systems; however, the code produced by the compiler is larger and slower than assembler code for a particular processor. For this reason, NT was not favored initially for use with slower processors with less memory. It also proved far more difficult to port applications such as Microsoft Office which were sensitive to issues such as data structure alignment on RISC processors. Unlike Windows CE which routinely runs on a variety of processors, the lack of success of RISC-based systems in the desktop market has resulted in nearly all actual NT deployments being on x86 architecture processors. Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of C Programming The C programming language (often, just C) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use on the Unix operating system. ... Microsoft Office is an office suite from Microsoft, which is available on the Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X operating systems. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... Windows CE (sometimes abbreviated WinCE) is a variation of Microsofts Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ...


In order to prevent Intel x86-specific code from slipping into the operating system by developers used to developing on x86 chips, Windows NT 3.1 was initially developed using non-x86 development systems and then ported to the x86 architecture. This work was initially based on the Intel i860-based Dazzle system and, later, the MIPS R4000-based Jazz platform. Both systems were designed internally at Microsoft.[2] x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Intel i860 (also 80860, and code named N10) was a RISC microprocessor from Intel, first released in 1989. ... The Jazz computer architecture was a motherboard and chipset design originally developed by Microsoft for use in developing Windows NT. The design was eventually used as the basis for most MIPS-based Windows NT systems. ...


Windows NT 3.1 was released for Intel x86 PC compatible, DEC Alpha, and ARC-compliant MIPS platforms. Windows NT 3.51 added support for the PowerPC processor in 1995, specifically PReP-compliant systems such as the IBM Power Series desktops/laptops and Motorola PowerStack series; but despite meetings between Michael Spindler and Bill Gates, significantly not on the Power Macintosh. One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... An ARC console screen on an Alpha AXP system Advanced RISC Computing is a specification promulgated by a defunct consortium of computer manufacturers (the Advanced Computing Environment project), setting forth a standard MIPS RISC-based computer hardware and firmware environment. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Look up prep in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motorola Inc. ... Michael Spindler (born 1942), nicknamed the Diesel for his reputed around the clock work habits, was president and CEO of Apple Computer from 1993 to 1996. ... The Power Mac G5, the last model of the series. ...


Intergraph Corporation ported Windows NT to its Clipper architecture and later Windows NT 3.51 was ported to SPARC,[3] but neither version was sold to the public as a retail product. Intergraph was founded in 1969 as M&S Computing, Inc. ... The Clipper architecture is a 32-bit RISC-like instruction set architecture designed by Fairchild Semiconductor. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ...


Windows NT 4.0 was the last major release to support Alpha, MIPS, or PowerPC, though development of Windows 2000 for Alpha continued until August 1999, when Compaq stopped support for Windows NT on that architecture; and then three days later Microsoft also canceled their AlphaNT program, even though the Alpha NT5 version was already at RC2 (build 2128). Released versions of NT for Alpha were 32-bit only, although Alpha hardware was used internally at Microsoft during early development of 64-bit Windows 2000 for IA-64.[1] Only two of the Windows NT 4.0 variants (IA-32 and Alpha) have a full set of service packs available. All of the other ports done by third parties (Motorola, Intergraph, etc.) have few, if any, publicly available updates. Compaq Computer Corporation is an American personal computer company founded in 1982, and now a brand name of Hewlett-Packard. ... In computing, IA-64 (short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed cooperatively by Intel Corporation and Hewlett-Packard (HP), and implemented in the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors. ...


Windows XP 64-Bit, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise, and Windows Server 2003 Datacenter support Intel's IA-64 processors. As of April 25, 2005 Microsoft had released four editions for 'x64' (see x86-64 architecture): Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows Server 2003 Standard x64 Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise x64 Edition, and Windows Server 2003 Datacenter x64 Edition. is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ...


The Xbox uses a heavily modified and stripped down Windows 2000 kernel.[4] This kernel was heavily modified again for the Xbox 360 which runs on PowerPC[5] . This version is not for separate sale, and is only available through acquiring an Xbox. Little is known about it. The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ...


Hardware requirements

The minimum hardware specification required to run each release of the professional workstation version of Windows NT has been fairly slow-moving until the 6.0 Vista release, which requires a minimum of 15 GB of free disk space plus an additional 5 GB of extra space for 6.0, a 10-fold increase in free disk space alone over the previous version.

Windows NT desktop (x86) minimum hardware requirements
NT Version CPU RAM Free disk space
NT Workstation 3.51 386, 25 MHz 8 MB 90 MB
NT 4.0 Workstation 486, 33 MHz 12 MB 110 MB
2000 Professional Pentium, 133 MHz 32 MB 650 MB
XP Professional[6] Pentium MMX, 233 MHz 64 MB 1.5 GB
FLP Pentium MMX, 233 MHz 64 MB 500 MB
Vista[7] Pentium III, 800 MHz 512 MB 15 GB (may be installed with as few as 7GB)

'NT' designation

It is popularly believed that Dave Cutler intended the initialism 'WNT' as a pun on VMS, incrementing each letter by one, similar to the apocryphal story of Arthur C. Clarke's deriving HAL 9000's name by decrementing each letter of IBM. While this would have suited Cutler's sense of humor, the project's earlier name of NT OS/2 belies this theory. Another of the original OS/2 3.0 developers, Mark Lucovsky, states that the name was taken from the Intel i860 processor—code-named N10 (or 'N-Ten')—which served as the original target hardware.[8] Various Microsoft publications, including a 1998 question-and-answer session with Bill Gates,[9] reveal that the letters were expanded to 'New Technology' for marketing purposes but no longer carry any specific meaning. Confusion about what NT stood for led to humorous speculation among industry insiders[attribution needed] that it stood for 'Not Tested'. OpenVMS V7. ... The action of a Caesar cipher is to replace each plaintext letter with one a fixed number of places down the alphabet. ... HAL 9000 (Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer) is a fictional character in Arthur C. Clarkes Space Odyssey saga. ... Mark Lucovsky is a software developer who worked for Microsoft and who is now employed by Google. ... The Intel i860 (also 80860, and code named N10) was a RISC microprocessor from Intel, first released in 1989. ... For other persons named Bill Gates, see Bill Gates (disambiguation). ...


The letters were dropped from the name of Windows 2000, though literature contained the phrase 'Built on NT technology' and the system folder retained the WINNT designation. This action ostensibly reflected Microsoft's intent to unify its home and business lines, then represented by Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0, but this goal would not be achieved until the introduction of Windows XP. Some believe this to be the result of a trademark dispute between Microsoft and Nortel Networks as on the bottom of the Windows NT 4.0 product boxes is a notice explaining that 'NT' is a trademark of Northern Telecom. Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis and formerly known as Windows 97[2]) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Nortel Networks Corporation TSX: NT NYSE: NT, formerly known as Northern Telecom Limited and now known simply as Nortel, is a multinational telecommunications equipment manufacturer headquartered in Toronto, Canada. ...


See also

The Windows NT operating system familys architecture consists of two layers (user mode and kernel mode), with many different modules within both of these layers. ... Windows redirects here. ... NTFS is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Active Directory. ... ReactOS is a project to develop an operating system that is binary-compatible with application software and device drivers for Microsoft Windows NT version 5. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Windows Server System logo Windows Server System is an integrated set of server software, from Microsoft, that forms the infrastructure for operating the backend of an institutions information technology system. ... The Windows NT Startup Process is the process by which Microsofts Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 operating systems initialize. ... Windows PE beginning to boot under Microsoft Virtual PC. It uses the same, minimal version of NTLDR(SETUPLDR.BIN) as Windows NT/2000/XP Setup. ... F6 disk is a colloquial name for a floppy disk containing a Microsoft Windows NT device driver for a disk or RAID system. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Mark Russinovich; David Solomon (December 2001). Windows XP: Kernel Improvements Create a More Robust, Powerful, and Scalable OS. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  2. ^ Lucovsky, Mark (August 9 2000). Windows: A Software Engineering Odyssey. Retrieved on 2006-11-02.
  3. ^ Intergraph Announces Port of Windows NT to SPARC Architecture. The Florida SunFlash (1993-07-07).
  4. ^ Michael Steil (July 1, 2003). Running Linux on the Xbox. Linux Journal. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  5. ^ The cores are built around an enhanced version of the Power PC architecture.
  6. ^ Windows XP Professional System Requirements. Microsoft Corporation (2001-08-24).
  7. ^ Windows Vista: Minimum Supported System Requirements. Microsoft Corporation (missingdate).
  8. ^ Paul Thurrott's History of Windows Server 2003: The Road To Gold.
  9. ^ Gates, Bill (June 5 1998). Q&A: Protecting children from information on the Internet. Retrieved on 2005-06-26.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Linux Journal is a monthly magazine published by SpecializedSystemsConsultants (SSC) of Seattle, first published in March 1994. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Official Page
  • Windows NT and VMS: The Rest of the Story, discussion of ancestry of NT by Mark Russinovich
  • A Brief History of the Windows NT Operating System a Microsoft PressPass Fact Sheet

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