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Encyclopedia > Windows Management Instrumentation

Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is a set of extensions to the Windows Driver Model that provides an operating system interface through which instrumented components provide information and notification. WMI is Microsoft's implementation of the Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) and Common Information Model (CIM) standards from the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF). In computing, the Windows Driver Model (WDM) — also known (somewhat misleadingly) at one point as the Win32 Driver Model — is a framework for device drivers that was introduced with Windows 98 and Windows 2000 to replace VxD, which was used on older versions of Windows such as Windows 95 and... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... In context of computer programming, instrumentation refers to an ability to monitor or measure the level of a products performance, to diagnose errors and writing trace information. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) is a set of systems management technologies developed to unify the management of distributed computing environments. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF, formerly Desktop Management Task Force) is an industry consortium that develops, supports, and maintains standards for systems management of PC systems and products, to reduce total cost of ownership. ...


WMI allows scripting languages like VBScript or Windows PowerShell to manage Microsoft Windows personal computers and servers, both locally and remotely. WMI is preinstalled in Windows 2000 and newer OSs (including Windows Me). It is available as a download for Windows 95 and Windows 98.[1] Scripting languages (commonly called script languages) are computer programming languages that are typically interpreted. ... VBScript (short for Visual Basic Scripting Edition) is an Active Scripting language developed by Microsoft. ... Windows PowerShell is an administration focused extensible command line interface (CLI) shell and scripting language product developed by Microsoft. ... Windows redirects here. ... In information technology, a server is an application or device that performs services for connected clients as part of a client-server architecture. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. ... Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (IPA pronunciation: [miː], [ɛm iː]), is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ...


Microsoft also provides a command line interface to WMI called Windows Management Instrumentation Command-line (WMIC). [2] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Purpose of WMI The purpose of WMI is to define a non-proprietary set of environment-independent specifications which allow management information to be shared between management applications. WMI prescribes enterprise management standards and related technologies that work with existing management standards, such as Desktop Management Interface (DMI) and SNMP. WMI complements these other standards by providing a uniform model. This model represents the managed environment through which management data from any source can be accessed in a common way. Systems management refers to enterprise-wide administration of distributed computer systems. ... The Desktop Management Interface (DMI) generates a standard framework for managing and tracking components in a desktop, notebook or server computer. ... The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ...


Overview In order to unify the management techniques for the sake of simplicity, the DMTF defined CIM to represent real-world manageable entities in a unified way. The CIM object model is an object database model using terms and semantics that are unique to all constructors and software developers. This object model is implemented in a database called the CIM repository. In an object oriented database, information is represented in the form of objects as used in Object-Oriented Programming. ...


Based on the CIM model, WMI includes real-world manageable components, available from the DMTF standards with some specific extensions that represent the various Windows components. Moreover, WMI exposes a collection of COM-scriptable objects that allow various applications to take advantage of the management information. In computing, the Common Information Model (CIM) is a standard designed by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) to allow multiple parties to exchange management information about systems, networks, applications and services. ... Component Object Model (COM) is a platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ...


As part of the installation process, most of the Microsoft applications available today (e.g. SQL Server, Exchange Server, Microsoft Office, Internet Explorer, Host Integration Server, Automated Deployment Services) extend the standard CIM object model to add the representation of their manageable entities in the CIM repository. This representation is called a WMI class, and it exposes information through properties and allows the execution of some actions via methods. The access to the manageable entities is made via a software component, called a “provider” which is simply a DLL implementing a COM object written in C/C++. Because a provider is designed to access some specific management information, the CIM repository is also logically divided into several areas called namespaces. Each namespace contains a set of providers with their related classes specific to a management area (i.e. RootDirectoryDAP for Active Directory, RootSNMP for SNMP information or RootMicrosoftIISv2 for Internet Information Services information). SQL Server may refer to: Microsoft SQL Server, a specific relational database management system (RDBMS) from Microsoft Sybase SQL Server, a DBMS developed by Sybase (and, for a period, jointly with Microsoft) that was the precedessor to Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise and Microsoft SQL Server SQL Server Magazine, a publication... Microsoft Exchange Server is a collaborative software server from Microsoft, positioned as a rival to the Lotus Notes / Domino server from IBM and recently challenged by a number of Linux-based competitors, first and foremost Scalix. ... Microsoft Office is an office suite from Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X operating systems. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ... In computer science, a library is a collection of subprograms used to develop software. ... Typically Active Directory is managed using the graphical Microsoft Management Console. ... The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ... Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly called Internet Information Server) is a set of Internet-based services for servers using Microsoft Windows. ...


To locate the huge amount of management information available from the CIM repository, WMI comes with a SQL-like language called the WMI Query Language (WQL). SQL (IPA: or ) is a computer language designed for the retrieval and management of data in relational database management systems, database schema creation and modification, and database object access control management. ... Windows Management Instrumentation Query Language (WQL) is a subset of the standard ANSI SQL with minor semantic changes. ...

Contents

Development process

Because WMI abstracts the manageable entities with CIM and a collection of providers, the development of a provider implies several steps. Although there are 4 major steps with some sub-steps, each of them taken separately are quite easy to execute. These can be summarized as follows:


Step 1 – Create the manageable entity model

  • Define a model
  • Implement the model

Step 2 – Create the WMI Provider

  • Determines the provider type to implement
  • Determines the hosting model of the provider
  • Create the provider template with the ATL wizard
  • Implement the code logic in the provider
  • Register the provider with WMI and the system

Step 3 - Test the provider


Step 4 - Create consumer sample codes


Importance of WMI providers

Since the release of the first WMI implementation during the Windows NT 4.0 SP4 era (as an out-of-band download), Microsoft has consistently added WMI providers to Windows. Under Windows NT 4.0, Microsoft had roughly 15 WMI providers available once WMI was installed. When Windows 2000 was released, there were 29 WMI providers as part of the operating system installation. With the release of Windows Server 2003, Microsoft included in the platform more than 80 WMI providers. Windows Vista includes 13 new WMI providers. [3], taking the number close to around 100 in all, and Windows Server 2008 includes some more including providers for IIS 7, PowerShell and virtualization. This has been a sign for many customers that WMI became at Microsoft, the “ubiquitous” management layer of Windows, even if this commitment has never been explicit from Microsoft. Windows NT 4. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2008 is the name of the next server operating system from Microsoft. ... Windows PowerShell is an administration focused extensible command line interface (CLI) shell and scripting language product developed by Microsoft. ...


During these last years, due to a constant increasing exposure of management data through WMI in Windows, more and more people in the IT systems management field started to develop scripts and automation procedures based on WMI. Beyond the scripting needs, most leading management software in the world, such as MOM, SMS, ADS, HP OpenView for Windows (HPOV), BMC Software or CA, Inc. are WMI-enabled and capable to consume and provide WMI information through various User Interfaces. This enables administrators and operators, not capable of scripting or programming on top of WMI, to enjoy the benefits of WMI without even learning about it. However, if they want to, because WMI is scriptable, it gives them the opportunity to consume WMI information from scripts or from any Enterprise Management software that is WMI-aware. Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Systems management refers to enterprise-wide administration of distributed computer systems. ... The Microsoft Operations Manager (MOM) is the event and performance management system of Microsofts Windows Server System. ... Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) is a systems management software product by Microsoft for managing large groups of Windows-based computer systems. ... HP redirects here. ... OpenView is a Hewlett Packard product range consisting of an extensive portfolio of network and systems management products. ... BMC Software, Inc. ... CA, Inc. ... A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person employed to maintain, and operate a computer system or network. ... Peter Senge defined a learning organization as human beings cooperating in dynamical systems (as defined in systemics) that are in a state of continuous adaptation and improvement. ...


Features

For someone willing to develop one or many WMI providers, WMI offers many features out of the box. Here are the most important advantages: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

  1. Automation interfaces: Because WMI comes with a set of automation interfaces ready to use, all management features supported by a WMI provider and its set of classes get the scripting support for free out-of-the box. Beyond the WMI class design and the provider development, the Microsoft development and test teams are not required to create, validate and test a scripting model as it is already available from WMI.
  2. .NET Management interfaces: Because the System. Management namespace [4] relies on the existing COM/DCOM plumbing, the created WMI provider and its set of WMI classes becomes automatically available to all .NET applications independently of the language used (e.g. C#, VB.NET). Beyond the WMI class design and the provider development, like for scripting, the Microsoft development and test teams are not required to create, validate and test new assemblies to support a new namespace in the .NET Framework as this support is already available from WMI for free.
  3. C/C++ COM/DCOM programming interfaces: Like most components in Windows, COM/DCOM programmers can leverage the features of the provider they develop at the COM/DCOM interfaces level. Like in previous environments (scripting and .NET Framework), a COM/DCOM consumer just needs to interact with the standard set of WMI COM interfaces to leverage the WMI provider capabilities and its set of supported WMI classes. To make all management information available from the native APIs, the WMI provider developer just needs to interact with a set of pre-defined WMI COM interfaces. This will make the management information available at the WMI COM level automatically. Moreover, the scripting COM interface object model is very similar to the COM/DCOM interface object model, which makes it easy for developers to be familiar with the scripting experience.
  4. Remoting capabilities over DCOM and SOAP: More than simply offering local COM capabilities, as management is all about remoting, WMI offers the DCOM transport. In addition, SOAP transport will be available in Windows Server 2003 R2 through the WS-Management initiative lead by Microsoft, Intel, Sun Microsystems and Dell. This initiative allows to run any scripts remotely or to consume WMI data through a specific set of interfaces handling SOAP requests/responses. The advantage for the WMI provider developer is that when he exposes all his features through WMI, Windows Remote Management/WS-Management can in turn consume that information as well (embedded objects in WMI instances are not supported in Windows Server 2003 R2. It is however a target for Vista). All the layering to WS-Management and the mapping of the CIM data model to SOAP comes for free out of the WMI/WS-Management solution. In the event DCOM must be used, implementing DCOM requires the presence of a proxy DLL deployed on each client machine. As WMI is available in the Windows operating system since Windows 2000, these issues are eliminated.
  5. Support for Queries: WMI offers support for WQL queries out of the box. This means that if a provider is not designed to support queries, WMI supports it by using an enumeration technique out of the provider.
  6. Eventing capabilities: WMI offers the capability to notify a subscriber for any event it is interested in. WMI uses the WMI Query Language (WQL) to submit WQL event queries and defines the type of events to be returned. The eventing mechanism, with all related callbacks, is part of the WMI COM/DCOM and automation interfaces. Anyone writing a WMI provider can have the benefit of this functionality at no cost for his customers. It will be up to the consumer to decide how it wants to consume the management information exposed by the WMI provider and its related set of WMI classes.
  7. Code template generator: To speed up the process of writing a WMI provider including all COM/DCOM interfaces and related definitions, the WMI team developed the WMI ATL Wizard to generate the code template implementing a provider. The code generated is based on the WMI class model initially designed by the developer. The WMI provider developer will be able to interface the pre-defined COM/DCOM interfaces for the WMI provider with its set of native APIs retrieving the management information to expose. The exercise consists in filling the “gaps” in the provider code to create the desired interfacing logic.
  8. Predictability: Predictability is an important concern for our customers because it defines the capability of someone having an experience with a set of interfaces managing a Windows component to apply this knowledge right away, intuitively, to any other manageable Windows component without having relearn everything from ground up. Predictability for a customer is a real gain as it increases the Return of Investment (ROI). A person facing such a situation simply expects things to work the same way based on his previous experience. The constant increase of COM programming/scriptable interfaces has a huge impact on the predictability, as this makes it difficult for customers to automate, manage Windows and leverage their existing knowledge. WMI with CIM address this problem by always exposing the same programming object model (COM/DCOM, Automation, .NET) whatever the manageable entity is.
  9. Protect existing customer investments: Protecting customers and partners investment motivates customers to invest in technologies. As Microsoft did invest a lot these past years in writing WMI providers, customers and partners invested in tools leveraging the WMI capabilities of Windows. Therefore, they naturally continue to exploit these capabilities instead of having to use a new set of specific interfaces for each Windows manageable component. A specific set of interfaces means having a specific set of agents or in-house developed software based on a new model or set of interfaces especially dedicated to a component or technology. By leveraging the capabilities of WMI today, customers and partners can leverage the work investment made in the past while minimizing their costs in developments, learning curves and new discoveries. This will also have a great impact on the stability and reliability of their infrastructure as they continue to leverage an existing implementation with an improved technology.
  10. Provide a logical and unified administration model: As briefly described before in the introduction, this model is based on an industry standard called CIM defined by the DMTF (http://www.dmtf.org). The CIM class-based schema is defined by a consortium of constructors and software developers that meets the requirements of the industry. This implies that not only Microsoft leverages the WMI capabilities, but also any other third party constructors or developers write their own code to fit into the model. For instance, Intel is doing this for some their network driver adapters and software. HP is leveraging existing WMI providers and implementing their own WMI providers in their HP Open View Enterprise Management software. IBM consumes WMI from the Tivoli management suite, MOM and SMS are also consuming and providing WMI information. Lastly, Windows XP SP2 leverages WMI to get information status from anti-virus software and firewalls.

Microsoft . ... Component Object Model (COM) is a platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) is a Microsoft proprietary technology for software components distributed across several networked computers to communicate with each other. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Visual Basic . ... The Microsoft . ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... Remote procedure call (RPC) is a protocol that allows a computer program running on one computer to cause a subroutine on another computer to be executed without the programmer explicitly coding the details for this interaction. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... WS-Management is a specification of a SOAP-based protocol, based on Web Services, for the management of servers, devices, applications and more. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... This article is about the corporation Dell, Inc. ... Windows Management Instrumentation Query Language (WQL) is a subset of the standard ANSI SQL with minor semantic changes. ... In finance, rate of return (ROR) or return on investment (ROI), or sometimes just return, is the ratio of money gained or lost on an investment relative to the amount of money invested. ... Systems management refers to enterprise-wide administration of distributed computer systems. ... Tivoli Software is the systems management brand of the IBM Software Group. ...

WMI tools

Some WMI tools can also be very useful during the design and development phases. These tools are:

  • The MOF compiler (MOFComp.exe): The Managed Object Format (MOF) compiler parses a file containing Managed Object Format statements and adds the classes and class instances defined in the file to the CIM repository. The MOF format is a specific syntax to define CIM class representation in an ASCII file (e.g. MIB are to SNMP what MOF files are to CIM). MOFComp.exe is included in every WMI installation. Every definition existing in the CIM repository is initially defined in an MOF file. MOF files are located in %SystemRoot%System32WBEM. During the WMI setup, they are loaded in the CIM repository.
  • The WMI Administrative Tools: The WMI Administrative Tools are made of four tools: WMI CIM Studio, WMI Object Browser, WMI Event Registration and WMI Event Viewer. WMI Administrative Tools can be downloaded here. The most important tool for a WMI provider developer is WMI CIM Studio as it helps in the initial WMI class creation in the CIM repository. It uses a web interface to display information and relies on a collection of ActiveX components installed on the system when it runs for the first time. WMI CIM Studio provides the ability to:
    • Connect to a chosen system and browse the CIM repository in any namespace available.
    • Search for classes by their name, by their descriptions or by property names.
    • Review the properties, methods and associations related to a given class.
    • See the instances available for a given class of the examined system.
    • Perform Queries in the WQL language.
    • Generate an MOF file based on selected classes.
    • Compile an MOF file to load it in the CIM repository.
  • WinMgmt.exe: WinMgmt.exe is not a tool; it is the executable that implements the WMI Core service. Under the Windows NT family of operating systems, WMI runs as a service. On computers running Windows 98, Windows 95 or Windows Me, WMI runs as an application. Under the Windows NT family of operating systems, it is also possible to run this executable as an application, in which case, the executable runs in the current user context. For this, the WMI service must be stopped first. The executable supports some switches that can be useful when starting WMI as a service or as an application. WMI provider developers who may want to debug their providers essentially need to run the WMI service as an application.[5]
  • WBEMTest.exe: WBEMTest.exe is a WMI tester tool, which is delivered with WMI. This tool allows an administrator or a developer to perform most of the tasks from a graphical interface that WMI provides at the API level. Although available under all Windows NT-based operating systems, this tool is not officially supported by Microsoft. WBEMTest provides the ability to:
    • Enumerate, open, create and delete classes.
    • Enumerate, open, create and delete instances of classes.
    • Select a namespace.
    • Perform data and event queries.
    • Execute methods associated to classes or instances.
    • Execute every WMI operation asynchronously, synchronously or semi-asynchronously.
  • The WMI command line tool (WMIC): WMIC is a command-line tool designed to ease WMI information retrieval about a system by using some simple keywords (aliases). WMIC.exe is only available under Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. By typing “WMIC /?” from the command-line, a complete list of the switches and reserved keywords is available. ( windows vista users, "WMIC /?" won't work, instead type only "/?" )
  • WBEMDump.exe: WBEMDump is a tool delivered with the Platform SDK. This command line tool comes with its own Visual C++ project. The tool can show the CIM repository classes, instances, or both. It is possible to retrieve the same information as that retrieved with WMIC. WBEMDump.exe requires more specific knowledge about WMI, as it doesn’t abstract WMI as WMIC. However, it runs under Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000. It is also possible to execute methods exposed by classes or instances. Even if it is not a standard WMI tool delivered with the system installation, this tool can be quite useful for exploring the CIM repository and WMI features.

Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... ActiveX is Microsoft technology used for developing reusable object oriented software components. ... API may refer to: In computing, application programming interface In petroleum industry, American Petroleum Institute In education, Academic Performance Index This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Microsoft Windows SDK (Software Development Kit) is a free software development kit from Microsoft that contains header files, libraries, samples, documentation and tools utilizing the APIs required to successfully develop applications for Microsoft Windows and the . ...

Wireless networking example

In the .NET framework, the ManagementClass class represents a Common Information Model (CIM) management class. A WMI class can be a Win32_LogicalDisk in the case of a disk drive, or a Win32_Process, such as a running program like Notepad.exe. Wireless networks are telephone or computer networks that use radio as their carrier or physical layer. ... The Microsoft . ...


This example shows how "MSNdis_80211_ServiceSetIdentifier" WMI class is used to find the SSID of the Wi-Fi network that the system is currently connected to in the language C#: A service set identifier (SSID) is a code attached to all packets on a wireless network to identify each packet as part of that network. ... Wi-Fi (IPA: ) is the common name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. ...

 ManagementClass mc = new ManagementClass("rootWMI", "MSNdis_80211_ServiceSetIdentifier", null); ManagementObjectCollection moc = mc. GetInstances(); foreach (ManagementObject mo in moc) { string wlanCard = (string)mo["InstanceName"]; bool active = (bool)mo["Active"]; byte[] ssid = (byte[])mo["Ndis80211SsId"]; } 

WMI driver extensions

The WMI extensions to WDM provide kernel-level instrumentation such as publishing information, configuring device settings, supplying event notification from device drivers and allowing administrators to set data security through a WMI provider known as the WDM provider. The extensions are part of the WDM architecture; however, they have broad utility and can be used with other types of drivers as well (such as SCSI and NDIS). The WMI Driver Extensions service monitors all drivers and event trace providers that are configured to publish WMI or event trace information. Instrumented hardware data is provided by way of drivers instrumented for WMI extensions for WDM. WMI extensions for WDM provide a set of Windows device driver interfaces for instrumenting data within the driver models native to Windows, so OEMs and IHVs can easily extend the instrumented data set and add value to a hardware/software solution. The WMI Driver Extensions, however, are not supported by Windows Vista and later operating systems. [6] In computing, the Windows Driver Model (WDM) — also known (somewhat misleadingly) at one point as the Win32 Driver Model — is a framework for device drivers that was introduced with Windows 98 and Windows 2000 to replace VxD, which was used on older versions of Windows such as Windows 95 and... In context of computer programming, instrumentation refers to an ability to monitor or measure the level of a products performance, to diagnose errors and writing trace information. ... A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ... Scuzzy redirects here. ... The Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NICs). ... Original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, is a term that refers to containment-based re-branding, namely where one company uses a component of another company within its product, or sells the product of another company under its own brand. ... An Independent Hardware Vendor (IHV) is a business term for companies specializing in making or selling hardware, usually for niche markets. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ...


See also

The following is a list of Microsoft Windows components. ...

References

  1. ^ WMI Redistributable for Windows 95 and Windows 98
  2. ^ Description of WMIC
  3. ^ Windows Vista Client Manageability
  4. ^ System.Management namespace
  5. ^ WMI Tasks: Computer Software
  6. ^ Deprecated components in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008

External links

  • WMI at the Windows Hardware Developer Central
  • CIM terminology
  • WMI Overview and Background
  • WMI and CIM overview
  • How improved support for WMI makes PowerShell the best environment to use and script WMI
  • Working with WMI providers to PowerShell
The following is a list of Microsoft APIs. ... Desktop Window Manager (DWM) is currently the name for the new windowing system that will be available in all versions of Windows Vista, except Starter Edition, to enable the new Aero user interface. ... Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms. ... Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... The Graphics Device Interface (GDI, sometimes called Graphical Device Interface) is one of the three core components or subsystems, together with the kernel and the Windows API for the user interface (GDI window manager) of Microsoft Windows. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... Screenshot of the Color Management control panel which is used to configure Windows Color System settings. ... The Microsoft Windows Image Acquisition (WIA) interface is both an application programming interface (API) and a device driver interface (DDI). ... The Windows Imaging Component (WIC) is a Component Object Model based imaging codec framework introduced in Windows Vista for working with and processing digital images and image metadata. ... DirectSound is software supplied by Microsoft that resides on a computer with the Windows operating system. ... DirectMusic is a high-level set of objects, built on top of DirectSound, that allow you to play sound and music without needing to get quite as low-level as DirectSound. ... XACT is an audio authoring tool released by Microsoft as part of XNA. External references http://www. ... This article is about the Speech API. For other uses, see SAPI. The Speech Application Programming Interface or SAPI is an API developed by Microsoft to allow the use of speech recognition and speech synthesis within Windows applications. ... Logo of the DirectX Media SDK - the first time DirectShow was distributed under its current name. ... Microsoft DirectX Video Acceleration (DXVA) is a Microsoft API specification for video decoding that utilises 2-D hardware acceleration on Microsoft platforms (Windows, Xbox etc). ... Windows Media is a multimedia framework for media creation and distribution for Microsoft Windows. ... Media Foundation is set of COM-based Microsoft APIs forming the next generation multimedia application framework and platform infrastructure for Microsoft Windows. ... Trident (also known as MSHTML) is the name of the layout engine for the Microsoft Windows version of Internet Explorer. ... Microsoft XML Core Services (MSXML) is a set of services that allow applications written in JScript, VBScript, and Microsoft development tools to build Windows-native XML-based applications. ... Windows RSS Platform, included in Internet Explorer 7 and Windows Vista is a platform that exposes feed handling and management to Windows applications. ... JScript is the Microsoft implementation of the ECMAScript scripting programming language specification. ... VBScript (short for Visual Basic Scripting Edition) is an Active Scripting language developed by Microsoft. ... Add-on Manager from Windows XP SP2 Internet Explorer A Browser Helper Object (BHO) is a DLL module designed as a plugin for Microsofts Internet Explorer web browser to provide added functionality. ... XMLHttpRequest (XHR) is an API that can be used by JavaScript, and other web browser scripting languages to transfer XML and other text data to and from a web server using HTTP, by establishing an independent and asynchronous communication channel between a web pages Client-Side and Server-Side. ... Microsoft Gadgets are light-weight single-purpose applications that can sit on the users computer desktop, or are hosted on a web page. ... Microsoft Data Access Components (commonly abbreviated MDAC) is a group of Microsoft technologies that interact together as a framework that allows programmers a uniform and comprehensive way of developing applications for accessing almost any data store. ... For JET Red storage engine of Microsoft Access, see Microsoft Jet Database Engine. ... ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. ... The ADO.NET Entity Framework, part of ADO.NET components of the . ... Microsoft Sync Framework is a data synchronization platform from Microsoft that can be used to synchronize data across multiple data stores. ... Jet is the database engine behind Microsofts Access. ... Windows Sockets API version 2. ... A Layered Service Provider is part of the Microsoft Windows Winsock 2 interface. ... Network and Internet icon in Windows Vista Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 contain a brand new networking stack, named Next Generation TCP/IP stack,[1] which brings large improvements in all areas of network-related functionality. ... Windows Vista contains a brand new networking stack, which brings large improvements in all areas of network-related functionality[1]. It includes native implementation of IPv6, as well as complete overhaul of IPv4. ... The Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NICs). ... Windows Rally is a set of technologies from Microsoft to simplify the setup and maintenance of wired and wireless network-connected devices and ensure reliable, secure and high-quality connectivity for users who connect the devices to the Internet or to computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system. ... Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) is a component of modern Microsoft Windows operating systems that facilitates prioritized, throttled, and asynchronous transfer of files between machines using idle network bandwidth. ... Windows Vista contains a brand new networking stack, which brings large improvements in all areas of network-related functionality[1]. It includes native implementation of IPv6, as well as complete overhaul of IPv4. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI) is a Microsoft Windows API, which provides computer telephony integration and enables PCs running Microsoft Windows to use telephone services. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into cmd. ... The Microsoft Windows Script Host (originally called Windows Scripting Host, but renamed for the second release) is distributed and installed by default on Windows 98 and later versions of Microsoft Windows. ... Windows PowerShell is an administration focused extensible command line interface (CLI) shell and scripting language product developed by Microsoft. ... This article is about the scheduled tasks component in Windows. ... Microsofts latest Windows operating system, Windows Vista, includes a number of new I/O technologies and enhancements that are intended to shorten the time taken to boot the system, improve the responsiveness of the system, and improve the reliability of data storage. ... Shadow Copy in Windows Vista Shadow Copy (also called Volume Snapshot Service or VSS) is a feature in recent versions of Microsoft Windows that allows taking manual or automatic backup copies or snapshots of a file or folder on a specific volume at a specific point in time. ... Nero software setup is using Windows Installer program The Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer, codename Darwin) is an engine for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software on modern Microsoft Windows systems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dr. Watson (debugger). ... Event Viewer in Windows XP. Event Viewer in Windows Vista. ... Common Log File System (CLFS) is a general-purpose logging subsystem that is accessible to both kernel-mode as well as user-mode applications for building high-performance transaction logs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Software componentry. ... Component Object Model (COM) is a platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... Component Object Model (COM) is a platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... ActiveX is Microsoft technology used for developing reusable object oriented software components. ... Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) is a Microsoft proprietary technology for software components distributed across several networked computers to communicate with each other. ... The Microsoft . ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Active Template Library (ATL) is a set of template-based C++ classes that simplify the programming of Component Object Model (COM) objects. ... The Windows Template Library (WTL) is an object-oriented Win32 encapsulation C++ library by Microsoft. ... In computing, the Windows Driver Model (WDM) — also known (somewhat misleadingly) at one point as the Win32 Driver Model — is a framework for device drivers that was introduced with Windows 98 and Windows 2000 to replace VxD, which was used on older versions of Windows such as Windows 95 and... The Broadcast Driver Architecture (or BDA) is a Microsoft standard for digital video capture on their Windows operating systems. ... Windows Driver Foundation (WDF) is a Microsoft development group which is building tools to aid in the creation of high-quality device drivers for Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, and later editions of Windows. ... The Kernel-Mode Driver Framework (KMDF) is a driver framework developed by Microsoft as a tool to aid driver developers create and maintain Kernel mode device drivers for Windows 2000[1] and later releases. ... The User-Mode Driver Framework is a device-driver development platform first introduced with Microsofts Windows Vista operating system, and is also available for Windows XP. It facilitates the creation of drivers for certain classes of devices. ... The Cryptographic Application Programming Interface (also known variously as CryptoAPI, Microsoft Cryptography API, or simply CAPI) is an application programming interface included with Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides services to enable developers to secure Windows-based applications using cryptography. ... CAPICOM is an ActiveX control created by Microsoft to help expose a select set of Microsoft Cryptographic Application Programming Interface (CryptoAPI) functions through Microsoft Component Object Model (COM). ... The Windows Cardspace UI This subsystem is a part of . ... DPAPI (Data Protection Application Programming Interface) is a relatively easy-to-use cryptography API available as a standard component in Microsoft Windows 2000 and later versions of Windows operating systems. ... The Microsoft . ... ASP.NET logo ASP.NET is a web application framework marketed by Microsoft that programmers can use to build dynamic web sites, web applications and XML web services. ... ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. ... . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... The Windows Cardspace UI This subsystem is a part of . ... Microsoft XNA (XNAs Not Acronymed[1]) is a set of tools, complete with a managed runtime environment, provided by Microsoft that facilitates computer game design, development and management. ... Microsoft Silverlight is a browser plugin that allows web applications to be developed with features like animation, vector graphics, and audio-video playback - features that characterize a rich internet application. ... Task Parallel Library (TPL, also referred to as Parallel FX Library) is a managed concurrency library being developed by a collaboration between Microsoft Research and the CLR team at Microsoft for inclusion with a future revision of the . ... A software factory is defined as a facility that assembles (not codes) software applications to conform to a Specification following a strict Methodology. ... Enterprise Framework (EFx), and the EFx Software Factory. ... The Microsoft Enterprise Library is a set of tools and programming libraries for the Microsoft . ... The Composite UI Application Block (or CAB) is an addition to Microsofts . ... Microsoft Connected Services Framework (CSF) is a service aggregation SOA platform from Microsoft. ... Inter-Process Communication (IPC) is a set of techniques for the exchange of data between two or more threads in one or more processes. ... MSRPC (Microsoft Remote Procedure Call) is a modified version of DCE/RPC. Additions include support for Unicode strings, implicit handles, inheritance of interfaces (which are extensively used in DCOM), and complex calculations in the variable-length string and structure paradigms already present in DCE/RPC. The DCE 1. ... In computing, a named pipe (also FIFO for its behaviour) is an extension to the traditional pipe concept on Unix and Unix-like systems, and is one of the methods of inter-process communication. ... A memory-mapped file is a segment of virtual memory which has been assigned a direct byte-for-byte correlation with some portion of a file or file-like resource. ... Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) is a technology for communication between multiple applications under Microsoft Windows and also OS/2. ... A MailSlot is a type of interprocess communication that allows communication between processes both locally and over a network. ... Microsoft Active Accessibility is a COM-based technology designed to improve the way accessibility aids work with applications running on Microsoft Windows. ... Microsoft UI Automation (UIA) is a new royalty-free, cross-platform managed code API exposing user interface controls for test automation and assistive technology such as screen readers. ... The Text Services Framework (TSF) , is a COM framework and API in Windows XP and later Windows operating systems that supports advanced text input and text processing. ... Operation of a typical Japanese romaji based IME. An input method editor (IME) is a program or operating system component that allows computer users to enter characters and symbols not found on their keyboard. ... Microsoft Language Interface Pack (LIP) is a localized skin for emerging or minority language markets, such as Catalan, Lithuanian, Tamil and Thai. ... This article is about Multilingual User Interface. ... Uniscribe is the Microsoft Windows set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... Microsoft XNA (XNAs Not Acronymed[1]) is a set of tools, complete with a managed runtime environment, provided by Microsoft that facilitates computer game design, development and management. ...

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Windows Management Instrumentation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3029 words)
Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is a set of extensions to the Windows Driver Model that provides an operating system interface through which instrumented components can provide information and notification.
The access to the manageable entities is made via a software component, called a “provider” which is nothing else than a DLL implementing a COM object written in C/C++ (See note at the end of this section).
Under Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP or Windows Server 2003, it is also possible to run this executable as an application, in which case, the executable runs in the current user context.
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