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Encyclopedia > Windows 2000
Windows 2000
(Part of the Microsoft Windows family)
Screenshot

Screenshot of Windows 2000 Professional
Developer
Microsoft
Web site: www.microsoft.com/windows2000
Release information
Release date: February 17, 2000 info
Current version:  5.0 SP4 Rollup 1 v2 (5.0.3700.6690), September 13, 2005 info
Source model: Shared source[1]
License: Microsoft EULA
Kernel type: Hybrid kernel
Support status
Extended Support Period until June/July 2010,[2][3] security updates will be provided free of cost and paid support is still available.

Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. It is part of the Microsoft Windows NT line of operating systems and was released on February 17, 2000. It was succeeded by Windows XP in October 2001 and Windows Server 2003 in April 2003. Windows 2000 is classified as a hybrid kernel operating system. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Windows redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixels, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/png) I have created this for the Windows 2000 article and all related articles. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shared source is Microsoft’s framework for sharing computer program source code with individuals and organizations. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... A software license is a type of proprietary or gratiuitious license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software — sometimes called an End User License Agreement (EULA) — that specifies the perimeters of the permission granted by the owner to the user. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... Pre-emption as used with respect to operating systems means the ability of the operating system to preempt or stop a currently scheduled task in favour of a higher priority task. ... GUI redirects here. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A uniprocessor system refers to a system with a single processor. ... Symmetric multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ...


Four editions of Windows 2000 have been released: Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server. Additionally, Microsoft offered Windows 2000 Advanced Server Limited Edition and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Limited Edition, which were released in 2001 and run on 64-bit Intel Itanium microprocessors.[4] While all editions of Windows 2000 are targeted to different markets, they each share a core set of common functionality, including many system utilities such as the Microsoft Management Console and standard system administration applications. Support for people with disabilities was improved over Windows NT 4.0 with a number of new assistive technologies, and Microsoft included increased support for different languages and locale information. All versions of the operating system support the Windows NT filesystem, NTFS 3.0,[5] the Encrypting File System, as well as basic and dynamic disk storage. The Windows 2000 Server family has additional functionality, including the ability to provide Active Directory services (a hierarchical framework of resources) , Distributed File System (a file system that supports sharing of files) and fault-redundant storage volumes. Windows 2000 can be installed and deployed to corporate desktops through either an attended or unattended installation. Unattended installations rely on the use of answer files to fill in installation information, and can be performed through a bootable CD using Microsoft Systems Management Server, by the System Preparation Tool. Windows 2000 is the last NT-kernel based version of Microsoft Windows that does not include Windows Product Activation, although Microsoft later introduced Windows Genuine Advantage for certain downloads and non-critical updates from the Download Center for Windows 2000. At the time of its release, Microsoft marketed Windows 2000 as the most secure Windows version they had ever shipped,[6] but it became the target of a number of high-profile virus attacks such as Code Red and Nimda. More than eight years after its release, it continues to receive patches for security vulnerabilities on a near-monthly basis. In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... 2007 Itanium logo Itanium is the brand name for 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64). ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... MMC on Windows Server 2003, running Computer Management snap-in The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is a component of modern Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides system administrators and advanced users with a flexible interface through which they may configure and monitor the system. ... A system administrator is a person responsible for running, or running some aspect of, a computer system. ... Windows NT 4. ... Assistive Technology (AT) is a generic term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices and the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. ... NTFS is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista. ... The Encrypting File System (EFS) is a file system with filesystem-level encryption available in Microsofts Windows 2000 and later operating systems. ... The Logical Disk Manager (LDM) is an implementation of a logical volume manager for Windows, developed by Microsoft and Veritas Software. ... Typically Active Directory is managed using the graphical Microsoft Management Console. ... The Microsoft Distributed File System, or DFS, is a set of client and server services that allow a large enterprise to organize many distributed SMB file shares into a distributed file system. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) [1] is a product for managing large groups of Microsoft-based computer systems. ... Sysprep is Microsofts System Preparation Utility for Windows deployment and is used to prepare the operating system for disk cloning. ...     Windows XP is a major revision of the Microsoft Windows operating system created for use on desktop and business computer systems. ... Windows Genuine Advantage Notification in Windows XP Windows Genuine Advantage Notification in Windows Vista Windows Genuine Advantage (WGA) is an anti-piracy system enacted by Microsoft that enforces Microsoft Windows online validation of the authenticity of several recent Microsoft operating systems when accessing several Microsoft Windows services, such as Windows... The Code Red worm was a computer worm released on the Internet on July 13, 2001. ... Nimda is a computer worm, isolated in September 2001. ...

History

See also: History of Microsoft Windows

Windows 2000 is a continuation of the Microsoft Windows NT line of operating systems, replacing its predecessor, Windows NT 4.0. Originally called Windows NT 5.0, then Windows NT 2000, Microsoft changed the name to Windows 2000 on October 27, 1998.[7] It was also the first Windows version that was released without a code name, though Windows 2000 Service Pack 1 was codenamed "Asteroid" and Windows 2000 64-bit was codenamed "Janus" (not to be confused with Windows 3.1, which had the same codename). The first beta for Windows 2000 was released on September 27, 1997 and several further betas were released until Beta 3 which was released on April 29, 1999. During the development timeline, there was a DEC Alpha build of Windows 2000 but it was abandoned with the second beta. (Windows NT 4.0 was the last version that support multiple architectures). From here, Microsoft issued three release candidates between July and November 1999, and finally released the operating system to partners on December 12, 1999.[8] The public received the full version of Windows 2000 on February 17, 2000. Three days before the launch of Windows 2000, which Microsoft advertised as "a standard in reliability", a leaked memo from Microsoft reported on by Mary Jo Foley revealed that Windows 2000 had "over 63,000 potential known defects".[9] After Foley's article was published, Microsoft blacklisted her for a considerable time:[10] InformationWeek summarized the release "our tests show the successor to NT 4.0 is everything we hoped it would be. Of course, it isn't perfect either."[11] Wired News later described the results of the February launch as "lackluster".[12] Novell criticized Microsoft's Active Directory, the new directory service architecture to be less scalable or reliable than their own Novell Directory Services (NDS) technology.[13] The Windows logo used since November 2006. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Windows NT 4. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Microsoft codenames are the codenames given by Microsoft to products it has in development, before these products are given the names by which they appear on store shelves. ... A Service Pack (more commonly, SP) is a software program that corrects known bugs, problems, or adds new features. ... A typical Windows 3. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... Windows NT 4. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Blacklisted redirects here. ... InformationWeek is a weekly technology magazine published by CMP Media. ... Wired News, online at Wired. ... For the road bicycle racing team previously known as Novell, see Rabobank (cycling). ... Typically Active Directory is managed using the graphical Microsoft Management Console. ... Novell eDirectory (formerly called Novell Directory Services) is an X.500 compatible directory service software product released in 1993 by Novell, Inc. ...


Originally, Windows 2000 was planned to replace both Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0. However, that was later changed. Instead, an updated version of Windows 98 called Windows 98 Second Edition was released in 1999 as a successor to Windows 98. Microsoft released Windows 2000 Datacenter Server, targeted at large-scale computing systems with support for 32 processors, on September 29, 2000. Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


On or shortly before February 12, 2004, "portions of the Microsoft Windows 2000 and Windows NT 4.0 source code were illegally made available on the Internet".[14] The source of the leak remains unannounced. Microsoft issued the following statement: is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...

Microsoft source code is both copyrighted and protected as a trade secret. As such, it is illegal to post it, make it available to others, download it or use it.

Despite the warnings, the archive containing the leaked code spread widely on the file-sharing networks. On February 16, 2004, an exploit "allegedly discovered by an individual studying the leaked source code"[14] for certain versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer was reported. File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An exploit is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or sequence of commands that take advantage of a bug, glitch or vulnerability in order to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized). ...


Architecture

The Windows 2000 operating system architecture consists of two layers (user mode and kernel mode) , with many different modules within both of these layers.
The Windows 2000 operating system architecture consists of two layers (user mode and kernel mode) , with many different modules within both of these layers.
See also: Architecture of Windows NT

Windows 2000 is a highly modular system that consists of two main layers: a user mode and a kernel mode. The user mode refers to the mode in which user programs are run. Such programs are limited in terms of what system resources they have access to, while the kernel mode has unrestricted access to the system memory and external devices. All user mode applications access system resources through the executive which runs in kernel mode. Image File history File links Windows_2000_architecture. ... Image File history File links Windows_2000_architecture. ... The Windows NT operating system familys architecture consists of two layers (user mode and kernel mode), with many different modules within both of these layers. ... User mode refers to two similar concepts in computer architecture. ... In processors with memory protection, kernel mode (as opposed to user mode) is the mode in which the operating system kernel runs. ...


User mode

User mode in Windows 2000 is made of subsystems capable of passing I/O requests to the appropriate kernel mode drivers by using the I/O manager. Two subsystems make up the user mode layer of Windows 2000: the environment subsystem and the integral subsystem. Energy Input: The energy placed into a reaction. ...


The environment subsystem was designed to run applications written for many different types of operating systems. These applications, however, run at a lower priority than kernel mode processes. There are three main environment subsystems:[15]

  1. Win32 subsystem runs 32-bit Windows applications and also supports Virtual DOS Machines (VDMs) , which allows MS-DOS and 16-bit Windows 3.1x (Win16) applications to run on Windows.
  2. OS/2 environment subsystem supports 16-bit character-based OS/2 applications and emulates OS/2 1.3 and 1.x, but not 32-bit or graphical OS/2 applications as used on OS/2 2.x or later.
  3. POSIX environment subsystem supports applications that are strictly written to either the POSIX.1 standard or the related ISO/IEC standards.

The integral subsystem looks after operating system specific functions on behalf of the environment subsystem. It consists of a security subsystem (grants/denies access and handles logons) , workstation service (helps the computer gain network access) and a server service (lets the computer provide network services). Windows API is a set of APIs, (application programming interfaces) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... Windows redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Windows API is a set of APIs, (application programming interfaces) available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ...


Kernel mode

Kernel mode in Windows 2000 has full access to the hardware and system resources of the computer. The kernel mode stops user mode services and applications from accessing critical areas of the operating system that they should not have access to. In processors with memory protection, kernel mode (as opposed to user mode) is the mode in which the operating system kernel runs. ...

Each object in Windows 2000 exists in its own namespace, as illustrated by this screenshot from SysInternal's WinObj

The executive interfaces with all the user mode subsystems. It deals with I/O, object management, security and process management. It contains various components, including: Screenshot of WinObject from SysInternals. ... Screenshot of WinObject from SysInternals. ... A namespace is a context in which a group of one or more identifiers might exist. ...

  • Object manager: a special executive subsystem that all other executive subsystems must pass through to gain access to Windows 2000 resources. This is essentially a resource management infrastructure service that allows Windows 2000 to be an object oriented operating system.
  • I/O Manager: allows devices to communicate with user-mode subsystems by translating user-mode read and write commands and passing them to device drivers.
  • Security Reference Monitor (SRM) : the primary authority for enforcing the security rules of the security integral subsystem.[16]
  • IPC Manager: short for Inter-Process Communication Manager, manages the communication between clients (the environment subsystem) and servers (components of the executive).
  • Virtual Memory Manager: manages virtual memory, allowing Windows 2000 to use the hard disk as a primary storage device (although strictly speaking it is secondary storage).
  • Process Manager: handles process and thread creation and termination
  • PnP Manager: handles Plug and Play and supports device detection and installation at boot time.
  • Power Manager: the power manager coordinates power events and generates power IRPs.
  • The display system is handled by a device driver contained in Win32k.sys. The Window Manager component of this driver is responsible for drawing windows and menus while the GDI (Graphics Device Interface) component is responsible for tasks such as drawing lines and curves, rendering fonts and handling palettes. Windows 2000 also introduced alpha blending into the Graphics Device Interface which reflects in the fade effect in menus.

The Windows 2000 Hardware Abstraction Layer, or HAL, is a layer between the physical hardware of the computer and the rest of the operating system. It was designed to hide differences in hardware and therefore provide a consistent platform to run applications on. The HAL includes hardware specific code that controls I/O interfaces, interrupt controllers and multiple processors. Object Manager in Windows, categorized hierarchically using namespaces Object Manager (internally called Ob) is a special subsystem implemented as part of Windows Executive which manages Windows resources. ... In computer science, object-oriented programming, OOP for short, is a computer programming paradigm. ... A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ... Inter-Process Communication (IPC) is a set of techniques for the exchange of data between two or more threads in one or more processes. ... The program thinks it has a large range of contiguous addresses; but in reality the parts it is currently using are scattered around RAM, and the inactive parts are saved in a disk file. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Primary storage, or internal memory, is computer memory that is accessible to the central processing unit of a computer without the use of computers input/output channels. ... In computer storage, secondary storage, or external memory, is computer memory that is not directly accessible to the central processing unit of a computer, requiring the use of computers input/output channels. ... In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. ... For the form of code consisting entirely of subroutine calls, see Threaded code. ... For the specific branded ISA add-on technology marketed by Intel and Microsoft, see Plug-And-Play. ... In computing, booting (booting up) is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ... I/O request packets (IRPs) are structures that are used by Windows Driver Model (WDM) and Windows NT device drivers to communicate with each other and the operating system. ... The Graphics Device Interface (GDI, sometimes called Graphical Device Interface) is one of the three core components or subsystems, together with the kernel and the Windows API for the user interface (GDI window manager) of Microsoft Windows. ... The Graphics Device Interface (GDI, sometimes called Graphical Device Interface) is one of the three core components or subsystems, together with the kernel and the Windows API for the user interface (GDI window manager) of Microsoft Windows. ... Line redirects here. ... In mathematics, the concept of a curve tries to capture the intuitive idea of a geometrical one-dimensional and continuous object. ... A font can mean: A member of a typeface family; or digital font - file format that encapsulates a typeface family in a database. ... A palette, in computer graphics, is a designated subset of the total range of colors supported by a computer graphics system. ... Alpha blending is a convex combination of two colors allowing for transparency effects in computer graphics. ... The Graphics Device Interface (GDI, sometimes called Graphical Device Interface) is one of the three core components or subsystems, together with the kernel and the Windows API for the user interface (GDI window manager) of Microsoft Windows. ... A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is an abstraction layer, implemented in software, between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer. ... A Programmable Interrupt Controller (or PIC) is an Intel 8259A chip that controls interrupts. ...


The hybrid kernel sits between the HAL and the executive and provides multiprocessor synchronization, thread and interrupt scheduling and dispatching, trap handling and exception dispatching. The hybrid kernel often interfaces with the process manager[17] and is responsible for initializing device drivers at bootup that are necessary to get the operating system up and running. Graphical overview of a hybrid kernel Hybrid kernel is a kernel architecture based on combining aspects of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems. ...


A stripped down variant of the Windows 2000 kernel was used on the Xbox. The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. ...


Common functionality

Windows 2000 introduced many of the Windows 98 new features into the NT line, such as, the Windows Desktop Update, Windows Driver Model, Internet Connection Sharing, Windows Media Player, WebDAV support etc. Certain features are common across all editions of Windows 2000, among them being NTFS 3.0,[5] the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) , the Encrypting File System (EFS) , Logical Disk Manager, usability enhancements and multi-language and locale support. Windows 2000 also has several system utilities included as standard. As well as these features, Microsoft introduced a new feature to protect critical system files, called Windows File Protection. This prevents programs (with the exception of Microsoft's update programs) from replacing critical Windows system files and thus making the system inoperable.[18] Image File history File links Summary The Official Windows 2000 logo Taken from http://www. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Microsofts Windows Desktop Update was an optional feature included with Internet Explorer 4, which provided several updated shell features introduced with the Windows 98 operating system for older versions of Microsoft Windows. ... In computing, the Windows Driver Model (WDM) — also known (somewhat misleadingly) at one point as the Win32 Driver Model — is a framework for device drivers that was introduced with Windows 98 and Windows 2000 to replace VxD, which was used on older versions of Windows such as Windows 95 and... Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) is the name given by Microsoft to a feature in newer versions of its Windows operating system (as of Windows 98 Second Edition) for sharing a single Internet connection on one computer between other computers on the same local area network. ... Windows Media Player (WMP) is a digital media player and media library application developed by Microsoft that is used for playing audio, video and viewing images on personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system, as well as on Pocket PC and Windows Mobile-based devices. ... WebDAV, an abbreviation that stands for Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning, refers to the set of extensions to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) which allows users to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote World Wide Web servers. ... MMC on Windows Server 2003, running Computer Management snap-in The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is a component of modern Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides system administrators and advanced users with a flexible interface through which they may configure and monitor the system. ... The Encrypting File System (EFS) is a file system with filesystem-level encryption available in Microsofts Windows 2000 and later operating systems. ... The Logical Disk Manager (LDM) is an implementation of a logical volume manager for Windows, developed by Microsoft and Veritas Software. ... Windows File Protection (WFP) is a technology included in all Microsoft Windows operating systems beginning with Windows 2000 to prevent programs from replacing critical Windows system files. ...


Microsoft recognized that the infamous Blue Screen of Death (or stop error) could cause serious problems for servers that needed to be constantly running and so provided a system setting that would allow the server to automatically reboot when a stop error occurred. Also included is an option to dump any of the first 64 KB of memory to disk (the smallest amount of memory that is useful for debugging purposes, also known as a minidump) , a dump of only the kernel's memory, or a dump of the entire contents of memory to disk, as well as write that this event happened to the Windows 2000 event log. In order to improve performance on computers running Windows 2000 as a server operating system, Microsoft gave administrators the choice of optimizing the operating system's memory and processor usage patterns for background services or for applications. Windows 2000 also introduced such technologies as the Windows Installer, Windows Management Instrumentation, OpenType PostScript fonts (.OTF) , Data protection API (DPAPI) and the Indexing Service into the operating system. A blue screen of death as seen in Windows XP and Vista. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware thus making it behave as expected. ... Nero software setup is using Windows Installer program The Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer, codename Darwin) is an engine for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software on modern Microsoft Windows systems. ... Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is a set of extensions to the Windows Driver Model that provides an operating system interface through which instrumented components provide information and notification. ... OpenType is a scalable format for computer fonts (also sometimes known interchangeably as typefaces), initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ... DPAPI (Data Protection Application Programming Interface) is a relatively easy-to-use cryptography API available as a standard component in Microsoft Windows 2000 and later versions of Windows operating systems. ... Windows indexing service allows instant searching of PCs and corporate networks. ...


Improvements to Windows Explorer

Windows Explorer had a built-in media player in Windows 2000
Windows Explorer had a built-in media player in Windows 2000

The Windows Explorer received a number of enhancements in Windows 2000. It was the first Windows NT release to include Active Desktop, a component first introduced as a part of Internet Explorer 4.0, and only pre-installed in Windows 98 by that time. Renamed in Windows 2000 as "Windows Desktop Update" [19], it allowed the users to customize the way folders look and behave by using HTML templates, having the file extension HTT. This feature had been abused by computer viruses that employed malicious scripts, Java applets, or ActiveX controls in folder template files as their infection vector. Two such viruses are VBS/Roor-C[20] and VBS.Redlof.a.[21] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Windows Explorer running on Windows Vista Windows Explorer running on Windows XP Windows Explorer is an application that is part of modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that provides a graphical user interface for accessing the file systems. ... Windows Explorer running on Windows Vista Windows Explorer running on Windows XP Windows Explorer is an application that is part of modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that provides a graphical user interface for accessing the file systems. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Active Desktop is a feature of Microsoft Internet Explorer 4. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Microsofts Windows Desktop Update was an optional feature included with Internet Explorer 4, which provided several updated shell features introduced with the Windows 98 operating system for older versions of Microsoft Windows. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... A filename extension or filename suffix is an extra set of (usually) alphanumeric characters that is appended to the end of a filename to allow computer users (as well as various pieces of software on the computer system) to quickly determine the type of data stored in the file. ... A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. ... Java language redirects here. ... ActiveX is Microsoft technology used for developing reusable object oriented software components. ...


The "Web-style" folders view, with the left Explorer pane displaying details for the object currently selected, is turned on by default in Windows 2000. For certain file types, such as pictures and media files, the preview is also displayed in the left pane. Until the dedicated interactive preview pane appeared in Windows Vista, Windows 2000 had been the only Windows release to feature an interactive media player as the previewer for sound and video files. However, such a previewer can be enabled in Windows Me and Windows XP through the use of third-party shell extensions, as the extensibility of the updated Windows Explorer allows for custom thumbnail previewers and tooltip handlers. The default file tooltip displays file title, author, subject and comments;[22] these metadata may be read from a special NTFS stream, in case the file is located on an NTFS volume, or from an OLE structured storage stream, in case the file is a structured storage document. All Microsoft Office documents since Office 95 [23] are stored in structured storages, so that their metadata are displayable in Windows 2000 Explorer default tooltip. Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (IPA pronunciation: [miː], [ɛm iː]), is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... The tooltip is a common graphical user interface element. ... NTFS is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista. ... Structured storage (variously also known as COM structured storage or OLE structured storage) is a technology developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows operating system for storing hierarchical data within a single file. ... Microsoft Office is an office suite from Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X operating systems. ...


The right pane of Windows 2000 Explorer, which usually just lists files and folders, can also be customized. For example, the contents of the system folders aren't displayed by default, instead showing in the right pane a cautionary message telling the user that modifying the contents of the system folders could harm their computer. It's possible to define additional Explorer panes by using DIV elements in folder template files [19] Other Explorer UI elements that can be customized include columns in "Details" view, icon overlays, and search providers: the new DHTML-based search pane is integrated into Windows 2000 Explorer, unlike the separate search dialog found in all previous Explorer versions. This degree of customizability is new to Windows 2000; neither Windows 98 nor the Desktop Update could provide it.[24] The <div> (division) tag divides a document into sections such as chapters and appendices. ...


NTFS 3.0

Windows 2000 supports disk quotas, which can be set via the "Quota" tab found in the hard disk properties dialog box.
Windows 2000 supports disk quotas, which can be set via the "Quota" tab found in the hard disk properties dialog box.
Main article: NTFS

Microsoft released the version 3.0 of NTFS [5] (sometimes incorrectly referred to as NTFS 5 in relation to the kernel version number) as part of Windows 2000; this introduced disk quotas, file-system-level encryption, sparse files and reparse points. Sparse files allow for the efficient storage of data sets that are very large yet contain many areas that only have zeros. Reparse points allow the object manager to reset a file namespace lookup and let file system drivers implement changed functionality in a transparent manner. Reparse points are used to implement volume mount points, junctions, Hierarchical Storage Management, Native Structured Storage and Single Instance Storage. Volume mount points and directory junctions allow for a file to be transparently referred from one file or directory location to another. A screenshot of the Windows NT Quota Management properties page. ... A screenshot of the Windows NT Quota Management properties page. ... A disk quota is a limit set by a system administrator that restricts certain aspects of file system usage on modern operating systems. ... Example of dialog box from Microsoft Windows Dialog boxes are special windows which are used by computer programs or by the operating system to display information to the user, or to get a response if needed. ... NTFS is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista. ... A disk quota is a limit set by a system administrator that restricts certain aspects of file system usage on modern operating systems. ... The Encrypting File System (EFS) is a file system with filesystem-level encryption available in Microsofts Windows 2000 and later operating systems. ... In computer science, a sparse file is a type of computer file that attempts to use file system space more efficiently. ... An NTFS reparse point (JP) is a type of NTFS file system object. ... An NTFS reparse point (JP) is a type of NTFS file system object. ... Object Manager in Windows, categorized hierarchically using namespaces Object Manager (internally called Ob) is a special subsystem implemented as part of Windows Executive which manages Windows resources. ... An NTFS junction point (JP) is a feature of the NTFS file system version 3. ... Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) is a data storage technique that automatically moves data between high-cost and low-cost storage media. ... Structured storage (variously also known as COM structured storage or OLE structured storage) is a technology developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows operating system for storing hierarchical data within a single file. ... When several files in a computer filesystem contain exactly the same data, single instance storage can replace the references to these identical files by references to a single stored copy of the file. ...


Encrypting File System

The Encrypting File System (EFS) introduced strong file system-level encryption to Windows. It allows any folder or drive on an NTFS volume to be encrypted transparently by the end user. EFS works in conjunction with the EFS service, Microsoft's CryptoAPI and the EFS File System Runtime Library (FSRTL). As of May 2007, its encryption has not been compromised. The Encrypting File System (EFS) is a file system with filesystem-level encryption available in Microsofts Windows 2000 and later operating systems. ... For library and office filing systems, see Library classification. ... Encrypt redirects here. ... The Cryptographic Application Programming Interface (also known variously as CryptoAPI, Microsoft Cryptography API, or simply CAPI) is an application programming interface included with Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides services to enable developers to secure Windows-based applications using cryptography. ... In computer science, runtime or run time describes the operation of a computer program, the duration of its execution, from beginning to termination (compare compile time). ...


EFS works by encrypting a file with a bulk symmetric key (also known as the File Encryption Key, or FEK) , which is used because it takes a relatively smaller amount of time to encrypt and decrypt large amounts of data than if an asymmetric key cipher is used. The symmetric key that is used to encrypt the file is then encrypted with a public key that is associated with the user who encrypted the file, and this encrypted data is stored in the header of the encrypted file. To decrypt the file, the file system uses the private key of the user to decrypt the symmetric key that is stored in the file header. It then uses the symmetric key to decrypt the file. Because this is done at the file system level, it is transparent to the user.[25] A symmetric-key algorithm is an algorithm for cryptography that uses the same cryptographic key to encrypt and decrypt the message. ... In cryptography, an asymmetric key algorithm uses a pair of different, though related, cryptographic keys to encrypt and decrypt. ... PKC, see PKC (disambiguation) Public-key cryptography is a form of modern cryptography which allows users to communicate securely without previously agreeing on a shared secret key. ...


In case of a user losing access to their key, support for recovery agents that can decrypt files is built in to EFS.


Basic and dynamic disk storage

Main article: Logical Disk Manager

Windows 2000 introduced the Logical Disk Manager for dynamic storage. All versions of Windows 2000 support three types of dynamic disk volumes (along with basic disks) : simple volumes, spanned volumes and striped volumes: The Logical Disk Manager (LDM) is an implementation of a logical volume manager for Windows, developed by Microsoft and Veritas Software. ... The Logical Disk Manager (LDM) is an implementation of a logical volume manager for Windows, developed by Microsoft and Veritas Software. ... The Logical Disk Manager (LDM) is an implementation of a logical volume manager for Windows, developed by Microsoft and Veritas Software. ... The Logical Disk Manager (LDM) is an implementation of a logical volume manager for Windows, developed by Microsoft and Veritas Software. ...

  • Simple volume, a volume with disk space from one disk.
  • Spanned volumes, where multiple disks (up to 32) show up as one, increasing it in size but not enhancing performance. When one disk fails, the array is destroyed. Some data may be recoverable. This corresponds to JBOD and not to RAID-1.
  • Striped volumes, also known as RAID-0, store all their data across several disks in stripes. This allows better performance because disk read and writes are balanced across multiple disks.

Windows 2000 also added support for the iSCSI protocol. In computing, a redundant array of independent disks (more commonly known as a RAID) is a system of using multiple hard drives for sharing or replicating data among the drives. ... In computing, a redundant array of inexpensive disks, also later known as redundant array of independent disks (commonly abbreviated RAID) is a system which uses multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives. ... In computing, a redundant array of inexpensive disks, also later known as redundant array of independent disks (commonly abbreviated RAID) is a system which uses multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives. ... iSCSI is a protocol that allows clients (called initiators) to send SCSI commands (CDBs) to SCSI storage devices (targets) on remote servers. ...


Accessibility support

Windows 2000 onscreen keyboard map allows users who have problems with using the keyboard to use a mouse to input text.

Microsoft made an effort to increase the usability of Windows 2000 over Windows NT 4.0 for people with visual and auditory impairments and other disabilities. They included several utilities designed to make the system more accessible, although many of these accessibility features were already available with previous versions of Windows: The Windows 2000 onscreen keyboard map. ... The Windows 2000 onscreen keyboard map. ... Windows NT 4. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In human-computer interaction, computer accessibility refers to the usability of a computer system by people with disabilities or age-related limitations. ...

  • FilterKeys: These are a group of keyboard related features for people with typing issues, and include:
    • SlowKeys: Ignore keystrokes that are not held down for a certain time period.
    • BounceKeys: Multiple keystrokes to one key to be ignored within a certain timeframe.
    • RepeatKeys: allows users to slow down the rate at which keys are repeated via the keyboard's keyrepeat feature.
  • ToggleKeys: when turned on, Windows will play a sound when either the CAPS LOCK, NUM LOCK or SCROLL LOCK keys are pressed.
  • MouseKeys: allows the cursor to be moved around the screen via the numeric keypad instead of the mouse.
  • On-screen keyboard: allows users to use a mouse to use the keyboard and enter on-screen keyboard characters.
  • SerialKeys: gives Windows 2000 the ability to support speech augmentation devices.
  • StickyKeys: makes modifier keys (ALT, CTRL and SHIFT) become "sticky" — in other words a user can press the modifier key, release that key and then press the combination key. Normally the modifier key must remain pressed down to activate the sequence (Activated by pressing Shift 5 times quickly).
  • Microsoft Magnifier: A screen magnifier that assists users with visual impairments by magnifying the part of the screen they place their mouse over.
  • Narrator: Microsoft Narrator, introduced in Windows 2000, assists users with visual impairments with system messages, as when these appear the narrator will read this out via the sound system.
  • High contrast theme: to assist users with visual impairments.
  • SoundSentry: designed to help users with auditory impairments, Windows 2000 will show a visual effect when a sound is played through the sound system.

A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Mouse keys is a feature of some operating systems used to improve accessibility to disabled users. ... Look up Keyboard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A keyboard can refer to a: Alphanumeric keyboard, any keyboard that has both letter and numbers on it Typewriter keyboard Computer keyboard IBM PC keyboard Musical keyboard, a keyboard on a musical instrument Keyboard instrument, such as the piano Keyboard synthesizer, a... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with virtual keyboard. ... Sticky keys is a feature of computer Desktop Environments. ... In computing, a modifier key is a special key on a computer keyboard that modifies the normal action of another key when the two are pressed in combination. ... Microsoft Magnifier is a magnification tool for the visually impaired to use Microsoft Windows. ... A screen magnifier is software that interfaces with a computers graphical output to present enlarged screen content. ... Visual impairment is the functional loss of vision. ... Narrator in Windows XP Narrator is a light-duty screen reader utility packaged with Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Vista. ...

Language and locale support

Windows 2000 has support for many languages other than English. It supports Arabic, Armenian, Baltic, Central European, Cyrillic, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew, Indic, Japanese, Korean, Simplified Chinese, Thai, Traditional Chinese, Turkic, Vietnamese and Western European languages.[26] It also has support for many different locales, a list of which can be found on Microsoft's website. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... In computing, locale is a set of parameters that defines the users language, country and any special variant preferences that the user wants to see in their user interface. ...


Games support

Windows 2000 included version 7.0 of the DirectX API, commonly used by game developers on Windows 98.[27] The last supported version of DirectX that Windows 2000 supports is DirectX 9.0c (Shader Model 3.0) , the same version as the one shipped with Windows XP Service Pack 2.[28] The majority of games written for recent versions of DirectX could therefore run on Windows 2000, in contrast to Windows NT 4.0, which only provided support for DirectX 3.0. Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms. ... An application programming interface (API) is a source code interface that a computer system or program library provides in order to support requests for services to be made of it by a computer program. ... A video game developer is a software developer (a business or an individual) that creates video games. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ...


System utilities

The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is used for administering Windows 2000 computers.
The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is used for administering Windows 2000 computers.

Windows 2000 introduced the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) , which is used to create, save, and open administrative tools. Each of the tools is called a console, and most consoles allow an administrator to administer other Windows 2000 computers from one centralised computer. Each console can contain one or many specific administrative tools, called snap-ins. Snap-ins can be either standalone (performs one function) , or extensions (adds functionality to an existing snap-in). In order to provide the ability to control what snap-ins can be seen in a console, the MMC allows consoles to be created in author mode or created in user mode. Author mode allows snap-ins to be added, new windows to be created, all portions of the console tree can be displayed and for consoles to be saved. User mode allows consoles to be distributed with restrictions applied. User mode consoles can grant full access to the user so they can make whatever changes they desire, or they can grant limited access to users which prevents users adding snapins to the console, though they can view multiple windows in a console. Alternatively users can be granted limited access, preventing them from adding to the console and stopping them viewing multiple windows in a single console.[29] Download high resolution version (1024x768, 32 KB)Screenshot of the Microsoft Management Console in Windows 2000. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 32 KB)Screenshot of the Microsoft Management Console in Windows 2000. ... MMC on Windows Server 2003, running Computer Management snap-in The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is a component of modern Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides system administrators and advanced users with a flexible interface through which they may configure and monitor the system. ...

The Windows 2000 Computer Management console is capable of performing many system tasks. It is pictured here starting a disk defragmentation.
The Windows 2000 Computer Management console is capable of performing many system tasks. It is pictured here starting a disk defragmentation.

The main tools that come with Windows 2000 can be found in the Computer Management console (found in Administrative Tools in the Control Panel). This contains the Event Viewer — a means of seeing events and the Windows equivalent of a log file, a system information utility, a backup utility, Task Scheduler and management consoles to view open shared folders and shared folder sessions, configure and manage COM+ applications, configure Group Policy, manage all the local users and user groups, and a device manager. It also contains a disk management snap-in, a Removable Storage snap-in, a disk defragmenter as well a performance diagnostic console, which displays graphs of system performance and configures data logs and alerts. Lastly, it also contains a service configuration console, which allows users to view all installed services and to stop and start them on demand, as well as configure what those services should do when the computer starts. Screenshot of the Windows 2000 Computer Management console in the process of performing a disk defragmentation. ... Screenshot of the Windows 2000 Computer Management console in the process of performing a disk defragmentation. ... In the context of administering computer systems, defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation in file systems. ... Event Viewer in Windows XP. Event Viewer in Windows Vista. ... Data logging is the practice of recording, in some medium, sequential input, often in a time-associated format. ... NTBackup is Windows built-in backup software, introduced in Windows NT around 1997 and part of all subsequent versions up to and including Windows 2003 Server, including Windows 2000 and Windows XP. Backup Basics from Microsoft Website with general discussion and information to assist in the use of NTBackup Categories... This article is about the scheduled tasks component in Windows. ... Component Object Model (COM) is a platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... Local Group Policy Editor in Windows XP Media Center Edition Group policy is a feature of Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems that provides centralized management and configuration of computers and remote users in an Active Directory environment. ... The Device Manager is a tool included with Microsoft Windows operating systems that allows the user to display and control the hardware attached to the computer. ... The Logical Disk Manager (LDM) is an implementation of a logical volume manager for Windows, developed by Microsoft and Veritas Software. ... Windows Disk Defragmenter is a computer program included in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed (and sometimes increase the amount of usable space) by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations, or defragmenting. ... A Windows service is an application that starts when the Microsoft Windows operating system is booted and runs in the background as long as Windows is running. ...

The REGEDIT.EXE utility on Windows 2000.

Windows 2000 comes bundled with two utilities to edit the Windows registry, REGEDIT.EXE and REGEDT32.EXE. REGEDIT.EXE was directly ported from Windows 98, and therefore does not support editing registry permissions. REGEDT32.EXE has the older multiple document interface (MDI) and can edit registry permissions in the same manner that Windows NT's REGEDT32.EXE program could. REGEDIT.EXE has a left-side tree view of the Windows registry, lists all loaded hives and represents the three components of a value (its name, type, and data) as separate columns of a table. REGEDT32.EXE has a left-side tree view, but each hive has its own window, so the tree displays only keys and it represents values as a list of strings. REGEDIT.EXE supports right-clicking of entries in a tree view to adjust properties and other settings. REGEDT32.EXE requires all actions to be performed from the top menu bar. Windows XP was the first system to integrate these two programs into a single utility, adopting the REGEDIT.EXE behavior with the additional NT functionality. Image File history File links The REGEDIT.EXE utility as it shipped with Windows NT 5. ... Image File history File links The REGEDIT.EXE utility as it shipped with Windows NT 5. ... The Windows registry is a directory which stores settings and options for the operating system for Microsoft Windows 32-bit versions, 64-bit versions and Windows Mobile. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... A tree view or an outline view is a graphical user interface element (widget) that presents a hierarchial view of information. ... The Windows registry is a directory which stores settings and options for the operating system for Microsoft Windows 32-bit versions, 64-bit versions and Windows Mobile. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ...


The System File Checker (SFC) also comes bundled with Windows 2000. It is a command line utility that scans system files and verifies whether they were signed by Microsoft and works in conjunction with the Windows File Protection mechanism. It can also repopulate and repair all the files in the Dllcache folder.[30] System File Checker is a utility in Microsoft Windows that allows users to scan for and restore corruptions in Windows system files. ... A command line interface or CLI is a method of interacting with a computer by giving it lines of textual commands (that is, a sequence of characters) either from keyboard input or from a script. ... Windows File Protection (WFP) is a technology included in all Microsoft Windows operating systems beginning with Windows 2000 to prevent programs from replacing critical Windows system files. ...


Recovery Console

The Recovery Console is usually used to recover unbootable systems.
The Recovery Console is usually used to recover unbootable systems.
Main article: Recovery Console

The Recovery Console is an application that is run from outside the installed copy of Windows and that enables a user to perform maintenance tasks that cannot be run from inside of the installed copy, or cannot be feasibly run from another computer or copy of Windows 2000. It is usually used to recover the system from errors causing booting to fail, which would render other tools useless. Image File history File links Windows_2000_Recovery_Console. ... Image File history File links Windows_2000_Recovery_Console. ... The Windows 2000 Recovery Console selection, login, and command prompts. ... The Windows 2000 Recovery Console selection, login, and command prompts. ...


It presents itself as a simple command line interface. The commands are limited to ones for checking and repairing the hard drive(s) , repairing boot information (including NTLDR) , replacing corrupted system files with fresh copies from the CD, or enabling/disabling services and drivers for the next boot. A command line interface or CLI is a method of interacting with a computer by giving it lines of textual commands (that is, a sequence of characters) either from keyboard input or from a script. ... An NTLDR boot menu. ...


The console can be accessed in one of two ways:

  1. Starting from the Windows 2000 CD, and choosing to enter the Recovery Console instead of continuing with setup, or
  2. Installing the Recovery Console via Winnt32.exe, with the /cmdcons switch. However, the console can then only be used if the system boots to the point where NTLDR can start it.

Server family functionality

The Windows 2000 server family consists of Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server.


All editions of Windows 2000 Server have the following services and functionality built-in:

Screenshot of Windows 2000 Server
Screenshot of Windows 2000 Server

The Server editions include more features and components, including the Microsoft Distributed File System (DFS) , Active Directory support and fault tolerant storage. Remote Access Services (RAS) is a service provided by Windows NT which allows most of the services which would be available on a network to be accessed over a modem link. ... Dial-up access is a form of Internet access via telephone line. ... VPN redirects here. ... This article is about an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol. ... In computer networking, Network Address Translation (NAT, also known as Network Masquerading, Native Address Translation or IP Masquerading) is a technique of transceiving network traffic through a router that involves re-writing the source and/or destination IP addresses and usually also the TCP/UDP port numbers of IP packets... In computer networks, unicast is the sending of information packets to a single destination. ... Multicast is sometimes also (incorrectly) used to refer to a multiplexed broadcast. ... This article is about routing (or routeing) in computer networks. ... The DNS support in Microsoft Windows NT (and thus its derivatives Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows XP, and Microsoft Windows Server 2003) comprises two clients and a server. ... Dynamic DNS is a system which allows the domain name data held in a name server to be updated in real time. ... Typically Active Directory is managed using the graphical Microsoft Management Console. ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ... Smart card used for health insurance in France. ... The Microsoft Distributed File System, or DFS, is a set of client and server services that allow a large enterprise to organize many distributed SMB file shares into a distributed file system. ... Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) is a data storage technique that automatically moves data between high-cost and low-cost storage media. ... NTFS is the standard file system of Windows NT, including its later versions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Vista. ... Fault tolerant design refers to a method for designing a system so it will continue to operate, possibly at a reduced level (also known as graceful degradation), rather than failing completely, when some part of the system fails. ... In computing, a redundant array of inexpensive disks, also later known as redundant array of independent disks (commonly abbreviated RAID) is a system which uses multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives. ... In computing, a redundant array of inexpensive disks, also later known as redundant array of independent disks (commonly abbreviated RAID) is a system which uses multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives. ... Local Group Policy Editor in Windows XP Media Center Edition Group policy is a feature of Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems that provides centralized management and configuration of computers and remote users in an Active Directory environment. ... Typically Active Directory is managed using the graphical Microsoft Management Console. ... Granularity is a measure of the size of the components, or descriptions of components, that make up a system. ... A roaming user profile is a concept in the Microsoft Windows NT-based family of operating systems that allows a user with a network account to log in to numerous computers on the same network and access their local files and settings regardless of which workstation they selected. ... Microsoft Message Queuing or MSMQ is a technology developed by Microsoft and deployed in its Windows Server operating systems since Windows NT 4 and Windows 95. ... The Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI) is an API, which enables PCs running Microsoft Windows to use telephone services. ... Component Object Model (COM) is a platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Integrated Windows Authentication (IWA), formerly know as NTLM (NT LAN Manager), is a computer networking security protocol which operates in a variety of Microsoft Windows network protocols for authentication purposes. ... Kerberos is the name of a computer network authentication protocol, which allows individuals communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner. ... SPNEGO stands for Simple and Protected GSSAPI Negotiation Mechanism. ... MS-CHAP is the Microsoft version of the Challenge-handshake authentication protocol, CHAP. The protocol exist in two versions, MS-CHAPv1 (defined in RFC 2433) and MS-CHAPv2 (defined in RFC 2759). ... Diagram of a public key infrastructure In cryptography, a public key infrastructure (PKI) is an arrangement that binds public keys with respective user identities by means of a certificate authority (CA). ... In cryptography, a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity which issues digital certificates for use by other parties. ... Terminal Services is a component of Microsoft Windows (both server and client versions) that allows a user to access applications and data stored on a remote computer over a network. ... Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a multi-channel protocol that allows a user to connect to a computer running Microsoft Terminal Services. ... Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly called Internet Information Server) is a set of Internet-based services for servers using Microsoft Windows. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Distributed File System

The Distributed File System, or DFS, allows shares in multiple different locations to be logically grouped under one folder, or DFS root. When users try to access a share that exists off the DFS root, the user is really looking at a DFS link and the DFS server transparently redirects them to the correct file server and share. A DFS root can only exist on a Windows 2000 version that is part of the server family, and only one DFS root can exist on that server. The Microsoft Distributed File System, or DFS, is a set of client and server services that allow a large enterprise to organize many distributed SMB file shares into a distributed file system. ... In computer networking, Server Message Block (SMB) operates as an application-level network protocol mainly applied to shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


There can be two ways of implementing DFS on Windows 2000: through standalone DFS, or through domain-based DFS. Standalone DFS allows for only DFS roots that exist on the local computer, and thus does not use Active Directory. Domain-based DFS roots exist within Active Directory and can have their information distributed to other domain controllers within the domain — this provides fault tolerance to DFS. DFS roots that exist on a domain must be hosted on a domain controller or on a domain member server. The file and root information is replicated via the Microsoft File Replication Service (FRS).[32] On Windows Server Systems, the domain controller (DC) is the server that responds to security authentication requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc. ... Fault-tolerance or graceful degradation is the property that enables a system (often computer-based) to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or more faults within) some of its components. ... File Replication Service is a Microsoft service for distributing folders stored in the SYSVOL shared folder on domain controllers and Microsoft Distributed File System (DFS) shared folders. ...


Active Directory

Main article: Active Directory

A new way of organizing Windows network domains, or groups of resources, called Active Directory, was introduced with Windows 2000 and obsoleted Windows NT's traditional domain model. Active Directory's hierarchical nature allowed administrators a built-in way to manage user and computer policies, user accounts, and to automatically deploy programs and updates with a greater degree of scalability and centralization than provided in previous Windows versions. It is one of the main reasons many corporations migrated to Windows 2000. User information stored in Active Directory also provided a convenient phone book-like function to end users. Active Directory domains can vary from small installations with a few hundred objects, to large installations with millions of objects. Active Directory contains the ability to organise and link groups of domains into a contiguous domain name space to form trees. Groups of trees existing outside of the same namespace can be linked together to form forests. Typically Active Directory is managed using the graphical Microsoft Management Console. ... A Windows Server domain or Windows NT Domain is a logical group of computers running versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that share a central directory database. ... This is a listing of the versions of the operating systems offered by Microsoft as Windows. ... The term domain name has multiple related meanings: A name that identifies a computer or computers on the internet. ...


Active Directory services could only be installed on a Windows 2000 Server, Advanced Server, or Datacenter Server computer, and cannot be installed on a Windows 2000 Professional computer. However, Windows 2000 Professional was the first client operating system able to exploit Active Directory's new functionality. As part of an organization's migration, Windows NT clients continued to function until all clients were upgraded to Windows 2000 Professional, at which point the Active Directory domain could be switched to native mode and maximum functionality achieved. The term native mode is used in computing as follows. ...


Active Directory requires a DNS server that supports SRV resource records, or that an organization's existing DNS infrastructure be upgraded to support this functionality. It also requires that one or more domain controllers exist to hold the Active Directory database and provide Active Directory directory services. An SRV record or Service record is a category of data in the Internet Domain Name System specifying information on available services. ... A Directory service organizes content in a directory server into a logical and accessible structure. ...


Volume fault tolerance

Along with support for simple, spanned and striped volumes, the server family of Windows 2000 also supports fault tolerant volume types. The types supported are mirrored volumes and RAID-5 volumes:

  • Mirrored volumes: the volume contains several disks, and when data is written to one it is also written to the other disks. This means that if one disk fails, the data can be totally recovered from the other disk. Mirrored volumes are also known as RAID-1.
  • RAID-5 volumes: a RAID-5 volume consists of multiple disks, and it uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks. Should a disk fail in the array, the parity blocks from the surviving disks are combined mathematically with the data blocks from the surviving disks to reconstruct the data on the failed drive "on-the-fly".

In computing, a redundant array of inexpensive disks, also later known as redundant array of independent disks (commonly abbreviated RAID) is a system which uses multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives. ... In computing, a redundant array of inexpensive disks, also later known as redundant array of independent disks (commonly abbreviated RAID) is a system which uses multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives. ... In computing (specifically data transmission and data storage), block size indicates a nominal size, usually expressed in bytes or bits, of a block of data. ...

Deployment

Windows 2000 can be deployed to a site via various methods. It can be installed onto servers via traditional media (such as via CD) or via distribution folders that reside on a shared folder. Installations can be attended or unattended. An attended installation requires the manual intervention of an operator to choose options when installing the operating system. Unattended installations are scripted via an answer file, or predefined script in the form of an INI file that has all the options filled in already. An answer file can be created manually or using the graphical Setup manager. The Winnt.exe or Winnt32.exe program then uses that answer file to automate the installation. Unattended installations can be performed via a bootable CD, using Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) , via the System Preparation Tool (Sysprep), via running the Winnt32.exe program using the /syspart switch or via running Remote Installation Services (RIS). The ability to slipstream a service pack into the original operating system setup files is also introduced in Windows 2000. [33] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... An initialization file, or INI file, is a configuration file that contains configuration data for Microsoft Windows based applications. ... Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) [1] is a product for managing large groups of Microsoft-based computer systems. ... Sysprep is Microsofts System Preparation Utility for Windows deployment and is used to prepare the operating system for disk cloning. ... A Microsoft supplied server that provides Preboot eXecution Environment (PXE) BIOS enabled computers to remotely execute boot environment variables. ... In computer slang, to slipstream is to integrate files from a hotfix or service pack into the original installation media. ... A Service Pack (more commonly, SP) is a software program that corrects known bugs, problems, or adds new features. ...


The Sysprep method is started on a standardised reference computer — though the hardware need not be similar — and it copies the required installation files from the reference computer's hard drive to the target computer's hard drive. The hard drive does not need to be in the target computer and may be swapped out to it at any time, with hardware configuration still needing to be done later. The Winnt.exe program must also be passed a /unattend switch that points to a valid answer file and a /s file to point to the location of one or more valid installation sources.


Sysprep allows the duplication of a disk image on an existing Windows 2000 Server installation to multiple servers. This means that all applications and system configuration settings will be copied across to the new Windows 2000 installations, but it also means that the reference and target computers must have the same HALs, ACPI support, and mass storage devices — though Windows 2000 automatically detects Plug and Play devices. The primary reason for using Sysprep is for deploying Windows 2000 to a site that has standard hardware and that needs a fast method of installing Windows 2000 to those computers. If a system has different HALs, mass storage devices or ACPI support, then multiple images would need to be maintained. A disk image is a computer file containing the complete contents and structure of a data storage medium or device, such as a Hard drive, CD or DVD. The term has been generalized to cover any such file, whether originated from an actual physical storage device or not. ... ACPI stands for Advanced Configuration and Power Interface, which is the alternative to APM. It is an open industry specification co-developed by Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, Phoenix and Toshiba. ... For the specific branded ISA add-on technology marketed by Intel and Microsoft, see Plug-And-Play. ...


Systems Management Server can be used to upgrade system to Windows 2000 to multiple systems. Those operating systems that can be upgraded in this process must be running a version of Windows that can be upgraded (Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 98 and Windows 95 OSR2.x) and those versions must be running the SMS client agent that can receive software installation operations. Using SMS allows installations to happen over a wide geographical area and provides centralised control over upgrades to systems.


Remote Installation Services (RIS) are a means to automatically install Windows 2000 Professional (and not Windows 2000 Server) to a local computer over a network from a central server. Images do not have to support specific hardware configurations and the security settings can be configured after the computer reboots as the service generates a new unique security ID (SID) for the machine. This is required so that local accounts are given the right identifier and do not clash with other Windows 2000 Professional computers on a network.[34] RIS requires that client computers are able to boot over the network via either a network interface card that has a Pre-Boot Execution Environment (PXE) boot ROM installed or that it has a network card installed that is supported by the remote boot disk generator. The remote computer must also meet the Net PC specification. The server that RIS runs on must be Windows 2000 Server and the server must be able to access a network DNS Service, a DHCP service and the Active Directory services.[35] A Microsoft supplied server that provides Preboot eXecution Environment (PXE) BIOS enabled computers to remotely execute boot environment variables. ... A transitional network card with both BNC Thinnet (left) and Twisted pair (right) connectors. ... The PXE (Preboot eXecution Environment) as described in the specification (v2. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... A boot disk is a removable media, normally read-only, that can boot an operating system or utility. ... A remote computer is a computer to which a user does not have physical access, but which he or she can access/manipulate via some kind of network from a local computer (one which the user does have physical access to). ... A network computer is a lightweight computer system that operates exclusively via a network connection. ... On the Internet, the Domain Name Server (DNS) associates various sorts of information with so-called domain names; most importantly, it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, e. ... DHCP redirects here. ...


Editions

Microsoft released various versions of Windows 2000 to cater to different markets and business needs. It released Windows 2000 Professional, Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server. Each edition was packaged separately.

Professional edition box

Windows 2000 Professional was designed as the desktop operating system for businesses and power users. It is the basic unit of Windows 2000, and the most common. It offers greater security and stability than many of the previous Windows desktop operating systems. It supports up to two processors, and can address up to 4 GB of RAM. The system requirements were a Pentium Processor @133 MHz or greater, at least 32 MB of RAM, 650 MB of hard drive space, and a CD-ROM drive (recommended: Pentium II, 128 MB of RAM, 1 GB of hard drive space, and CD-ROM drive). Image File history File links Summary Original box art for Windows 2000 Professional (taken from archived copy of Microsoft Press Pass site) Scaled down from original TIFF to 96 dpi, 269x350 pixels, 256-colors, Floyd-Steinberg dithering Licensing This image is the cover art for a video or computer game... Image File history File links Summary Original box art for Windows 2000 Professional (taken from archived copy of Microsoft Press Pass site) Scaled down from original TIFF to 96 dpi, 269x350 pixels, 256-colors, Floyd-Steinberg dithering Licensing This image is the cover art for a video or computer game... CPU redirects here. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... RAM redirects here. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Intel Pentium II Logo The Pentium II is an x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on May 7, 1997. ...

Server edition box

Windows 2000 Server products share the same user interface with Windows 2000 Professional, but contain additional components for running infrastructure and application software. A significant component of the server products is Active Directory, which is an enterprise-wide directory service based on LDAP. Additionally, Microsoft integrated Kerberos network authentication, replacing the often-criticised NTLM authentication system used in previous versions. This also provided a purely transitive-trust relationship between Windows 2000 domains in a forest (a collection of one or more Windows 2000 domains that share a common schema, configuration, and global catalogue, being linked with two-way transitive trusts). Furthermore, Windows 2000 introduced a DNS server which allows dynamic registration of IP addresses. Image File history File links Summary Original box art for Windows 2000 Server (same details as Windows 2000 Professional Box Art. ... Image File history File links Summary Original box art for Windows 2000 Server (same details as Windows 2000 Professional Box Art. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... Typically Active Directory is managed using the graphical Microsoft Management Console. ... The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP (IPA: ), is an application protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP.[1] A directory is a set of objects with similar attributes organized in a logical and hierarchical manner. ... Kerberos is the name of a computer network authentication protocol, which allows individuals communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner. ... NTLM (New Technology LAN Manager) is a Microsoft authentication protocol used with the SMB protocol. ... A Windows Server domain or Windows NT Domain is a logical group of computers running versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that share a central directory database. ... On the Internet, the Domain Name Server (DNS) associates various sorts of information with so-called domain names; most importantly, it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, e. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ...

Advanced Server edition box

Windows 2000 Advanced Server is a variant of Windows 2000 Server operating system designed for medium-to-large businesses. It offers clustering infrastructure for high availability and scalability of applications and services, including main memory support of up to 8 gigabytes (GB) on Physical Address Extension (PAE) systems and the ability to do 8-way SMP. It has support for TCP/IP load balancing and enhanced two-node server clusters based on the Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) in the Windows NT Server 4.0 Enterprise Edition.[36] A limited edition 64-bit version of Windows 2000 Advanced Server was made available via the OEM Channel. It also supports failover and load balancing. Image File history File links Summary Original box art for Windows 2000 Advanced Server (same details as Windows 2000 Professional Box Art. ... Image File history File links Summary Original box art for Windows 2000 Advanced Server (same details as Windows 2000 Professional Box Art. ... An example of a Computer cluster A computer cluster is a group of loosely coupled computers that work together closely so that in many respects they can be viewed as though they are a single computer. ... A protocol and associated execution that ensures a certain relative degree of computing-system operational continuity in any downtime event. ... In computing, Physical Address Extension (PAE) refers to a feature of x86 processors that allows for up to 64 gigabytes of physical memory to be used in 32-bit systems, given appropriate operating system support. ... Symmetric multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... In computer networking, load balancing is a technique (usually performed by load balancers) to spread work between many computers, processes, hard disks or other resources in order to get optimal resource utilization and decrease computing time. ... Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) is software designed to allow servers to work together as one machine, to provide failover and increased availability of applications, or parallel calculating power in case of high-performance computing (HPC) clusters (as in supercomputing). ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ...

Datacenter Server edition box

Windows 2000 Datacenter Server is a variant of the Windows 2000 Server that is designed for large businesses that move large quantities of confidential or sensitive data frequently via a central server. As with Advanced Server, it supports clustering, failover and load balancing. Its minimum system requirements are normal, but it was designed to be capable of handing more advanced hardware—for instance it was capable of supporting computers with up to 32 CPUs and 64 GBs RAM. A limited edition 64-bit version of Windows 2000 Datacenter Server was made available via the OEM Channel. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In information technology, a server is an application or device that performs services for connected clients as part of a client-server architecture. ... Failover is the capability to switch over automatically to a redundant or standby computer server, system, or network upon the failure or abnormal termination of the previously active server, system, or network. ... Almost all computer software requires some features to be present on a computer system before it can be used with the computer. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ...


System Requirements

Windows 2000 Professional:

  • 133 MHz or higher Pentium-compatible CPU
  • 32 megabytes (MB) of RAM minimum (64MB recommended)
  • 700 megabytes hard disk space (2GB recommended)[37]

Windows 2000 Server:

  • 133 MHz CPU
  • 256 MB of RAM minimum
  • 2 GB hard disk space [38]

Windows 2000 Advanced Server:

  • 133 MHz CPU
  • 256 MB of RAM recommended minimum
  • 2 GB hard disk space[39]

Total cost of ownership

See also: Studies related to Microsoft

In October 2002, Microsoft commissioned IDC to determine the total cost of ownership (TCO) for enterprise applications on Windows 2000 versus the TCO of Linux on the same enterprise applications. IDC looked at security and other infrastructure tasks, and Web Serving. According to the report, Windows 2000 had a lower TCO for four infrastructure items and Linux had a lower TCO for web serving. IDC's report was based on telephone interviews of IT executives and managers of 104 North American companies in which they determined what they were using for a specific workload for file, print, security and networking services. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criticism of Microsoft and Comparison of Windows and Linux (Discuss) There have been a number of studies related to Microsoft. ... IDC Analyze the Future-logo. ... Total cost of ownership (TCO) is a financial estimate designed to help consumers and enterprise managers assess direct and indirect costs commonly related to software or hardware. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... North American redirects here. ...


IDC determined that the four areas where Windows 2000 had a better TCO than Linux — over a period of five years for an average organization of 100 employees — were in the use of file, print, network infrastructure and security infrastructure. They determined, however, that Linux had a better TCO than Windows 2000 when it came to web serving. The report also found that the greatest cost was not in the procurement of software and hardware, but in staffing costs and downtime. The report did not take into consideration the impact of downtime to the profitability of the business (although they did apply a 40% productivity factor, in order to recognize that employees are not entirely unproductive during periods of IT infrastructure downtime) though it did find that Linux servers had less unplanned downtime than Windows 2000 Servers. They found that most Linux servers ran less workload per server than Windows 2000 servers and also found that none of the businesses they interviewed used 4-way SMP Linux computers. IDC also did not take into account specific application servers — servers that need low maintenance and are provided by a specific vendor — when they performed their study. The report did emphasise that TCO was only one factor in considering whether to use a particular IT platform, and also noted that as management and server software improved and became better packaged the overall picture that was being shown in their report could change.[40] An application server is a software engine that delivers applications to client computers or devices, typically through the internet and using the http protocol. ...


Current status

Windows 2000 has now been superseded by newer Microsoft operating systems. Windows 2000 Server products were succeeded by Windows Server 2003, and Windows 2000 Professional was succeeded by Windows XP Professional. Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ...


The Windows 2000 family of operating systems moved from mainstream support to the extended support phase on June 30, 2005. Microsoft says that this marks the progression of Windows 2000 through the Microsoft Lifecycle policy. Under the extended support phase, Microsoft continues to provide critical security updates on a monthly basis for all its components (including Internet Explorer 5.01 SP4) and paid per-incident telephone support. However, free technical support and design changes are no longer provided. Because of Windows 2000's age, Microsoft is not offering current components such as Internet Explorer 7 for it. They claim that IE 7 is reliant on security features designed only for Windows XP Service Pack 2 and Windows Vista, and is thus non-trivial to port back to the Windows 2000 platform.[41] Microsoft is strongly advising all users still running Windows 2000 Professional and Server editions to consider upgrading their operating systems to Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 respectively for increased security. While users of Windows 2000 are eligible to receive the upgrade license for Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008, neither of these operating systems can directly perform an upgrade installation from Windows 2000. Technical support (also tech support) is a range of services providing assistance with computer hardware, software, or other electronic or mechanical goods. ... Windows Internet Explorer 7, commonly abbreviated IE7, is a web browser released by Microsoft in late 2006 for Windows Vista, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2008 is the name of the next server operating system from Microsoft. ...


All Windows 2000 support including security updates will be terminated on July 13, 2010.[2][3]


Throughout its life, Windows 2000 has received four full service packs and one rollup update package following SP4, which is the latest service pack for Windows 2000. These were: Service Pack 1 (SP1) on August 15, 2000, Service Pack 2 (SP2) on May 16, 2001, Service Pack 3 (SP3) on August 29, 2002 and its last Service Pack (SP4) on June 26, 2003. Microsoft phased out all development of their Java Virtual Machine (JVM) from Windows 2000 in Service Pack 3. Internet Explorer 5.01 was also upgraded to the corresponding service pack level. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of computer software programs and data structures which implements a specific virtual machine model. ...


Many Windows 2000 users were hoping for a Windows 2000 Service Pack 5, but Microsoft cancelled this project early on in its development, and instead released Update Rollup 1 for Service Pack 4 which is a collection of all the security-related hotfixes and some other significant issues. The Update Rollup, however, does not include all non-security related hotfixes and is not subjected to the same extensive regression testing as a full service pack. Microsoft states that this update will meet customers needs better than a whole new service pack, and will still help Windows 2000 customers secure their PCs, reduce support costs, and allow their systems to support the current generation of computer hardware.[42] A hot fix is a single, cumulative package that includes one or more files that are used to address a problem in a software product (aka. ... Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ...


Security criticisms

A number of potential security issues have been noted in Windows 2000. A common complaint is that "by default, Windows 2000 installations contain numerous potential security problems. Many unneeded services are installed and enabled, and there is no active local security policy".[43] In addition to the choice of insecure defaults, according to the SANS Institute, the most common flaws found in the OS are remotely exploitable buffer overflow vulnerabilities.[44] Other flaws in the operating system that have received criticism include the use of vulnerable encryption techniques.[45] The SANS Institute (SysAdmin, Audit, Networking, and Security) is a trade name owned by the for-profit Escal Institute of Advanced Technologies. ... In computer security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is a programming error which may result in a memory access exception and program termination, or in the event of the user being malicious, a possible breach of system security. ...


Computer worms first came into the public spotlight during the period where Windows 2000 was the dominant server operating system. Code Red and Code Red II were famous (and highly visible to the worldwide press) worms that exploited vulnerabilities of the Windows Indexing Service of Windows 2000's Internet Information Services (IIS). In August 2003, two major worms named the Sobig worm and the Blaster worm began to attack millions of Microsoft Windows computers, resulting in the largest down-time and clean-up cost to that date. The 2005 Zotob worm was blamed for security compromises on Windows 2000 machines at the Department of Homeland Security, the New York Times, ABC and CNN.[46] A computer worm is a self-replicating computer program, similar to a computer virus. ... The Code Red worm was a computer worm released on the Internet on July 13, 2001. ... Code Red II is a computer worm similar to the Code Red worm. ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... Windows indexing service allows instant searching of PCs and corporate networks. ... Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS, formerly called Internet Information Server) is a set of Internet-based services for servers using Microsoft Windows. ... The Sobig Worm was a computer worm that infected millions of Internet-connected, Microsoft Windows computers in August 2003. ... The Blaster Worm (also known as Lovsan or Lovesan) was a computer worm that spread on computers running the Microsoft operating systems, Windows XP and Windows 2000, during August 2003. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: CNN headquarters infected with computer worm, exaggerates global threat The Zotob worm and several variations of it, known as Rbot. ... DHS redirects here. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... This article is about the American broadcast network. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...


See also

These tables compare general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available operating systems. ... Microsoft Servers is a brand that encompasses a line of Microsoft server products. ... A Multia computer and monitor The Multia, later re-branded the Universal Desktop Box, is a line of computer workstations produced by the Digital Equipment Corporation in the mid-1990s. ...

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ Enterprise Source Licensing Program. Microsoft. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  2. ^ a b Windows 2000 Transitions to Extended Support.
  3. ^ a b Microsoft Product Lifecycle for Windows 2000 family.
  4. ^ Microsoft (July 12, 2000). "Microsoft and Intel Announce Preview Release of 64-Bit Windows for Intel Itanium Processor". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  5. ^ a b c New Capabilities and Features of the NTFS 3.0 File System.
  6. ^ Microsoft (January 17, 2000). "Microsoft and CyberSafe Extend Windows 2000 Security Across the Enterprise". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  7. ^ Trott, Bob (October 27, 1998). It's official: NT 5.0 becomes Windows 2000. infoWorld. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
  8. ^ Windows 2000 history. ActiveWin. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
  9. ^ Bugfest! Win2000 has 63,000 'defects' February 14, 2000
  10. ^ Mary Jo Foley: The Exit Interview September 20, 2006
  11. ^ InformationWeek, December 28, 1999, "Special Report"
  12. ^ Wired News, November 2000, "The Truth, The Whole Truth, and Nothing But The Truth"
  13. ^ NDS eDirectory vs. Microsoft Active Directory?. Novell (November 17, 1999). Retrieved on 2006-04-22.

    Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

    NDS eDirectory is a cross-platform directory solution that works on NT 4.0, Windows 2000 when available, Solaris and NetWare 5. Active Directory will only support the Windows 2000 environment. In addition, eDirectory users can be assured they are using the most trusted, reliable and mature directory service to manage and control their e-business relationships — not a 1.0 release.
  14. ^ a b Statement from Microsoft Regarding Illegal Posting of Windows 2000 Source Code. Microsoft (February 20, 2004). Retrieved on 2007-01-11.
  15. ^ Appendix D - Running Nonnative Applications in Windows 2000 Professional. Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional Resource Kit. Microsoft.
  16. ^ Microsoft. "Active Directory Data Storage".
  17. ^ Inside Microsoft Windows 2000 (Third Edition). Microsoft Press.
  18. ^ Microsoft KB article 222193: Description of the Windows File Protection Feature.
  19. ^ a b Esposito, Dino (June 2000), More Windows 2000 UI Goodies: Extending Explorer Views by Customizing Hypertext Template Files, MSDN Magazine, <http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/0600/w2kui2/>. Retrieved on 26 August 2007
  20. ^ Sophos, VBS/Roor-C threat analysis. Accessed 2007-08-26.
  21. ^ "Virus.VBS.Redlof.a". Virus Encyclopedia. (January 15, 2004). Viruslist.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-26. 
  22. ^ Windows 2000 Registry: Latest Features and APIs Provide the Power to Customize and Extend Your Apps, MSDN Magazine, November 2000, <http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/1100/Registry/>. Retrieved on 26 August 2007
  23. ^ Kindel, Charlie (August 27, 1993), OLE Property Sets Exposed, MSDN Magazine, <http://msdn.microsoft.com/archive/en-us/dnarolegen/html/msdn_propset.asp?frame=true>. Retrieved on 26 August 2007
  24. ^ "Figure 1 Windows Shell Extensions", MSDN Magazine, June 2000, <http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/0300/w2kui/w2kuifigs.asp>. Retrieved on 26 August 2007
  25. ^ "Encrypting File System". Microsoft.
  26. ^ Microsoft Support KB 292264: List of Languages Supported in Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.
  27. ^ Ask the Windows 2000 Dev Team.
  28. ^ However, as of mid-2007, Microsoft continues to publish bimonthly minor updates to DirectX 9.0c files; these updates do not advance the overall DirectX version number.
  29. ^ Microsoft Press (2000). MCSE 70-210, Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional, pages 58-63.
  30. ^ Microsoft KB article 222471: Description of the Windows 2000 System File Checker (Sfc.exe).
  31. ^ How to use Remote Storage in Windows 2000 Server
  32. ^ Microsoft KB article 812487: Overview of DFS in Windows 2000.
  33. ^ Make deployment easier in Windows 2000
  34. ^ Mark Minasi. Installing Windows 2000 On Workstations with Remote Installation Services.
  35. ^ Microsoft Press (2000). MCSE 70-210, Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional, pages 543-551.
  36. ^ Microsoft. Windows 200 Resource Kit, Chap. 1, "Introducing Windows 2000 Deployment Planning".
  37. ^ Windows 2000 Hardware Requirements. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  38. ^ Windows 2000 Hardware Requirements. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  39. ^ Windows 2000 Hardware Requirements. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  40. ^ "Windows 2000 Versus Linux in Enterprise Computing", IDC.
  41. ^ Windows 2000 users to miss out on IE 7. news.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-11.
  42. ^ Windows 2000 Update Rollup 1 for Service Pack 4. Microsoft. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  43. ^ governmentsecurity.org.
  44. ^ SANS Institute.
  45. ^ Wired News, May, 16, 2000, "Critics Blast MS Security"
  46. ^ Wired News, April 12, 2006, "Border Security System Left Open"
References

is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Sophos is a company that makes security software such as anti-virus, anti-spyware, anti-spam and Network Access Control for desktops, e-mail servers, and other network gateways. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Press is the publishing arm of Microsoft, usually releasing books dealing with various current Microsoft technologies. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

The Windows logo used since November 2006. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Windows 9x is the family of Microsoft Windows operating systems that comprises the 32-bit, DOS-based Windows versions: Windows 95, Windows 98, and often also Windows Me. ... Windows 1. ... Windows 2. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Windows 3. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (IPA pronunciation: [miː], [ɛm iː]), is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Windows NT 3. ... Windows NT 3. ... Windows NT 3. ... Windows NT 4. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs (WinFLP) is an operating system from Microsoft, based on Windows XP, but optimized for older, less powerful hardware. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows Home Server is a home server operating system from Microsoft. ... Windows Server 2008 is the name of the next server operating system from Microsoft. ... Windows CE (sometimes abbreviated WinCE) is a variation of Microsofts Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. ... Windows CE (sometimes abbreviated WinCE) is a variation of Microsofts Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. ... Windows CE (sometimes abbreviated WinCE) is a variation of Microsofts Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. ... Microsoft Windows CE 3. ... Windows CE (sometimes abbreviated WinCE) is a variation of Microsofts Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Windows CE. (Discuss) Windows CE 5. ... Windows Embedded CE 6. ... Windows Mobile is a compact operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 API. Devices which run Windows Mobile include Pocket PCs, Smartphones, Portable Media Centers, and on-board computers for certain automobiles. ... Windows 7 (formerly codenamed Blackcomb, then Vienna) is a future version of Microsoft Windows. ... Windows Neptune Logon Screen Windows Neptune is a version of Microsoft Windows that was in development from early 1999 to early 2000. ... Odyssey was a codename for a version of Microsoft Windows that was in development from early 1999 to early 2000. ... Original Nashville desktop build 999 Nashville was the codename for Windows 96, a cancelled operating system upgrade for Microsoft Windows 95, which was originally intended to be released in 1996. ... Cairo was the code name for a project at Microsoft from 1991 to 1996. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

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