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Encyclopedia > Windows 2.1x
Windows 2.1x
(Part of the Microsoft Windows family)
Screenshot
Developer
Microsoft
Release information
Release date: May 27, 1988 info
Current version:  2.11, March 13, 1989 info
Source model: Closed source
License: Microsoft EULA
Kernel type: N/A
Support status
Unsupported as of December 31, 2001

Windows 2.1x is a family of Microsoft Windows graphical user interface-based operating environments. Windows redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows redirects here. ... A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called widgets, along with text labels or text navigation to represent the information and actions available to... In computer software, an operating environment usually refers to a GUI front-end on top of an operating system. ...


Less than a year after the release of Windows 2.0, Windows/286 2.1 and Windows/386 2.1 were released on May 27, 1988. These versions can take advantage of the specific features of the Intel 80286 and Intel 80386 processors. Windows 2. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC; SEHK: 4335) is the worlds largest semiconductor company and the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in many personal computers. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... The Intel386[1] is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 2007. ...

Contents

Versions

Two versions of Windows 2.1 were released, both of which could take advantage of the Intel processor for which they were designed.


Windows/286

Windows/286 takes advantage of the HMA to increase the memory available to Windows programs. It introduced the himem.sys DOS driver for this purpose. It also includes support for several EMS boards, although this support is not related to the 80286 processor. The segmented nature of Windows programs is quite suited to the usage of EMS, as portions of code and data can be made visible in the first megabyte of memory accessible to real-mode programs only when the program using them is given control. Microsoft encouraged users to configure their computers with only 256KB of main memory, leaving the address space from 256-640KB available for dynamic mapping of EMS memory. The High Memory Area (HMA) is the RAM area consisting of the first 64 kilobytes (KB), minus 16 bytes, of the extended memory on an IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. ... HIMEM is a DOS device driver which allows DOS programs to store data in extended memory via the Extended Memory Specification (XMS). ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Windows XP loading drivers during a Safe Mode bootup A device driver, or a software driver is a specific type of computer software, typically developed to allow interaction with hardware devices. ... Expanded Memory was a trick invented around 1984 that provided more memory to byte-hungry, business-oriented MS-DOS programs. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Random access memory (usually known by its acronym, RAM) is a type of data storage used in computers. ... Real mode (also called real address mode in Intels manuals) is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. ...


Windows/386

Windows/386 is much more advanced. It introduced a protected mode kernel, above which the GUI and applications run as a virtual 8086 mode task. It allows several MS-DOS programs to run in parallel in "virtual 8086" CPU mode, rather than always suspending background applications. (Windows applications could already run in parallel through cooperative multitasking.) Each DOS application can use as much low memory as is available before Windows is started, minus a few kilobytes of overhead. Windows/386 also provides EMS emulation, using the memory management features of the 80386 to make RAM beyond 640K behave like the banked memory previously only supplied by add-in cards and used by popular DOS applications. (By overwriting the WIN200.BIN file with COMMAND.COM, it is possible to use the EMS emulation in DOS without starting the Windows GUI.) There is no disk-based virtual memory, so multiple DOS programs have to fit inside the available physical memory; therefore, Microsoft suggested buying additional memory and cards if necessary. Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called widgets, along with text labels or text navigation to represent the information and actions available to... In the 80386 and later, Virtual 8086 mode, also called virtual real mode (or VM86), allows the execution of real mode applications that violate the rules under the control of a protected mode operating system. ... In computing, multitasking is a method by which multiple tasks, also known as processes, share common processing resources such as a CPU. In the case of a computer with a single CPU, only one task is said to be running at any point in time, meaning that the CPU is... Expanded Memory was a trick invented around 1984 that provided more memory to byte-hungry, business-oriented MS-DOS programs. ... COMMAND.COM is the name for the default operating system shell (or command line interpreter) for DOS and 16/32bits versions of Windows (95/98/98 SE/Me). ... How virtual memory maps to physical memory Virtual memory is an addressing scheme implemented in hardware and software that allows non-contiguous memory to be addressed as if it were contiguous. ... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Neither of these versions work with DOS memory managers like CEMM or QEMM or with DOS extenders, which have their own extended memory management and run in protected mode as well. This was remedied in version 3.0, which is compatible with VCPI in "standard mode" and with DPMI in "386 enhanced" mode. Windows 3.0 also has the capability of using the DWEMM Direct Write Enhanced Memory Module. This is what enables the far faster and sleek graphical user interface. CEMM, for Compaq Expanded Memory Manager was probably the first so-called PC memory manager for Intel 80386 CPUs, able to transform extended memory into EMS expanded memory by using the virtual memory features and the virtual 8086 mode of the CPU. It was present in Compaq DOS 3. ... QEMM (sometimes pronounced IPA: , though not by those who developed it), the Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager by Quarterdeck, was the most popular third party memory manager for the DOS operating system. ... DOS extender is the name invented in the 1980s for a technology to allow programs started from MS-DOS, which ran in Real mode, to actually run in protected mode. ...


Updates

In March 1989, Windows 2.11 was released, with some minor changes in memory management, faster printing and postscript drivers.


Windows 2.11 was superseded by Windows 3.0 in May 1990. Windows 3. ...


External Links

  • Windows wi wi windows windows 386! Promotional Video

 
 

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