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Encyclopedia > Windows 2.0
Windows 2.x
(Part of the Microsoft Windows family)
Screenshot

Windows 2.0 was the first version to support free-moving overlapping windows
Developer
Microsoft
Web site: Windows Desktop Products History
Release information
Release date: November 1, 1987 [citation needed]
Current version: 2.11 (March 13, 1989[1]) [citation needed]
Source model: Closed source
License: Microsoft EULA
Kernel type: N/A
Support status
Unsupported as of December 31, 2001

Windows 2.x is a family of Microsoft Windows graphical user interface-based operating environments that superseded Windows 1.0. Windows 2.x was said to look similar to the original Mac OS and more closely matched Microsoft's pre-release publicity for Windows 1.0. Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... Image File history File links Windows2. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... “PUI” redirects here. ... In computer software, an operating environment usually refers to a GUI front-end on top of an operating system. ... Windows 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Windows 2.0

Released on November 23, 1987, Windows 2.0 allowed for windows to overlap each other, in contrast to Windows 1.0, which could only display tiled windows (this limitation was imposed due to lawsuits from Apple Computer; dialogs and drop-down menus were in fact overlapping windows in Windows 1.0). This version also introduced the window-manipulation terminology of "Minimize" and "Maximize", as opposed to "Iconize" and "Zoom" in Windows 1.0, and a more sophisticated keyboard-shortcut mechanism in which shortcut keys were identified by underlining the character that, in conjunction with the "Alt" key, would cause them to be selected. File management tasks were still managed by use of the MS-DOS Executive program, which was more list-driven than icon-oriented. November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Windows 1. ... Apple Inc. ...


The first Windows versions of Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel ran on Windows 2.0. Third-party developer support for Windows increased substantially with this version (some shipping the Windows Runtime software with their applications, for customers who had not purchased the full version of Windows). However, most developers still maintained DOS versions of their applications, as Windows users were still a distinct minority of their market. Microsoft Word is a word processing application from Microsoft. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Windows 2.03, which featured some Mac-like icons, was released in January of 1988. On March 17, 1988, Apple filed suit against Microsoft and Hewlett Packard, accusing them of violating copyrights Apple held on the Macintosh System Software.[2] March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ...


Windows 2.1x

Less than a year later, Windows/286 2.1 and Windows/386 2.1 were released on May 27, 1988. These versions could take advantage of the specific features of the Intel 80286 and Intel 80386 processors. In March 1989, Windows 2.11 was released, with some minor changes in memory management, faster printing and postscript drivers. May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ...


Windows/286

Windows/286 took advantage of the HMA to increase the memory available to Windows programs. It introduced the himem.sys DOS driver for this purpose. It also included support for several EMS boards for this same purpose (this support was not related to the 80286 processor per-se[3]). The segmented nature of Windows programs was quite suited to the usage of EMS, as portions of code and data could be made visible in the first megabyte of memory accessible to real-mode programs only when the program using them was given control. Microsoft encouraged users to configure their computers with only 256KB of main memory, leaving the address space from 256-640KB available for dynamic mapping of EMS memory. The High Memory Area (HMA) is the RAM area consisting of the first 64 kilobytes (KB), minus 16 bytes, of the extended memory on an IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. ... EMS or Expanded Memory Specification is an IBM PC memory paging scheme enabling access to memory other than conventional memory in real mode, through the use of an add-on peripheral holding the additional memory. ...


Windows/386

Windows/386 was much more advanced. It introduced a protected mode kernel, above which the GUI and applications were running as a virtual 8086 mode task. It allowed several MS-DOS programs to run in parallel in virtual machines,[citation needed] rather than always suspending background applications. (Windows applications could already run in parallel through cooperative multitasking.) Each DOS application could use as much low memory as was available before Windows was started, minus a few kilobytes of overhead. Windows also provided EMS emulation, using the memory management features of the processor to make RAM beyond 640K behave like the banked memory previously only supplied by add-in cards and used by popular DOS applications. (By overwriting the WIN200.BIN file with command.com, it was possible to use the EMS emulation in DOS without starting the Windows GUI.) There was no disk-based virtual memory, so multiple DOS programs had to fit inside the available physical memory; Microsoft suggested buying additional memory (and cards) if necessary. Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... In the 80386 and later, Virtual 8086 mode, also called virtual real mode (or VM86), allows the execution of real mode applications that violate the rules under the control of a protected mode operating system. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... In computing, cooperative multitasking (or non-preemptive multitasking) is a form of multitasking in which multiple tasks execute by voluntarily ceding control to other tasks at programmer-defined points within each task. ... EMS or Expanded Memory Specification is an IBM PC memory paging scheme enabling access to memory other than conventional memory in real mode, through the use of an add-on peripheral holding the additional memory. ... COMMAND.COM is the name for the default operating system shell (or command line interpreter) for DOS and 16/32bits versions of Windows (95/98/98 SE/Me). ...


Neither of these versions worked with DOS memory managers like CEMM or QEMM or with DOS extenders, which had their own extended memory management and ran in protected mode as well. This was remedied in version 3.0, which was compatible with VCPI in "standard mode" and with DPMI in "386 enhanced" mode. Windows 3.0 also had the capability of using the DWEMM Direct Write Enhanced Memory Module, this is what enable the far faster and sleek graphical user interface. A memory manager is a part of a computer program which accepts requests from the program to allocate and deallocate chunks of memory. ... CEMM, for Compaq Expanded Memory Manager was probably the first so-called PC memory manager for Intel 80386 CPUs, able to transform extended memory into EMS expanded memory by using the virtual memory features and the virtual 8086 mode of the CPU. It was present in Compaq DOS 3. ... QEMM (sometimes pronounced IPA: , though not by those who developed it), the Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager by Quarterdeck, was the most popular third party memory manager for the DOS operating system. ... DOS extender is the name invented in the 1980s for a technology to allow programs started from MS-DOS, which ran in Real mode, to actually run in protected mode. ... DPMI is the method which Microsoft prescribes for a DOS program to run in protected mode and to access extended memory under a multitasking operating system like Microsoft Windows. ... DPMI is the method which Microsoft prescribes for a DOS program to run in protected mode and to access extended memory under a multitasking operating system like Microsoft Windows. ...


The various Windows 2.x versions were superseded by Windows 3.0 in May 1990. Windows 3. ...


See also

This article is about the look and feel copyright lawsuit between Apple Computer and Microsoft. ...

Notes

General references

  • [1] - Microsoft article with details about the different versions of Windows

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ Windows Version History. Microsoft.
  2. ^ 1980 - 1989: An Industrial Milestone. The Apple Museum. Retrieved on 2006 June 25.
  3. ^ On 286-based PCs, EMS memory could be made available by adding hardware EMS memory expansion cards. This was different from the later emulation of EMS memory via EMM386, which required a 386 processor. These EMS boards were however not very common.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... EMM386 was Microsofts expanded memory manager, which created expanded memory using extended memory on Intel 80386 CPUs. ...

External links

  • GUIdebook: Windows 2.0 Gallery - A website dedicated to preserving and showcasing Graphical User Interfaces
  • Windows 386 Promotional Video

 
 

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