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Encyclopedia > Windows 1.0
Windows 1.0
(Part of the Microsoft Windows family)
Screenshot

A typical Windows 1.01 screenshot.
Developer
Microsoft
Release information
Release date: November 20, 1985 [citation needed]
Current version:  1.04, April 8, 1987 [citation needed]
Source model: Closed source
License: Microsoft EULA
Kernel type: N/A
Support status
Unsupported as of December 31, 2001.

Windows 1.0 is a 16-bit graphical operating environment released on November 20, 1985. It was Microsoft's first attempt to implement a multi-tasking graphical user interface-based operating environment on the PC platform. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Windows_1. ... Windows redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... A software license is a type of proprietary or gratiuitious license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software — sometimes called an End User License Agreement (EULA) — that specifies the perimeters of the permission granted by the owner to the... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... In computer software, an operating environment usually refers to a GUI front-end on top of an operating system. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... 1. ... “GUI” redirects here. ... In computer software, an operating environment usually refers to a GUI front-end on top of an operating system. ... A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals. ...

Contents

Features

Windows 1.0 offers limited multitasking of existing MS-DOS programs and concentrates on creating an interaction paradigm (cf. message loop), an execution model and a stable API for native programs for the future. Due to Microsoft's extensive support for backward compatibility, it is not only possible to execute Windows 1.0 binary programs on current versions of Windows to a large extent, but also to recompile their source code into an equally functional "modern" application with just limited modifications [citation needed]. For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... Microsoft Windows programs are event-based. ... API and Api redirect here. ... The term native mode is used in computing as follows. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An executable or executable file, in computer science, is a file whose contents are meant to be interpreted as a program by a computer. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...


Windows 1.0 is often regarded as a "front-end to the MS-DOS operating system", a description which has also been applied to subsequent versions of Windows. Windows 1.0 is an MS-DOS program. Windows 1.0 programs can call MS-DOS functions, and GUI programs are run from .exe files just like MS-DOS programs. However, Windows .exe files had their own "new executable" (NE) file format, which only Windows could process and which, for example, allowed demand-loading of code and data. Applications were supposed to handle memory only through Windows' own memory management system, which implemented a software-based virtual memory scheme allowing for applications larger than available RAM. Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... An executable or executable file, in computer science, is a file whose contents are meant to be interpreted as a program by a computer. ... How virtual memory maps to physical memory Virtual memory is an addressing scheme implemented in hardware and software that allows non-contiguous memory to be addressed as if it were contiguous. ... “RAM” redirects here. ...


Given that graphics support in MS-DOS was extremely limited, MS-DOS applications had to go to the bare hardware (or sometimes just to the BIOS) to get work done. Therefore, Windows 1.0 included original device drivers for video cards, a mouse, keyboards, printers and serial communications, and applications were supposed to only invoke APIs built upon these drivers. However, this extended to other APIs such as file system management functions. In this sense, Windows 1.0 was designed to be extended into a full-fledged operating system, rather than being just a graphics environment used by applications. Indeed, while Windows 1.0 was a "DOS front-end" and could not operate without a DOS environment (it used, for example, the file-handling functions provided by DOS), the level of replacement increases in subsequent versions. For other uses, see Bios. ... Windows XP loading drivers during a Safe Mode bootup A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ...


Version history

The boxart of Windows 1.01, the first version Microsoft released to the public. The same box art was used in other versions.
The boxart of Windows 1.01, the first version Microsoft released to the public. The same box art was used in other versions.

The first release version is actually numbered 1.01. It has been rumored that version 1.00 was actually released but quickly pulled due to a severe flaw having to do with keyboard input. However, this rumor has now been fairly conclusively disproven through a number of reliable sources comments on the version history of Windows 1.x. For example, Ben Armstrong's (a program manager for Microsoft's Virtual Machine Technology Team) comments on Windows 1.0: Image File history File links Windows_1. ... Image File history File links Windows_1. ...

...few people know that Windows 1.0 was actually never released. Windows 1.0 was the version of Windows that was demonstrated at the '83 Comdex. It would be 14 months until Microsoft eventually released Windows 1.01 - which included some minor bug fixes - to the general public. [1] COMDEX (Computer Dealers Exhibition) was a computer expo held in Las Vegas, Nevada, each November from 1979 to 2003. ...

Version 1.02, released in May 1986, was international and had editions in several European languages.


Version 1.03, released in August 1986, was for the US- and international market, with enhancements making it consistent with the international release. It included drivers for European keyboards and additional screen and printer drivers.


Version 1.04, released in April 1987, added support for the VGA graphics adapters of the new IBM PS/2 computers. At the same time Microsoft and IBM announced the introduction of OS/2 and its graphical OS/2 Presentation Manager, which were supposed to ultimately replace both MS-DOS and Windows. Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a computer display standard first marketed in 1987 by IBM. VGA belongs to a family of earlier IBM video standards and largely remains backward compatible with them. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The Personal System/2 or PS/2 was IBMs second generation of personal computers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Presentation Manager (PM) was the name given to the Graphical User Interface (GUI) which IBM introduced in version 1. ...


Windows 1.0x was superseded in November 1987, with the release of Windows 2.0. Windows 2. ...


Details

Windows 1.0 screen capture.

The system requirements for Windows 1.0 constituted MS-DOS 2.0, 256 KB RAM, and 2 double-sided disk drives or a hard drive. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 795 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 772 pixel, file size: 218 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Windows 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 795 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 772 pixel, file size: 218 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Windows 1. ...


Windows 1.0 runs a shell program known as MS-DOS Executive. Other supplied programs are Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal, and Write. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Shell_(computing). ... Microsoft Calculator is a calculation application for Microsoft Windows. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Screenshot of the Windows 3. ... The clipboard is a software program that is used for short-term storage of data as it is transferred between documents or applications, via copy and paste operations. ... Control Panel in Windows Vista Control Panel in Windows XP Classic View of the Control Panel in Windows XP Default View of the Control Panel in Windows Me Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings... For the item of stationery, see notebook. ... Microsoft Paint (officially titled Paint; sometimes called MS Paint; formerly Paintbrush for Windows) is a simple graphics painting program that has been included with all versions of Microsoft Windows since its first release. ... Reversi and Othello are names for an abstract strategy board game which involves play by two parties on an eight-by-eight square grid with pieces that have two distinct sides. ... Apple Terminal. ... Windows Write is a simple word processor that came with Microsoft Windows 1. ...


Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only dialog boxes can appear over other windows. A tiling window manager is a window manager with an organization of the screen into mutually non-overlapping frames, as opposed to the traditional approach of coordinate-based stacking of objects (windows) that tries to emulate the desk paradigm. ...


Windows 1.0 executables, while having the same .exe extension and initial file header as MS-DOS programs, do not contain the so-called MS-DOS stub which prints the "This program requires Microsoft Windows" message and exits when the program is run outside of Windows. Instead, the file header was formatted in such a way as to make DOS reject the executable with a "program too large to fit in memory" error message. A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to show its format. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ...


From the beginning, Windows was intended to multitask programs (although this originally only applied to native applications and for many versions the multitasking was non-preemptive), so Windows programs always had their own menu bar rather than switching a single menu bar at the top of the screen like Apple Macintoshes did. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Computer_multitasking#Cooperative_multitasking. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Apple Inc. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ...


Originally Windows was designed to have the pull-up menus at the bottom of windows, as it was common with the DOS programs of the time; however, this was changed before the first release.


Windows 1.0 was supported by Microsoft for sixteen years , until December 31 2001. Windows 1.0 was the longest supported operating system of the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems.


Competitors on the IBM PC platform

The history of Windows dates back to September 1981, when the project named "Interface Manager" was started. It was first presented to the public in November 10, 1983, renamed to "Microsoft Windows"; the two years of delay before release led to charges that it was "vaporware". The initially announced version of Windows had features so much resembling Macintosh interface that Microsoft had to change many of them: overlapping windows, although supported by the GUI engine, weren't allowed for exactly this purpose. The announcement of Windows' imminent arrival in 1985 probably did not help the sales of VisiCorp's Visi On environment which debuted at the same time. However, even when finally released, Windows 1.0 aroused little interest as well, showing the market was simply not yet ready for a switch-over from MS-DOS. 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Vaporware is software or hardware product which is announced by a developer well in advance of release, but which then fails to emerge, either with or without a protracted development cycle. ... VisiCorp was an early personal computer software publisher. ... VisiCorp Visi On was a short-lived but influential graphical user interface-based operating environment program for IBM PC compatible personal computers running early versions of MS-DOS. Although Visi On was never popular (as it had steep minimum system requirements for its day), it was a notable influence on...


Another GUI for the PC platform at the time was GEM. It copied more aspects from the Macintosh GUI, for example the trash can concept (which Microsoft would in turn copy in future Windows releases) and more generally the desktop interaction. GEM was eventually used as the standard GUI for the Atari's ST range of 68k-based computers, which were sometimes referred to as Jackintoshes (the company being run by Jack Tramiel). GEM's resemblance to the Macintosh OS later caused legal trouble for the manufacturer, Digital Research, who was obliged to seriously cripple the desktop's appearance and functionality (applications were not affected). GEM (Graphical Environment Manager) was a windowing system created by Digital Research, Inc. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ... In the Microsoft Windows operating systems, the recycle bin is a holding area for files that are to be deleted from a storage device. ... The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... The Motorola 680x0/0x0/m68k/68k/68K family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips in personal computers of the 1980s and early 1990s. ... The Atari 520 ST The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... Jack Tramiel (born 1928) is a businessman, famous for founding Commodore International, manufacturer of the Commodore 64 and Commodore Amiga home computers, and later President and CEO of Atari Corp. ... Digital Research, Inc. ...


GEM is not multitasking, so users have to close one program in order to run another one. Collections of related programs, like GEM Draw, have tricky File menu items like Close (to Edit) to facilitate switching.


An alternative multitasker released shortly before was DESQview, a successor of IBM's failed TopView from 1984. It did not have graphical capabilities initially, but is able to multitask DOS applications in windows as long as they are well-behaved or have a specially written "loader" to fix them on the fly. DESQview was a text mode multitasking program developed by Quarterdeck Office Systems which enjoyed modest popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... TopView was a text-mode MS-DOS multitasker written by IBM and released in 1984, together with their new PC AT computer. ... This article is about the year. ...


Windows 1.0 market share grew very slowly, as there was no 'killer application' which required the graphical shell. The killer apps at the time were generally only available on the Apple Macintosh platform (this statement was true even of Microsoft's MacOS-only Microsoft Office).


The Macintosh remained the platform of choice especially for high-end graphics and desktop publishing (DTP). Although Aldus PageMaker shipped in January 1987 with a Windows executable, it remained but a curiosity due to poor support relative to the Mac version, and a steep $795 price tag. PageMaker was the first desktop publishing program, introduced in 1985 by Aldus Corporation, initially for the Apple Macintosh but soon after also for the PC. It relies on Adobe Systems PostScript page description language. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


PC-based DTP remained out of the reach of most Windows users until the release of $99 Serif PagePlus 1.0 in 1991. PagePlus won considerable praise from the prestigious Seybold Reports, not only for being the first sub-$100 DTP package capable of CMYK process color separations but also because Serif backed up their customers with free 24-hour support. Nearly every desktop publishing magazine shootout review would include both programs side by side despite the price differences. In the real world however, the lack of a Mac version meant few prepress service bureaus would accept PC data or PC Postscript files. Corel Draw 1.0, Micrographix Picture Publisher, Paint Shop Pro, and Cool Edit also provided a Windows-only focus and provided capabilities previously only found in expensive applications.


Other shell programs for MS-DOS include Norton Commander, DOS Shell, and DOS Menu (in MS-DOS version 4.0). These applications attempted to be organizational and menu-driven tools, and did not try at all to be a 'desktop' shell. Norton Commander (commonly shortened to NC) is an Orthodox File Manager (OFM) program, written by John Socha and released by Peter Norton Computing (later acquired by the Symantec corporation). ... The DOS Shell for MS-DOS 6. ...


See also

The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of file managers. ... The DOS Shell for MS-DOS 6. ...

External links

  • YouTube video of Windows 1.04 running on an IBM XT

 
 

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