FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Window" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Window
Windows of a brick building in Washington DC
Windows of a brick building in Washington DC
A stained glass panel depicting Biblical scenes at a historic church in Scotland
A stained glass panel depicting Biblical scenes at a historic church in Scotland

A window is an opening in an otherwise solid and opaque surface that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound. Windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Window. ... Look up window, Windows in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1251 KB) Summary I have created this image myself, and by releasing it into the public domain, allow it to be used by all. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1251 KB) Summary I have created this image myself, and by releasing it into the public domain, allow it to be used by all. ... Highly decorative Window in a Japanese Onsen in Hakone A window is an opening in an otherwise solid, opaque surface through which light can pass. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... This article is about the country. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word Window originates from the Old Norse vindauga, from vindr "wind" and auga "eye." "Vindauga" is still used in Icelandic, as well as some Norwegian dialects to mean exactly the same thing: window. It is first recorded in the early 13th century, and originally referred to an unglazed hole in a roof. Window replaced the Old English eagþyrl, which literally means "eye-hole," and eagduru, "eye-door". Most Germanic languages however adopted the Latin word fenestra to describe a window with glass, such as Swedish fönster, or German Fenster. Notable exceptions to this, apart from English, are Danish and Norwegian, with the English word window closely resembling the words vindue and vindu respectively. This is probably due to the Scandinavian influence on the English language by means of loanwords during the Viking Age. In English the word fenester was used as a parallel until the mid-1700s and fenestration is still used to describe the arrangement of windows within a facade. Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... For other uses, see facade (disambiguation). ...


Definition and types of windows

A window is an opening in a wall that lets light and possibly air into the room and allows occupants to see out. Primitive windows were just holes. Later, they were covered with animal hide, cloth, or wood. Shutters that could be opened and closed came next. Over time, windows were built that both protected the inhabitants from the elements and transmitted light: mullioned glass windows, which joined multiple small pieces of glass with leading, paper windows, flattened pieces of translucent animal horn, and plates of thinly sliced marble. Mullioned glass windows were the windows of choice among European well-to-do, whereas paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient China and Japan. In England, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of panes of flattened animal horn[citation needed] were used as early as the 14th century in Northern Britain. Modern-style floor-to-ceiling windows became possible only after the industrial glass making process was perfected. Evidence of glass window panes in Italy dates back nearly 3000 years. A brick wall A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. ... A window shutter panel is a solid, firm, erect, stable, strong, window covering usually consisting of side stiles, top and bottom rails, and louvers. ... Double-hung vinyl replacement window with a decorative grille resembling mullions sandwiched between the panes of the insulated glass. ... This article is about the metal. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The materials definition of a glass is a uniform amorphous solid material, usually produced when a suitably viscous molten material cools very rapidly, thereby not giving enough time for a regular crystal lattice to form. ...

View from window in Fort Sam Houston, Texas
View from window in Fort Sam Houston, Texas
Woven bamboo window of the Joan tea house in Inuyama
Woven bamboo window of the Joan tea house in Inuyama

Modern windows are customarily large rectangles or squares with glass surfaces. Churches traditionally have stained glass windows. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 790 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (817 × 620 pixel, file size: 114 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View out a window from a darken room. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 790 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (817 × 620 pixel, file size: 114 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View out a window from a darken room. ... Download high resolution version (1024x946, 206 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x946, 206 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Yugao-tei, Kanazawa Ihōan at Kōdai-ji in Kyoto Tchai-Ovna, Glasgow Tea houses are houses or parlors centered on drinking tea. ... Inuyama (犬山市; -shi) is a city located near Nagoya in Aichi, Japan. ... In geometry, a rectangle is defined as a quadrilateral where all four of its angles are right angles. ... For other uses, see Square. ... This article is about the material. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ...


Modern domestic windows come in many styles. The choice of design varies throughout the world, and is largely dictated by the prevailing weather conditions. Coastal climates tend to have smaller outward-opening windows due to the stronger winds experienced - e.g. England. Continental climates tend to have larger windows, many of which open inwards - e.g. France and Germany. Styles available include:


Double-hung sash window

The traditional style of window in the USA, and many other places that were formerly colonized by the UK, with two parts (sashes) that overlap slightly and slide up and down inside the frame. The two parts are not necessarily the same size. Nowadays, most new double-hung sash windows use spring balances to support the sashes, but traditionally, counterweights held in boxes either side of the window were used. These were and are attached to the sashes using pulleys of either braided cord or, later, purpose-made chain. Double-hung sash windows were traditionally often fitted with shutters. Sash windows may be fitted with simplex hinges which allow the window to be locked into hinges on one side, while the rope on the other side is detached, allowing the window to be opened for escape or cleaning. A window shutter panel is a solid, firm, erect, stable, strong, window covering usually consisting of side stiles, top and bottom rails, and louvers. ...


Single-hung sash window

One sash is movable (usually the bottom one) and the other fixed. This is the earlier form of sliding sash window, and is obviously also cheaper.


Horizontal sliding sash window

Has two or more sashes that overlap slightly but slide horizontally within the frame. In the UK, these are sometimes called Yorkshire sash windows, presumably because of their traditional use in that county. Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Casement window

A window with a hinged sash that swings in or out like a door comprising either a side-hung, top-hung, or occasionally bottom-hung sash or a combination of these types, sometimes with fixed panels on one or more sides of the sash. In the USA these are usually opened using a crank, but in Europe they tend to use projection friction stays and espagnolette locking. Formerly, plain hinges were used with a casement stay. Handing applies to casement windows to determine direction of swing. Look up crank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Handing is the method of determining how a door swings. ...


A top hung hinged sash is also called an AWNING window. d


Tilt and slide

A window (more usually a door-sized window) where the sash tilts inwards at the top and then slides horizontally behind the fixed pane.


Tilt and turn

A window which can either tilt inwards at the top, or can open inwards hinged at the side.


Transom window

A window above a door; if an exterior door the transom window is often fixed, if an interior door it can often open either by hinges at top or bottom, or can rotate about hinges at the middle of its sides. It provided ventilation before forced air heating and cooling.


Jalousie window

A window comprised of many slats of glass that open and close like a Venetian blind, usually using a crank. The hinges may be at the top or middle of each of the slats of glass. A Jalousie door is a door with a Jalousie window. These windows are used extensively in Australian tropical and subtropical architecture, particularly in Queensland, where they are known as louvred windows. A jalousie is a slatted window covering, typically a shutter or window covering, which consists of a set of parallel angled slats. ... Venetian blind detail, showing how slats are connected Cat tangled in miniblinds A window blind is a covering for a window, usually attached to the interior side of a window. ...


Clerestory window

A vertical window set in a roof structure or high in a wall, used for daylighting. Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The roofs of Olomouc, Czech Republic. ... Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural light provides effective internal illumination. ...


Skylight

Main article: Daylighting

A flat or sloped window built into a roof structure that is out of reach for daylighting and plant watering. Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural light provides effective internal illumination. ...


Roof Window

A sloped window built into a roof structure that is in reach for daylighting.


Roof Lantern or Cupola

Main article: Cupola

A roof lantern is a multi-paned glass structure, resembling a small building, built on a roof for day or moon light. Sometimes includes an additional clerestory. May also be called a cupola. Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome In architecture, a cupola consists of a dome-shaped ornamental structure located on top of a larger roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and provide ventilation. ... Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome In architecture, a cupola consists of a dome-shaped ornamental structure located on top of a larger roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and provide ventilation. ...


Bay window

A multi-panel window, with at least three panels set at different angles to create a protrusion from the wall line.


Oriel window

A window with many panels. It is most often seen in the typical Tudor-style house and monasterie. An oriel window projects from the wall and does not extend to the ground. Oriel windows originated as a form of porch. They are often supported by brackets or corbels. Buildings in the Gothic Revival style often have oriel windows.


Fixed window

A window that cannot be opened, whose function is limited to allowing light to enter. Clerestory windows are often fixed. Transom windows may be fixed or operable.


Picture window

A very large fixed window in a wall, typically without glazing bars, or glazed with only perfunctory glazing bars near the edge of the window. Picture windows are intended to provide an unimpeded view, as if framing a picture.


Multi-lit window

A window glazed with small panes of glass separated by wooden or lead "glazing bars", or "muntins", arranged in a decorative "glazing pattern" often dictated by the architectural style at use. Due to the historic unavailability of large panes of glass, this was the prevailing style of window until the beginning of the twentieth century, and is traditionally still used today.


Emergency exit window / egress window

A window big enough and low enough so that occupants can escape from the openable part in an emergency, such as a fire. In the United States, exact specifications for emergency windows in bedrooms are given in many building codes. Vehicles, such as buses and aircraft, frequently have emergency exit windows as well. For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... A building code is a set of laws that specify how buildings should be constructed. ... “Autobus” redirects here. ... Flying machine redirects here. ...


Stained glass window

Main article stained glass

A window composed of pieces of colored glass, transparent or opaque, frequently portraying persons or scenes. Typically the glass in these windows is separated by lead glazing bars. Stained glass windows were popular in Victorian houses and some Wrightian houses, and are especially common in churches. Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... See: transparency (optics) alpha compositing GIF#Transparency transparency (overhead projector) market transparency transparency (telecommunication) transparency (computing) For X11 pseudo-transparency, see pseudo-transparency. ... A substance or object that is opaque is neither transparent nor translucent. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


Technical terms

Etymologically speaking, any window can be called a "light". However, within the window industry, particularly in insulated glass production, the term "lite" (so-spelled to keep the meaning differentiated from actual sunlight) is used to mean a single glass pane, several of which may be used to construct the final window product. For example, a sash unit, consisting of at least one sliding glass component, is typically composed of two lites, while a fixed window is composed of one lite. The terms "single-light", "double-light" etc refer to the number of these glass panes in a window.


In the USA, the term replacement window means a framed window designed to slip inside the original window frame from the inside after the old sashes are removed. In Europe, however, it usually means a complete window including a replacement outer frame.


The USA term new construction window means a window with a nailing fin designed to be inserted into a rough opening from the outside before applying siding and inside trim. A nailing fin is a projection on the outer frame of the window in the same plane as the glazing, which overlaps the prepared opening, and can thus be 'nailed' into place). Glazing, in architecture, is a transparent part of a wall, usually made of glass or plastic (acrylic and polycarbonate). ...


In the UK and Europe, windows in new-build houses are usually fixed with long screws into expanding plastic plugs in the brickwork. A gap of up to 13mm is left around all four sides, and filled with expanding polyurethane foam. This makes the window fixing weatherproof but allows for expansion due to heat.


Window materials

Modern windows, in developing countries in colder climates, typically have insulated glazing, called insulated glass when made from glass, which for insulated glazing is usually double paned but might be triple paned. Insulated Glazing Unit or Insulating Glass Unit (commonly referred to as IGU) is described as two or more lites of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single glazed unit with an air space between each lite. ... Insulated glazing is a piece of glazing consisting of two or more layers of glazing separated by a spacer along the edge and sealed to create a dead air space between the layers. ...


Modern windows are usually glazed with one large sheet of glass per sash, while windows in the past were glazed with multiple panes separated by "glazing bars", or "muntins", due to the unavailability of large sheets of glass. Today, glazing bars tend to be decorative, separating windows into small panes of glass even though larger panes of glass are available, generally in a pattern dictated by the architectural style at use. Glazing bars are typically wooden, but occasionally lead glazing bars soldered in place are used for more intricate glazing patterns.


Frames and sashes are traditionally made of wood, but metal, vinyl, and composites are also common. Solid metal frames and sashes are inefficient because metals conduct heat quickly. Whereas vinyl frames are inexpensive and relatively efficient, lack of durability becomes an issue. Some frames are made of vinyl-clad or aluminum-clad wood. Modern metal window parts typically consist of two surfaces separated by insulating spacer material. Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ...


A beam over the top of a window is known as the lintel or transom. Pre-fabricated, pre-tensioned concrete lintels spanning garage doors. ... Transom (probably a corruption of Latin transtrum, a thwart, in a boat; equivalents are French traverse, croisillon, German Losholz) is the architectural term given to the horizontal lintel or beam which is framed across a window, dividing it into stages or heights. ...


Many windows have movable window coverings such as blinds or curtains to keep out light, provide additional insulation, or ensure privacy. A window covering is material used to cover a window to reduce sunlight, to provide additional weatherproofing, or to ensure privacy. ... WindowBlinds is also the name of desktop theming software produced by a company called Stardock. ... A curtain is a piece of cloth intended to block or obscure light. ...


Sun incidence angle

Historically, windows are designed with surfaces parallel to vertical building walls. Such a design allows considerable solar light and heat penetration due to the most commonly occurring incidence of sun angles. In passive solar building design, an extended eave is typically used to control the amount of solar light and heat entering the window(s). Passive solar building design involves the modeling, selection and use of appropriate passive solar technologies to maintain the building environment at a desired temperature range (usually based around human thermal comfort) throughout the suns daily and annual cycles. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


An alternate method would be to calculate a more optimum angle for mounting windows which accounts for summer sun load minimization, with consideration of the actual latitude of the particular building. An example where this process has been implemented is the Dakin Building, Brisbane, California; much of the fenestration has been designed to reflect summer heat load and assist in preventing summer interior over-illumination and glare, by designing window canting to achieve a near 45 degree angle. Dakin Building The Dakin Building is an architectural award winning class A office building on the San Francisco Bay in Brisbane, California. ... Brisbane is a small city located in the northern part of San Mateo County, California. ... The word fenestration finds its root in the Latin word for window, fenestra. ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ...


Windows and religion

The symbolism of windows plays a part in the customs and traditions of certain religions.

  • In Christianity, the Gospel of Matthew mentions an ornate window in reference to the Last Supper. Protestants have used this window reference to support their claims that Catholic faith is ‘ornamental’ or otherwise a corruption of Christ’s message.[1]
  • On the holiday of Hanukkah it is customary to place the lighted menorah on a windowsill, preferably facing the street, so others can see it.[citation needed]

The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Grand Rabbi Israel Abraham Portugal of Skulen Hasidism lighting Hanukkah lights Hanukkah (‎, also spelled Chanukah), also known as the Festival of Lights, is an eight-day Jewish holiday beginning on the 25th day of the month of Kislev, which may fall anytime from late November to late December. ... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצו&#1493... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ...

See also

Look up defenestration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... EQUIPBAIE is the Windows, Doors, Shutters and Solar Protection International Exhibition that happens in Paris Expo every 2 years (in November). ... The 2006 LinuxWorld trade show at the Boston Convention and Exposition Center. ... Insulated Glazing Unit or Insulating Glass Unit (commonly referred to as IGU) is described as two or more lites of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single glazed unit with an air space between each lite. ... When discussing the properties of windows and shading devices, the G-value is one of the properties you will hear mentioned. ... A brass two flap porthole A porthole is a type of small, circular window often found on ships, armored vehicles, submarines, aircraft, and spacecraft. ... For the debate surrounding the pre-installation of Microsoft Windows on computers, see Microsoft Windows tax The window tax was a glass tax which was an important social, cultural, and architectural force in the kingdoms of England, Scotland and then Great Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Display window of the New York Transit Museum store. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ Earle E.Cairns, Christianity Through the Centuries (Zondervan, 1996),p.212.
  2. ^ Wayne D. Dosick, Living Judaism: The Complete Guide to Jewish Belief, Tradition, and Practice (HarperSanFrancisco, 1998),p.193.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Windows
  • Roman Glass from Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • History of Stained Glass
  • http://freenet.buffalo.edu/bah/a/DCTNRY/c/casement.html
  • http://www.fibertec.com/fiberStory.php?textsID=5

  Results from FactBites:
 
Window - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1142 words)
Later, various types of windows were invented that allowed light but not weather to pass into a building: mullioned glass windows, which joined multiple small pieces of glass with leading, paper windows, flattened pieces of translucent animal horn, and plates of thinly sliced marble.
Mullioned glass windows were the windows of choice among European well-to-do, whereas paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient China and Japan.
In England, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of panes of flattened animal horn were used as early as the 14th century in Northern Britain.
window (10881 words)
In general, wood windows, which consist of the window sash inside of a wooden frame, similar to a door, will require a rough opening that is two inches wider and two inches higher than the size of the window.
Windows play a prominent part of the appearance of any style of architecture, and one of the most distinctive features of the traditional style home is a divided lite window – real or simulated.
True divided lite windows are manufactured using essentially the same process as of the windows of yesteryear – a solid wood frame is broken up into squares, rectangles, triangles, diamonds, or other regular geometric shapes using interlocking wood strips, and individual panes of glass are fit into the openings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m