FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Windmill" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Windmill
Dutch windmill in Wageningen
Dutch windmill in Wageningen

A windmill is a machine that is powered by the energy of the wind. It is designed to convert the energy of the wind into more useful forms using rotating blades or sails. The term also refers to the structure it is commonly built on. In much of Europe, windmills served originally to grind grain, though later applications included pumping water and, more recently, generation of electricity. This article is about the machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy. ... Look up windmill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wageningen is a municipality and a historical town in the central Netherlands, in the province of Gelderland. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Grain redirects here. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... World-wide electricity production for 1980 to 2005. ...

Contents

History

Hero's wind-powered organ (reconstruction)
Hero's wind-powered organ (reconstruction)

A windmill operating an organ is described as early as the 1st century AD by Hero of Alexandria, marking probably the first instance of a wind powering machine in history.[1][2] Vertical axle windmills were first used in eastern Persia (Sistan) by the 9th century AD as described by Muslim geographers.[3] Horizontal axle windmills of the type generally used today were invented in Northwestern Europe in the 1180s.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 601 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1805 × 1801 pixel, file size: 346 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Windmill Hero of Alexandria Pipe... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 601 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1805 × 1801 pixel, file size: 346 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Windmill Hero of Alexandria Pipe... Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (Greek: Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (c. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (Greek: Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (c. ... edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Vertical axle windmills

The first windmills had long vertical shafts with rectangle shaped blades and appeared in Persia in the 9th century.[3] The authenticity of an earlier anecdote of a windmill involving the second caliph Umar (634-644 AD) is questioned on the grounds of being a 10th century amendment.[5] Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind corn or draw up water, and quite different from the European versions. A similar type of vertical shaft windmill with rectangle blades, used for irrigation, can also be found in 13th century China (during the Jurchen Jin Dynasty in the north), introduced by the travels of Yelü Chucai to Turkestan in 1219.[6] For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... A gaff-rigged cutter flying a mainsail, staysail and genoa jib For other uses, see Sail (disambiguation). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... now. ... For the town in southern Kazakhstan, see Hazrat-e Turkestan. ...




Horizontal axle windmills

A fixed windmill typical of the Cyclades Islands
A fixed windmill typical of the Cyclades Islands

Fixed windmills, oriented to the prevailing wind were, for example, extensively used in the Cyclades islands of Greece. The economies of power and transport allowed the use of these 'offshore' mills for grinding grain transported from the mainland and flour returned. A 1/10th share of the flour was paid to the miller in return for his service. This type would mount triangular sails when in operation. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 425 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1058 × 1491 pixel, file size: 533 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Windmill on Naxos, an island of the Cyclades group and typical of windmills in this region. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 425 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1058 × 1491 pixel, file size: 533 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Windmill on Naxos, an island of the Cyclades group and typical of windmills in this region. ... The Cyclades (Greek Κυκλάδες) are a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative prefecture of Greece. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Cyclades (Greek Κυκλάδες) are a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative prefecture of Greece. ...


In North Western Europe, the horizontal-shaft or vertical windmill (so called due to the dimension of the movement of its blades) dates from the last quarter of the 12th century in the triangle of northern France, eastern England and Flanders. Joseph Needham states that the earliest known reference came in 1191 by a Dean Herbert of East Anglia, who supposedly competed with the mills of the abbey of Bury St Edmunds.[7] These earliest mills were used to grind cereals. The evidence at present is that the earliest type was the post mill, so named because of the large upright post on which the mill's main structure (the "body" or "buck") is balanced. By mounting the body this way, the mill is able to rotate to face the (variable) wind direction; an essential requirement for windmills to operate economically in North-Western Europe, where wind directions are various. By the end of the thirteenth century the masonry tower mill, on which only the timber cap rotated rather than the whole body of the mill, had been introduced. In the Netherlands these stone towerlike mills are called "round or eight-sided stone stage mills, ground-sailers (windmills with long blades/sails reaching almost down to the ground), mound mills, etc." (Dutch: ronde/achtkante stenen stelling molens, grond-zeilers, beltmolens, etc.). Dutch tower mills ("torenmolens") are always cylindrical (such as atop castle or city wall towers). Due to the fact that only the cap of the tower mill needed to be turned the main structure could be made much taller, allowing the blades to be made longer, which enabled them to provide useful work even in low winds. Windmills were often built atop castle towers or city walls, and were a unique part of a number of fortifications in New France, such as at Fort Senneville. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... , Bury St Edmunds is a town in the county of Suffolk, England, and was formerly the county town of West Suffolk. ... Pitstone Windmill, an early 17th Century post mill The post mill is the earliest type of windmill. ... The tower mill Lana Mariana from 1739 in Harskamp (Ede), Netherlands (Dutch description: ronde stenen beltmolen = round stone mound mill) A Tower Mill is a type of windmill which consists of a brick or stone tower, on top of which sits a roof or cap which can be turned to... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Fort Senneville is one of the outlying forts of Montréal, Québec, built by the Canadiens of New France near the Sainte-Anne rapids in 1671. ...


The familiar lattice style of windmill sails (also called "common" sails) allowed the miller to attach sailcloths to the sails (while applying a brake). Trimming the sails allowed the windmill to turn at near the optimal speed in a large range of wind velocities.

Diagram of the smock mill at Meopham, Kent which uses a fantail and Cubitt's patent sails
Diagram of the smock mill at Meopham, Kent which uses a fantail and Cubitt's patent sails

The fantail, a small windmill mounted at right angles to the main sails which automatically turns the heavy cap and main sails into the wind, was invented by Edmund Lee in 1745, in England. The smock mill is a later variation of the tower mill, constructed of timber and originally developed in the sixteenth century for land drainage. With some subsequent development mills became versatile in windy regions for all kind of industry, most notably grain grinding mills, sawmills (late 16th century), threshing, and, by applying scoop wheels, Archimedes' screws, and piston pumps, pumping water either for land drainage or for water supply. In 1772, Scottish millwright, Andrew Meikle developed the spring sail made from a series of connected parallel shutters that could be opened or closed according to windspeed. To do this the sails had to be stopped, but the sails also incorporated a spring which allowed the shutters to open a little more to prevent damage if the wind suddenly strengthens. In 1807, William Cubitt a Norfolk engineer, invented a new type of sail, known there on as patent sails, that could be regulated whilst moving, using a chain and a rod that passed through the centre of the windshaft. This became the basis of self-regulating sails. These avoided the constant supervision that had been required up till then. The Smock mill is a type of windmill which consists of a wooden tower, usually with six or eight sides, on top of which is a roof or cap, which can rotate to bring the sails into the wind. ... Meopham (pronounced Mepp-um) is a large village five miles south of Gravesend, in Kent and is part of Gravesham Borough. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Sir William Cubitt (1785-1861) was an eminent British civil engineer and millwright. ... Smock mill with fantail Fantail – a little windmill mounted at right angles to the sails, at the rear of the windmill, and which turned the cap automatically to bring it into the wind. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... The Smock mill is a type of windmill which consists of a wooden tower, usually with six or eight sides, on top of which is a roof or cap, which can rotate to bring the sails into the wind. ... Grain redirects here. ... For the 1922 film starring Oliver Hardy, see The Sawmill. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Threshing is the process of beating cereal plants in order to separate the seeds or grains from the straw. ... Archimedes screw. ... Year 1772 (MDCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Andrew Meikle (1719- 27 November 1811) was an early mechanical engineer credited with, in about 1786, inventing (though some say he only improved on an earlier design) the threshing machine (used for removing the outer husks from grains of wheat, etc; occasionally also known as a thrashing machine), regarded as... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sir William Cubitt (1785-1861) was an eminent British civil engineer and millwright. ...


With the industrial revolution, the importance of windmills as primary industrial energy source was replaced by steam and internal combustion engines. Polder mills were replaced by steam, or diesel engines. The industrial revolution and increased use of Steam and later Diesel power however had a lesser effect on the Mills of the Norfolk Broads in the United Kingdom, these being so isolated (on extensive uninhabitable marshland), therefore some of these mills continued use as drainage pumps till as late as 1959. More recently historic windmills have been preserved for their historic value, in some cases as static exhibits when the antique machinery is too fragile to put in motion, and in other cases as fully working mills. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... This article is about the geographical feature. ... The Norfolk Broads are the northern part of The Broads National Park. ...


See Flood control in the Netherlands for use of windmills in land reclamation in the Netherlands. Blue: Areas below sea level or vulnerable to flooding, either by sea or by rivers. ...


In Canada and the United States

An isometric drawing of the machinery of the Beebe Windmill. It was built in Bridgehampton, NY in 1820.
An isometric drawing of the machinery of the Beebe Windmill. It was built in Bridgehampton, NY in 1820.

Windmills feature uniquely in the history of New France, particularly in Canada, where they were used as strong points in fortifications.[8] Prior to the 1690 Battle of Québec, the strong point of the city's landward defenses was a windmill called Mont-Carmel, where a three-gun battery was in place.[8] At Fort Senneville, a large stone windmill was built on a hill by late 1686, doubling as a watch tower.[9] This windmill was like no other in New France, with thick walls, square loopholes for muskets, with machicolation at the top for pouring lethally hot liquids and rocks onto attackers.[9] This helped make it the "most substantial castle-like fort" near Montreal.[10] Hampton Classic in September 2006 Bridgehampton is a hamlet (and census-designated place) in Suffolk County, New York, United States. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Combatants England France Commanders William Phips Louis de Buade de Frontenac Strength 2,300 regulars and militia 60 natives 6 field guns 34 warships 2,000 militia Casualties 30 dead 50 wounded Unknown The Battle of Quebec was fought in October, 1690 between English and French forces. ... Fort Senneville is one of the outlying forts of Montréal, Québec, built by the Canadiens of New France near the Sainte-Anne rapids in 1671. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... Parapets at Newark Castle, Inverclyde, Scotland, supported on decorative machicolation. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...


In the United States, the development of the water-pumping windmill was the major factor in allowing the farming and ranching of vast areas of North America, which were otherwise devoid of readily accessible water. They contributed to the expansion of rail transport systems throughout the world, by pumping water from wells to supply the needs of the steam locomotives of those early times. Two prominent brands were the Eclipse Windmill developed in 1867 (which was later bought by Fairbanks-Morse) and the Aermotor, which first appeared in 1888 and is still in production. The effectiveness of the Aermotor's automatic governor, which prevents it from flying apart in a windstorm, led to its popularity over other models. Currently, the Aermotor windmill company is the only remaining water windmill manufacturer in the United States. They continue to be used in areas of the world where a connection to electric power lines is not a realistic option.[11] railroads redirects here. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... An April, 1950 print advertisement for Fairbanks-Morse opposed piston engines. ...


The multi-bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood or steel was, for many years, a fixture of the landscape throughout rural America. These mills, made by a variety of manufacturers, featured a large number of blades so that they would turn slowly with considerable torque in low winds and be self regulating in high winds. A tower-top gearbox and crankshaft converted the rotary motion into reciprocating strokes carried downward through a rod to the pump cylinder below. A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ...


Windmills and related equipment are still manufactured and installed today on farms and ranches, usually in remote parts of the western United States where electric power is not readily available. The arrival of electricity in rural areas, brought by the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) in the 1930s through 1950s, contributed to the decline in the use of windmills in the US. Today, the increases in energy prices and the expense of replacing electric pumps has led to an increase in the repair, restoration and installation of new windmills.
The Rural Electrification Administration (REA) was an agency of the United States federal government created on 11 May 1935 through efforts of the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ...


Modern windmills

A modern windmill in Sweden
A modern windmill in Sweden
Main article: Wind turbine

The most modern generations of windmills are more properly called wind turbines, or wind generators, and are primarily used to generate electricity. Modern windmills are designed to convert the energy of the wind into electricity. The largest wind turbines can generate up to 6MW of power (for comparison a modern fossil fuel power plant generates between 500 and 1,300MW). Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy. ... This article is about the machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Mohave Generating Station, a 1,580 MW coal power plant near Laughlin, Nevada A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ...


With increasing environmental concern, and approaching limits to fossil fuel consumption, wind power has regained interest as a renewable energy source. It is increasingly becoming more useful and sufficient in providing energy for many areas of the world. An example of a wind turbine. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ...


One area in which it is becoming rather popular is around the midwest of the United States where, due to great amounts of wind, turbines have become very useful.


Windpumps

Brograve Mill, UK. An example of the derelict state of many Broadland Windpumps

A windpump is a type of windmill used for pumping water from a well or draining land. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Broadland is a local government district in Norfolk, England, named after the Norfolk Broads. ... A windpump is GAY to Pontus Wall. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ...


Windpumps are used extensively in Southern Africa and Australia and on farms and ranches in the central plains of the United States. In South Africa and Namibia thousands of windpumps are still operating. These are mostly used to provide water for human use as well as drinking water for large sheep stocks. Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ...


Kenya has also benefited from the Africa development of windpump technologies. At the end of the 70s, the UK NGO Intermediate Technology Development Group provided engineering support to the Kenyan company Bobs Harries Engineering Ltd for the development of the Kijito windpumps. Nowadays Bobs Harries Engineering Ltd is still manufacturing the Kijito windpumps and more than 300 Kijito windpumps are operating in the whole of East Africa. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Practical Action - the working name of Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) – is a charity registered in the United Kingdom which works directly in four regions of the developing world – Latin America, East Africa, Southern Africa and South Asia, with particular concentration on Peru, Kenya, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka and Nepal. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


The Netherlands is well known for its windmills. Most of these iconic structures situated along the edge of polders are actually windpumps, designed to drain the land. These are particularly important as much of the country lies below sea level. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... A polder is a low-lying tract of land that forms an artificial hydrological entity, enclosed by embankments known as dikes and requiring drainage by pumps to prevent the water table within it from rising too high. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ...


Many windpumps were built in The Broads, of East Anglia in the United Kingdom for the draining of land. They have since been mostly replaced by electric power, many of these windpumps still remain, mainly in a derelict state (pictured), however some have been restored. Not to be confused with The Broads, Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ...

On US farms, particularly in the Midwest, windpumps of the type pictured were used to pump water from farm wells for cattle. Today this is done primarily by electric pumps, and only a few windpumps survive as unused relics of an environmentally sustainable technology. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... Wikinews has related news: Scientists warn thawing Siberia may trigger global meltdown A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ...


Windmills in culture and literature

Spanish windmills in La Mancha
Spanish windmills in La Mancha

Miguel de Cervantes's book Don Quixote de La Mancha, which helped cement the modern Spanish language and is regarded as one of the greatest works of fiction ever published[12], features an iconic scene in which Don Quixote attacks windmills that he believes to be ferocious giants. This gave international fame to La Mancha and its windmills, and is the origin of the phrase "tilting at windmills", to describe an act of futility. Download high resolution version (1149x862, 432 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1149x862, 432 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Thanks to Miguel de Cervantes, La Mancha is famous for its windmills. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Thanks to Miguel de Cervantes, La Mancha is famous for its windmills. ... Tilting at Windmills is the first full-length release by the band Consafos. ...


George Green, a famous UK self-taught mathematician and physicist, owned and operated a windmill. Green's Windmill has been restored as cultural heritage. The title page to George Greens original essay on what is now known as Greens theorem. ... Greens Windmill Green’s Windmill is a restored and working 19th century tower windmill in Sneinton, Nottingham. ...


The Windmill also plays an important role in Animal Farm, a book by George Orwell. In the book, an allegory of the Russian Revolution and the subsequent early Soviet Union, the effort invested construction of a windmill is provided by the animals in the hope of reduced manual labour and increased living standards.
For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... The Russian Revolution (1917) was a series of economic and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


See also

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1632 × 1232 pixel, file size: 818 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Self made, shot in the ranching heritage center in lubbock texas I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1632 × 1232 pixel, file size: 818 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Self made, shot in the ranching heritage center in lubbock texas I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public... A Windmill in Lubbock, Texas An antique functioning windmill and a cart for transporting water Restored Texan Pioneer House The Sign in Front of the Door The National Ranching Heritage Center, a museum of ranching history, is located in Lubbock. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ... The List of windmills is a link page for any windmill or windpump. ... Watermill of Braine-le-Château, Belgium (12th century) A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour or lumber production, or metal shaping (rolling, grinding or wire drawing). ... Tension leg platforms (TLPs) are wind turbines attached to floating platforms with steel cables tethered from the corners of the floating platform to a concrete-block or other mooring system on the ocean floor. ... A tall tower holds a wind turbine aloft where winds are consistently stronger. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The International Molinological Society (TIMS) has been active since 1965 and is the only organization dedicated to Mills on a worldwide scale. ... Klopotec from Slovenske Gorice has four wings A klopotec is a wooden mechanical device on a high wooden pole, similar to a windmill. ... Savonius wind turbines are a type of vertical axis wind turbine, used for converting the power of the wind into torque on a rotating shaft. ...

Notes

  1. ^ A.G. Drachmann, "Heron's Windmill", Centaurus, 7 (1961), pp. 145-151
  2. ^ Dietrich Lohrmann, "Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle", Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, Vol. 77, Issue 1 (1995), pp.1-30 (10f.)
  3. ^ a b Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6.
  4. ^ Dietrich Lohrmann, "Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle", Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, Vol. 77, Issue 1 (1995), pp.1-30 (18ff.)
  5. ^ Dietrich Lohrmann, "Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle", Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, Vol. 77, Issue 1 (1995), pp.1-30 (8)
  6. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 560.
  7. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 555.
  8. ^ a b Chartrand, French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763: Québec, Montréal, Louisbourg and New Orleans
  9. ^ a b Chartrand, p 41
  10. ^ Chartrand, p. 38
  11. ^ Quirky old-style contraptions make water from wind on the mesas of West Texas
  12. ^ BBC.

Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... Donald Routledge Hill (1922–1994) was an engineer and historian of science. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

References

  • A.G. Drachmann: "Heron's Windmill," Centaurus, 7 (1961), pp. 145-151

Further reading

  • Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6.
  • Chartrand, French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763: Québec, Montréal, Louisbourg and New Orleans.
  • Dietrich Lohrmann, "Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle", Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, Vol. 77, Issue 1 (1995)
  • A.G. Drachmann, "Heron's Windmill", Centaurus, 7 (1961).
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.
  • Hugh Pembroke Vowles: "An Enquiry into Origins of the Windmill", Journal of the Newcomen Society, Vol. 11 (1930-31)

Hugh Pembroke Vowles Hugh Pembroke Vowles (born 1885 in Pembroke, Wales - died 1951 in Oxlynch, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire, England) was a British engineer, socialist and author. ...

External links

Find more about Windmill on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... This article is about the machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy. ... Wind machines were used for grinding grain in Persia as early as 200 B.C. This type of machine was introduced into the Roman Empire by 250 A.D. By the 14th century Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine River delta. ... An airborne wind turbine is a design concept for a wind turbine that is supported in the air without a tower. ... Fig. ... // The aerodynamics of a horizontal axis wind turbine are not straight forward. ... // Multibrid 5000 Prototype, north of Bremerhaven (Germany) Wakamatsu wind farm, Kitakyushu, Japan Wind turbines in Solano County, CA AAER Systems [1] (Canada) Acciona Energy [2] (Spain) AN Windenergie [3] (Germany) - bought by Siemens in 2005, now Siemens Wind Power GmbH A.Ayvazian & Associates (Iran) Bard Engineering [4](Germany) BOLTUN [5... Savonius wind turbines are a type of vertical axis wind turbine, used for converting the power of the wind into torque on a rotating shaft. ... // Still something of a research project, the ducted rotor consists of a turbine inside a duct which flares outwards at the back. ... Vertical Axis Wind Turbines or VAWT are a type of wind turbine where the main rotor shaft runs vertically. ... A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines in the same location. ... This is a List of large wind farms, which are operating or are under construction: Alinta Wind Farm, Western Australia (90 MW) (Australia) Altamont Pass Wind Farm (606 MW) (USA) Big Horn Wind Farm (200 MW) (USA) Brazos Wind Ranch (160 MW) (USA) Centennial Wind Farm (120 MW) (USA) Champion... The capacity factor of a power plant is the amount of electricity that it produces over a period of time, divided by the amount of electricity it could have produced if it had run at full power over that time period. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Ffestiniog pumped storage power station upper reservoir Grid energy storage lets energy producers send excess electricity over the electricity transmission grid to temporary electricity storage sites that become energy producers when electricity demand is greater. ... HVDC or high-voltage, direct current electric power transmission systems contrast with the more common alternating-current systems as a means for the bulk transmission of electrical power. ... Intermittent power sources are sources of electric power generation that may be variable or intermittent, primarily sources of renewable energy such as wind and solar generated electricity. ... A wind power forecast corresponds to an estimate of the expected production of one or more wind turbines (referred to as a wind farm) in the near future. ... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ... A power kite or traction kite is a large kite designed to provide significant pull. ... Diagram of Sailboat, in this case a typical monohull sloop with a bermuda or marconi rig. ... Traditional wooden cutter under sail. ... A windcatcher (Badgir; بادگیر) is a traditional Persian architectural device used for many centuries to create natural ventilation in buildings. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Windmill Farm & Craft Market (222 words)
The Windmill is the first and friendliest farm and craft market in upstate New York, located right in the heart of the Finger Lakes Wine Region.
Midway between Penn Yan and Dundee on NY Route 14A, The Windmill has become a premier tourist attraction, with a weekly attendance exceeding 8,000 - 10,000 people.
eginning with roughly 100 vendors, The Windmill serves as an outlet for local producers and craftsmen.
Building The Best Windmill (732 words)
Have students discuss what it is they know about windmills and their capacity to catch atmospheric motion to make their blades spin.
Windmills are designed to extract as much energy as possible from the wind.
Windmills capture the energy of the wind when the wind moves the blades (or rotor) of the windmill.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m