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Encyclopedia > Windhoek

--193.164.15.35 07:14, 4 July 2007 (UTC)

Skyline of Windhoek

Windhoek, Namibia Image File history File links Windhoek-Skyline. ...

Area 645 km² (400 mi²)
Established 18 October 1890
Population 230,000
Population Density 356.6/km² (575/mi²)
Administrative Division Khomas Region
Mayor Matheus Shikongo
Time Zone South African Standard Time: UTC+2
Latitude and Longitude Latitude: 22.56°S Longitude: 17.09°E

Windhoek (pronounced "Vind hook" or German «Windhuk») is the capital of Namibia. It is located in the Khomas Region, has a population of 230,000, and is a major trade centre of sheep skins. Windhoek was originally inhabited by the Herero, then became the centre of a Nama chief who defeated the Herero in the 19th century. Germany occupied the region in 1885, and it became the seat of colonial rule in 1892, as the capital of the colony of German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika). During World War I, Windhoek was captured by South African troops and became a South African Mandate under the League of Nations. Until the independence of Namibia was inaugurated in 1990, Windhoek was recognized as the capital of South West Africa as administered by the South African government. It continues today as the capital of the Republic of Namibia. Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Area: 36,805 km² (14,210 mi²) Population: 250,305 (2001), 167,071 (1991) Population density 6. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Area: 36,805 km² (14,210 mi²) Population: 250,305 (2001), 167,071 (1991) Population density 6. ... Species See text. ... A group of Herero women. ... Nama (in older sourses also Namaqua) are a pastoral people of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana speaking the Nama language which belongs to the Khoe-Kwadi language family (previously known as Central Khoisan). ... Flag German South-West Africa (black), other German colonies in red Capital Windhoek (from 1891) Political structure Colony Governor  - 1898-1905 Theodor von Leutwein  - 1905-1907 Friedrich von Lindequist  - 1907-1910 Bruno von Schuckmann  - 1910-1915 Theodor Seitz Historical era The Scramble for Africa  - Established 7 August, 1884  - Genocide 1904... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

History

The city of Windhoek is traditionally known by two names: Ai-Gams, from the Nama people, which literally refers to the hot springs that were once part of Windhoek, while the second name, Otjomuise, meaning a place of steam, was given by the Herero people. Both traditional names reference the hot springs. Nama (in older sourses also Namaqua) are a pastoral people of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana speaking the Nama language which belongs to the Khoe-Kwadi language family (previously known as Central Khoisan). ... A group of Herero women. ...


The early settlements of Windhoek came about because of the water from the hot springs. In the mid-1800's Captain Jan Jonker Afrikaner settled near one of the main hot springs, located in the present-day Klein-Windhoek, an upper-class suburb of Windhoek.


Theories vary on how Ai-Gams/Otjomuise got its modern name of Windhoek. Most believe the name Windhoek is derived from the Afrikaans word Wind-Hoek, meaning "corner of wind." It is also thought that the Afrikaners named Windhoek after the Windhoek Mountains, at Tulbagh in South Africa, where the early Afrikaners settlers had lived. In those days Windhoek was the point of contact between the warring Namas, led by Jan Jonker Afrikaner, and the Herero. Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Afrikaners are an ethnic group of Northwestern European ancestry and associated with Southern Africa and the Afrikaans language. ... Tulbagh is a town in the Tulbagh valley and is situated in the Witzenberg Local Municipality, near to Wolseley, Prince Alfreds Hamlet, Gouda and Ceres in the Boland (Highland) district of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. ... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Nama (in older sourses also Namaqua) are a pastoral people of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana speaking the Nama language which belongs to the Khoe-Kwadi language family (previously known as Central Khoisan). ... A group of Herero women. ...


In Windhoek, Afrikaners built a stone church that held 500 people, which was also used as a school. Two Rhenish missionaries, Hugo Hahn and Heinrich Kleinschmidt, started working there in the 1840s and were later succeeded by two Wesleyans. Gardens were laid out and for a while Windhoek prospered, but wars between the Nama and Herero eventually destroying the town. After a long absence, Hahn visited Windhoek again in 1873 and was dismayed to see that nothing remained of the town's former prosperity. In June 1885, a Swiss botanist found only jackals and starving guinea fowl amongst neglected fruit trees. Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Nama (in older sourses also Namaqua) are a pastoral people of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana speaking the Nama language which belongs to the Khoe-Kwadi language family (previously known as Central Khoisan). ... A group of Herero women. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... This article is about the animal. ... Genera  Agelastes  Numida  Guttera  Acryllium The guineafowl are a family of birds in the same order as the pheasants, turkeys and other game birds. ...

A church and a monument built by the Germans
A church and a monument built by the Germans

In 1878, Britain annexed Walvis Bay and incorporated it into the Cape of Good Hope in 1884, but Britain was not interested in extending its influence into the interior of Africa. A Request by merchants from Lüderitzbucht resulted in the declaration of a German protectorate over German West Africa in 1884. The German colony came into being with the determination of its borders in 1890 and Germany sent a protective corps, called the Schutztruppe under Major Curt von François, to maintain order. Von François stationed his garrison at Windhoek, which was strategically situated as a buffer between the Nama and Herero, while the twelve strong springs provided water for the cultivation of food. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 205 KB)Main church in Windhoek, Namibia Christuskirche in Windhoek, of the German Evangelican-Lutheran Church File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 205 KB)Main church in Windhoek, Namibia Christuskirche in Windhoek, of the German Evangelican-Lutheran Church File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Walvis Bay, Namibia Walvis Bay, (Dutch/Afrikaans Walvisbaai, meaning Whale Bay), is an area in Namibia with a checkered history. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Angra Pequeña, Portuguese for small cove, was discovered in 1487 on the west coast of Southern Africa by the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... The German West African Company, in German Deutsch-Westafrikanische Gesellschaft / Compagnie, was a German chartered company, founded in 1882, which exploited two German Schutzgebiete in West Africa knwon as German West Africa, but apparently, unlike German East Africa, without a central authority. ... The Schutztruppe was the colonial armed force of Imperial Germany from the late 1800s to 1918 when Germany lost its colonies. ... Curt von François (1852-1931) was a military and political figure in the early days of German colonialism in Africa. ... Nama (in older sourses also Namaqua) are a pastoral people of South Africa, Namibia and Botswana speaking the Nama language which belongs to the Khoe-Kwadi language family (previously known as Central Khoisan). ... A group of Herero women. ...


Present-day Windhoek was founded on 18 October 1890, when Von François lay the foundation stone of the fort, which is now known as the Alte Feste (Old Fortress). During the next fourteen years Windhoek developed slowly, with only the most essential government and private buildings being erected. In Klein-Windhoek, plots were allocated to settlers, who started farming on a small scale with fruit, tobacco and dairy cattle. is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ...


After 1907, development accelerated as people migrated from within country to the city and also some emigrated from outside the country. There was also a larger influx of western settlers arriving from Germany and South Africa. Businesses were erected on Kaiser Street, present Independence Avenue, and along the dominant mountain ridge over the city, including the three eye-catching castles.

Mainstreet in Windhoek
Mainstreet in Windhoek

The German colonial era came to an end during World War I when South African troops occupied Windhoek in May 1915 on behalf of Great Britain. For the next five years, a military government administered South West Africa. Development of the city of Windhoek and the nation later to be known as Namibia came to a virtual standstill. After World War II, Windhoek's development gradually gained momentum, as more capital became available to improve the area's economic climate. After 1955, large public projects were undertaken, such as the building of new schools and hospitals, hardening of the city's roads (a project begun in 1928), and the building of dams and pipelines to finally stabilize the water supply. Download high resolution version (1141x841, 286 KB)Mainstreet in Windhoek. ... Download high resolution version (1141x841, 286 KB)Mainstreet in Windhoek. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


With Namibia's independence from South African administration in 1990, the city experienced a new wind of change that led to accelerated growth and development. Windhoek became the seat of a first, democratically-elected government of the Republic of Namibia, headed by the head of state the president, Sam Nujoma. President Sam Nujoma Samuel Daniel Shafiishuna Nujoma (born May 12, 1929) was the first President of Namibia. ...


Windhoek is twinned with the German capital Berlin (since 2000), Trossingen, Germany and has a partnership with Wetzlar, Germany Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... Trossingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ...


Transportation in the city

Aerial view of Windhoek Centre
Aerial view of Windhoek Centre

In 1928, Kaiserstraße, now Independence Avenue, was the first paved road in Windhoek. Ten years later the next one, Gobabis road, now Sam Nujoma Drive, was also paved. Today out of ca. 40,000 km of Namibia's total road network, about 5000 km is sealed. Image File history File linksMetadata 45606182. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 45606182. ...


Windhoek's three main access roads from Rehoboth, Gobabis, and Okahandja are paved, and are designed to be able to withstand the largest possible flood to be expected in fifty years. Sealed roads can carry traffic moving at 120 km/h and should last for 20 years. Rehoboth, town [population 2005: 21,378], central Namibia. ... Gobabis, Namibia Gobabis, Namibia, is a town situated 200 km (124 miles) down the B6 motorway from Windhoek to Botswana. ... Okahandja (meaning the place where two rivers flow into each other to form one wide one) is a small town in central Namibia. ...


Windhoek has two airports: Eros on its outskirts for smaller craft, and Windhoek Hosea Kutako International Airport 42 km east of the city. A number of foreign airlines operate to and from Windhoek. Air charters and helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft rentals are also available. --> Eros Airport is the busy hub of general aviation in Namibia. ... Windhoek Hosea Kutako International Airport (IATA: WDH, ICAO: FYWH) is the main international airport serving the Namibian capital city of Windhoek. ...


Windhoek is also served by bus public transportation routes throughout the city. A Go North East bus parked in a lay-by in Tyne and Wear, England. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ...


Windhoek International Airport (WDH)

Windhoek Hosea Kutako International Airport, situated 45 kilometres outside Windhoek, handles well over 400,000 passengers a year. The airport is central Namibia's only international airport, and has one runway without capacity limitations. Other international airports are located in Walvis Bay and Luderitz. It directly connects bi-weekly to each of the following airports: London, Frankfurt, and Munich. Southern Africa's hub, Johannesburg, is only a two-hour flight away, from where it is possible to connect to over 50 cities. South African Airways, LTU, and Air Namibia all have daily flights to Windhoek International Airport, whilst TAAG Angola Airlines has bi-weekly turnarounds to Luanda. Windhoek Hosea Kutako International Airport (IATA: WDH, ICAO: FYWH) is the main international airport serving the Namibian capital city of Windhoek. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) is Londons second largest airport and the second busiest airport in the UK after Heathrow. ... Frankfurt Airport Frankfurt Airport (IATA: FRA, ICAO: EDDF), known in German as Rhein-Main-Flughafen or Flughafen Frankfurt am Main, is located near Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... Munich International Airport (IATA: MUC, ICAO: EDDM), officially named Franz Josef Strauss International Airport (German: Flughafen München Franz Josef Strauß) is located 17. ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... South African Airways (SAA) is South Africas largest domestic and international airline company. ... LTU may mean: Land treatment unit, a term in bioremediation Lambda the Ultimate, a weblog devoted to programming languages La Trobe University, a university in Australia Liaoning Technical University, a university in China LuleÃ¥ University of Technology, a university in Sweden LTU International Airways, a German charter airline company LTU... Air Namibia is the national airline of Namibia, based in Windhoek. ... TAAG Angola Airlines (Linhas Aéreas de Angola) is the national flag carrier of Angola. ... Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ...


Eros Airport

Eros is the busiest airport in Namibia in terms of take offs and landings. This city airport handles around 12,000 individual flights a year, the majority of which are light aircraft. Primarily, limitations such as runway length, noise, and air space congestion have kept Eros from developing into a larger airport. Most of Namibia's charter operators have Eros as their base.


Climate

Windhoek is situated in a semi-desert climatic region. Days are mostly warm with very hot days during the summer months, while nights are generally cool. Semi-arid generally describes regions that receive low annual rainfall (25 to 50 cm /10 to 20 in) and generally have scrub or grass vegetation. ... Summer is one of the four seasons of the year. ...


The winter months of June, July and August usually experience the least rainfall. Minimum temperatures range between 5°C (41°F) to 18°C (64°F). Nights are usually cold, although the temperature seldom drops below zero °C, and it almost never snows. Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ...


The country experiences a drought more or less once every decade. A drought is a period of time when there is not enough water to support agricultural, urban, human, or environmental water needs. ...

Monthly Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °C 31 29 28 26 23 21 21 24 27 29 30 31
Rec Low °C 18 17 16 13 9 7 7 9 12 15 16 17
Precip (mm) 78 80 79 38 7 1 1 1 3 12 27 42

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Windhoek

  Results from FactBites:
 
Windhoek Accommodation | Accommodation in Windhoek (650 words)
Windhoek (pronounced "Wind hook" or German "Windhuk") is the capitol of Namibia, 22.56 deg S 17.09 deg E. It has a population of over 230,000 and the major port for Namibia.
Windhoek is situated in a semi-desert climatic region.
Windhoek's three main access roads from Rehoboth, Gobabis, and Okahandja are paved, and are designed to be able to withstand the largest possible flood to be expected in fifty years.
Windhoek - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1179 words)
Windhoek was originally the centre of a Nama chief, who defeated the Herero inhabitants of the region in the 19th century.
Windhoek's three main access roads from Rehoboth, Gobabis, and Okahandja are paved, and are designed to be able to withstand the largest possible flood to be expected in fifty years.
Windhoek is situated in a semi-desert climatic region.
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