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Encyclopedia > Wind farm

A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines in the same location. They generate wind-powered electricity. Production varies with the wind. Individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (usually 34.5kV) collection system and fiber optic communications network. This medium-voltage electricity is then stepped up with a transformer to a high voltage transmission system and the electric grid. A proposed solution for wind energy and other intermittent power sources is to create a supergrid of interconnected wind farms[1] across western Europe. This large-scale array of dispersed wind farms[2] would be located in different wind regimes. Horizontal-axis wind turbine, the Enercon model E-66 wind energy converter, in Germany. ... Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Intermittent power sources are sources of electric power generation that may be variable or intermittent, primarily sources of renewable energy such as wind and solar generated electricity. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ...

Contents

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 746 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 746 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... The 21st century is the present century of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The California Central Valley Part of the Valley as seen from overhead A typical Central Valley scene at ground level The California Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U.S. state of California. ...

Wind capacity installed and under construction by country

Region Installed Wind Capacity (MW) Wind Capacity Under Construction (MW)
Australia[3] 817 521
Canada[4] 1,341
Europe[5] 48,000
India[6] 7,113.6
New Zealand[7] 320 151
United States 11,699[8] 4,500[9]
Total[10] 74,223

Wind farms in Australia

See: Wind power in Australia, Wind power in South Australia

At the end of 2006, Australia had installed electricity generation capacity from wind power of 817 MW[11] and nationally wind farms contributed about 1% of total electricity production. In the state of South Australia, this figure was much higher at 9.2% (2005). Australian wind farms produce on average capacity factors of 30-35%, making wind an attractive option in the country.[12] Wind power in Australia is clean and renewable and a typical wind turbine can meet the energy needs of up to 1000 homes. ... The information centre near the base of one of the towers at Wattle Point Wind Farm Wind power in South Australia is a growing industry with 388MW of grid-connected wind farms installed at the end of 2006, with a further 263MW under construction. ... The capacity factor of a power plant is the amount of electricity that it produces over a period of time, divided by the amount of electricity it could have produced if it had run at full power over that time period. ...


Some of the largest wind farms in Australia are:

  1. Wattle Point (SA) - 90.75MW
  2. Alinta/Walkaway (WA) - 90MW
  3. Lake Bonney (stage 1) (SA) - 80.5MW
  4. Cathedral Rocks (SA) - 66MW
  5. Emu Downs Wind Farm, Western Australia (WA) - 80MW

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Edithburgh, South Australia. ... Alinta Wind Farm Alinta Wind Farm is a wind power station at Walkaway, just south of Geraldton, Western Australia. ... Cathedral Rocks Wind Farm is a wind power station at Port Lincoln, South Australia. ... The 80 MW Emu Downs Wind Farm ( ) is a joint development between Stanwell Corporation and Griffin Energy and construction of the $180 million project commenced in November 2005. ...

Wind farms in Brazil

Brazil is one of the countries that is expanding its wind power production the fastest [13]


The Location of Brazil's Wind Farms:

  1. São Gonçalo do Amarante/CE (10 Turbines)
  2. Prainha de Aquiraz-CE (20 Turbines)
  3. Mucuripe-CE (4 Turbines)
  4. Fernando de Noronha Island-PE 1&2 (2 Turbines)
  5. Olinda-PE 1&2 (2 Turbines)
  6. Morro do Camelinho-MG (4 Turbines)
  7. Palmas-PR (5 Turbines)
  8. Osório-RS (? Turbines)

Aerial view of the island from the north east Image:Orthographic projection centred over Fernando de Noronha Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, around 220 miles (354 km) offshore from the Brazilian coast. ... Palmas is the capital of the state of Tocantins, in Brazil. ...

Wind farms in Canada

See also: List of wind farms in Canada
Huron Wind farm in Tiverton, Ontario, Canada, includes five Vestas V80s installed in November 2002
Huron Wind farm in Tiverton, Ontario, Canada, includes five Vestas V80s installed in November 2002

The total capacity of all wind farms in Canada is approximately 1,492 MW as of February 2006 [14]. Each province and territory contains the following capacity (rounded to one decimal): This is a list of wind farms in Canada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1298x596, 97 KB) Huron Wind Taken by User:Jok2000 July 31, 2004 in Tiverton, Ontario Canada File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wind farm Huron Wind Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1298x596, 97 KB) Huron Wind Taken by User:Jok2000 July 31, 2004 in Tiverton, Ontario Canada File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wind farm Huron Wind Metadata... Huron Wind wind farm Huron Wind is the first Canadian commercial wind farm. ... Tiverton, Ontario (2001 census population 743) is a village located in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Vestas is a Danish company that designs, manufactures, and sells wind turbines. ...

  1. Ontario, 415.3 MW,
  2. Alberta, 385.0 MW,
  3. Quebec, 321.8 MW,
  4. Saskatchewan, 171.2 MW,
  5. Manitoba, 104.0 MW,
  6. Nova Scotia, 49.3 MW,
  7. Prince Edward Island, 43.6 MW,
  8. Yukon, 0.8 MW, and then
  9. Newfoundland, 0.4 MW.

There are currently no operating wind farms in British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nunavut (territory), or the Northwest Territories. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... For other geographical names that include Northwest, see Northwest. ...


The five largest wind farms in Canada are:

  1. Prince Project - Phase I&II (Ontario), 189 MW
  2. Murdochville Project - Phase I&II&III (Quebec), 162 MW
  3. Centennial (SaskPower near Swift Current, Saskatchewan), 149.4 MW
  4. Erie Shores (Ontario), 99 MW
  5. St Leon - Phase 2 (Manitoba), 84 MW

Government support for wind power continues to increase. The current Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI)[15] is expected to quadruple its goal of 1,000 MW of wind power to 4,000 MW. There is an additional 2,811 MW planned or under construction. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... SaskPower is the principal supplier of electricity in Saskatchewan, Canada. ... Swift Current is a small city in Southwest Saskatchewan. ... Erie Shores Wind Farm is a large wind farm near Port Burwell, Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... The Wind Power Production Incentive, or WPPI, is a program of the Canadian Government that promotes the generation of electricity from wind power in Canada to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas that would otherwise enter the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. ...


Wind farms in Europe

See Wind power in the European Union
A modern offshore wind farm near Copenhagen.
A modern offshore wind farm near Copenhagen.
A wind farm in a mountainous area in Galicia, Spain

The development of wind farms in Europe enjoys greater public acceptance and creates a larger share of energy. Germany has the biggest wind turbine to be established offshore, and the largest number of wind farms in the world. Its installed capacity was 20,622 MW as of december 2006. The second country in capacity was Spain with 11,615 MW. The third one was Denmark with 3,136 MW. Italy was in the fourth position, with 2,123 MW. [16] The market for European wind power capacity grew in 2006, according to statistics from the European Wind Energy Association. ... Download high resolution version (1024x357, 49 KB)Danish wind turbines near Copenhagen. ... Download high resolution version (1024x357, 49 KB)Danish wind turbines near Copenhagen. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (820x362, 52 KB)Windpark in Calicia, Spain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (820x362, 52 KB)Windpark in Calicia, Spain. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Overall national government policies across Europe are also generally in favour of increasing the use of renewable energy sources. The United Kingdom government, for example, has a target for 10% of domestic energy consumption to be generated from renewable sources by the year 2010. A number of on- and off-shore wind farms are currently going through planning permission at the moment. Recently an onshore farm was opened at Cefn Croes in West Wales's Cambrian Mountains [17]. In May 2006, operational wind farms in wind farms in the UK comprised an installed capacity of 1693 MW, in Portugal 1188 MW [18], in France 918 MW and in the Republic of Ireland 496 MW. The planned 322 MW wind farm south of Glasgow will be the biggest wind farm in Europe. The €350 million farm is ordered by Scottish Power and the 140 wind turbines are to be delivered by Siemens. Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Main article: Town and Country Planning in the United Kingdom Planning permission or planning consent is the permission required in the United Kingdom in order to be allowed to build on land, or change the use of land or buildings. ... CEFN CROES WIND FARM Cefn Croes, the site of a controversial wind farm project, is in the Cambrian Mountains, just south of the A44 road between Aberystwyth and Llangurig. ... This article is about the country. ... The Cambrian Mountains are a mountain range in Mid Wales, reaching from the Brecon Beacons in South Wales to Snowdonia in North Wales. ... Wind power in the United Kingdom passed the milestone of 2 GW installed capacity on 9 February 2007, equivalent to two coal fired power stations, with the opening of the Braes ODoune wind farm, near Stirling. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Scottish Power Limited is a vertically integrated energy company with its headquarters in Glasgow, Scotland, and a subsidiary of the Spanish utility Iberdrola. ... “Siemens” redirects here. ...


On 18th December 2006, the British government gave planning consent for the world's largest offshore wind farm. It is to be built 12 miles off of the Kent coast and will include 341 turbines. Parts of the 'London Array', as it is called, have already been constructed and are operational. The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... The London Array is an offshore wind farm that has been granted planning permission for the outer Thames Estuary. ...


Wind farms in different countries yield different amounts of electricity, because of differences in prevailing wind patterns, siting of the turbines, and the fact that early turbine designs were considerably less efficient and capable of adapting quickly to changes in wind direction and speed. For example, an Oxford University study of the wind over the past 35 years found that UK turbines would have produced 27% of their peak power generating capacity, compared with 20% in Denmark and 15% in Germany.[19]


An important limiting factor of wind power is variable power generated by wind farms. In most locations the wind blows only part of the time, which means that there has to be back-up capacity of conventional generating capacity to cover periods that the wind is not blowing. To address this issue it has been proposed to create a supergrid of interconnected windfarms across western Europe, ranging from Denmark across the southern North Sea to England and the Celtic Sea to Ireland, and further south to France and Spain especially in Higueruela which was considered for some time the biggest wind farm in the world.[20]. The idea is that by the time a low pressure area has moved away from Denmark to the Baltic Sea the next low appears of the coast of Ireland. Therefore, while it is true that the wind is not blowing everywhere all of the time, it will always be blowing somewhere. Such a supergrid would therefore reduce the need for backup capacity. Intermittent power sources are sources of electric power generation that may be variable or intermittent, primarily sources of renewable energy such as wind and solar generated electricity. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Map of the Celtic Sea, an arm of the Atlantic. ... La Higueruela in red Higueruela is a municipality located at 43km east of Albacete, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


Wind farms in India

See Wind power in India
A wind farm in Muppandal, Tamil Nadu, India
A wind farm in Muppandal, Tamil Nadu, India

At the end of 2007 India had 7113.6 MW of wind generating capacity and is the fourth largest market in the world.[21] There are about a dozen wind pumps of various designs providing water for agriculture, afforestation, and domestic purposes, all scattered over the country. The states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra lead in the field of wind energy.[citation needed][opinion needs balancing] As of April 2007 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 7,113. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x474, 107 KB) [edit] Summary File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nagercoil Aralvaimozhi Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x474, 107 KB) [edit] Summary File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nagercoil Aralvaimozhi Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Muppandal (Tamil: முப்பந்தல்)is a small village on the southern tip of India in Kanyakumari District, in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Afforestation is the process of converting open land into a forest by planting trees or their seeds. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... POV, as opposed to NPOV, in an article means that it is affected by an editors point of view. ...


Wind farms in Japan

Wakamatsu wind farm, Kitakyushu, Japan
Wakamatsu wind farm, Kitakyushu, Japan

There is no particular controversy about the sightliness or otherwise of the Wakamatsu ward windfarm in Kitakyushu, as there is in some other countries. It is far from the scenic areas of Wakamatsu, and on windy reclaimed land. Asahi Shimbun reported on May 18, 2005 that many utilities have put limits on the amount of wind power they will allow, because of lack of confidence in their ability to deal with the variable output. It should be noted that several European countries are successfully accommodating significantly higher shares of wind energy in to their networks and that the Japanese grid is capable of coping with large conventional power stations disconnecting unexpectedly due to faults; on the other hand, it is true that integrating windpower or unreliable conventional power stations in to island grids is more difficult than into continent-wide inter-connected grids. Wakamatsu wind farm on the coast harnesses wind energy and converts it into electricity. ... Wakamatsu wind farm on the coast harnesses wind energy and converts it into electricity. ... Wakamatsu is one of the wards of Kitakyushu city. ... Kitakyushu , literally North Kyūshū) is a city located in Fukuoka prefecture, Kyūshū, Japan. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Wind farms in New Zealand

New Zealand (the Saudi Arabia of wind) is located in the 'roaring 40s' and has an abundant wind energy resource. Genesis Energy built the Hau Nui wind farm in 1996 and is located south east of Martinborough on the coastal road to White Rock. The Brooklyn Wind Turbine was installed on the top of a hill in Brooklyn, Wellington in March 1993 as part of a research project commissioned by the now defunct Electricity Corporation of New Zealand. Meridian Energy recently applied for, and obtained with conditions, resource consent to build a consignment of wind farms in the rural Makara Hill area west of Wellington. Meridian Energy have finished the Te Apiti Wind Farm on the Ruahine Ranges. It can be seen clearly at Ashurst near Palmerston North. Meridian Energy have started construction of the White Hill wind farm at Mossburn, between Te Anau, Gore and Invercargill in the South Island. Trust Power purchased the Tararua wind farm from Tararua Wind Power Limited. It is on the Tararua Ranges behind Palmerston North. Genesis Power Limited is a New Zealand electricity generation and electricity retailing company. ... Martinborough is the name of a town in South Wairarapa, a district in the Wellington region on the North Island of New Zealand. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... The Electricity Corporation of New Zealand Ltd (ECNZ) is a New Zealand State-Owned Enterprise formed on April 1, 1987 as a transition entity in the process of deregulating the New Zealand Electricity Market. ... Meridian Energy Limited, a New Zealand-based company, performs electricity generation and electricity retailing. ... The word Makara can refer to several different things. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... Meridian Energy Limited, a New Zealand-based company, performs electricity generation and electricity retailing. ... Construction of the Te Apiti wind farm Te Apiti is a wind farm owned and operated by Meridian Energy Limited. ... Ashurst is a village on the edge of Southampton and the boundary of the New Forest National Park in in Hampshire, England. ... Palmerston North (Māori: ) is the main city of the Manawatu-Wanganui region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... Meridian Energy Limited, a New Zealand-based company, performs electricity generation and electricity retailing. ... North Island New Zealand and position of Tararua Range Clem Creek flowing into the Waiohine River View from Mt Holdsworth The Tararua Range (often referred to as the Tararua Ranges) is one of several mountain ranges in the North Island of New Zealand which form a ridge running parallel with... Palmerston North (Māori: ) is the main city of the Manawatu-Wanganui region of the North Island of New Zealand. ...


Wind farms in South Africa

The first commercial wind farm in South Africa is being constructed 13km's outside Darling in the Western Cape on farm Windhoek. The first phase will consist of four 1.3MW turbines supplied by Fuhrlander, Germany. The total power generated estimated at 5.2MW will be put into the national grid at 66kV. It has taken the developer Herman Oelsner 10 years to achieve his dream of being the first privatised wind farm in South Africa. There has been enormous concerns regarding environmetal and avaition some of which still need to be resolved. DWP ( Darling Wind Power ) will be responsible for the maintenance and upkeep of the wind farm under a watchful eye from Germany. Various stake holders from international to Local have invested in the project which could only benefit an already over extended power producer in South Africa namely Eskom.


Additionally, Klipheuwel wind farm, the first wind farm in sub-Saharan Africa, comprises three turbines – a Vestas V66 with 1.75 MW output, a Vestas V47 with 660 kW output and a Jeumont J48 with 750 kW output, giving a total output of almost 3.2 MW. dylan cox i cool


Wind farms in the United States

See Wind power in the United States

The United States is the third country in the world in terms of wind power installed capacity, after Germany and Spain. As of december 2006, its wind farms had a combined capacity of 11,603 MW. [22] The largest wind farm in the U.S. -- and the largest in the world -- is Florida Power & Light's Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center, located in Taylor County, Texas. The Horse Hollow project operates 421 wind turbines and has a capacity of 735 megawatts. [1] Prior to Horse Hollow's completion, the largest U.S. wind farm was the Stateline Wind Project on the Oregon-Washington line, with a peak capacity of 300 megawatts of electricity (although the three California wind farms mentioned are larger, they are actually collections of dozens of individual wind farms). The California wind farms have many different owners and turbine types and have been constructed, retrofitted and occasionally dismantled since they were first installed in late 1982. As of 2005 all three of these areas are seeing renewed growth. Primarily, the old, small wind turbines are being replaced with much larger, more efficient wind turbines. Some of the workhorses of the past were only 65 kilowatts (kW) in capacity size or even smaller, though some were several hundred kW. Today, the smallest utility-scale wind turbines are about 700 kW, with a few models approaching 5,000 kW (5 MW). Secondarily, non-functional turbines are also being returned to service. Map of available wind power over the United States. ... Florida Power & Light Company, the principal subsidary of FPL Group, Inc. ... Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center is the worlds largest wind farm at 735. ... Taylor County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... The Stateline Wind Project is a wind farm straddling the border between Oregon and Washington. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The kilowatt (symbol: kW) is a unit for measuring power, equal to one thousand watts. ...

Northern California is one of the earliest large wind farms. It is composed of large numbers of relatively small wind turbines of various types that were installed after the 1970s energy crisis in response to favorable tax policies for investors. However, the types of incentives the government uses have led to an unhealthy cycle of booms and busts for the wind energy industry. The problems were not so much with the wind turbines themselves. Only a few of the turbine designs were fatally flawed and almost all of the others were able to be rehabilitated into excellent machines. Still, these numerous small turbines are being gradually replaced with much larger and more cost-effective units. An advantage of the Altamont Pass Wind Farm is that under hot inland (Central Valley) conditions, a thermal low is developed that brings in cool coastal marine air, driving the turbines at a time of maximum electricity demand. However, this phenomenon is not always reliable and with an inland high pressure condition the entire region can be both hot and windless. At this time additional power must be provided by natural gas-powered gas turbine peaker plants. Solano County has one of the five major wind farms in California and has integrated the most advanced wind power technology anywhere in the United States. From 2003 to 2006, dozens of state-of-the-art turbines were installed at the Montezuma Hills near the Sacramento River delta. Eight of the turbines, at 415 feet tall, are the largest in the United States--and are 110 feet taller than the Statue of Liberty. These 3-megawatt Vestas wind turbines each produce enough power to meet the annual needs of more than 1,000 households. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 707 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 707 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... A tall tower holds a wind turbine aloft where winds are consistently stronger. ... Solano County is a county located in central California, about halfway between San Francisco and Sacramento. ... Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... This article is about energy crises in general. ... The Altamont Pass Wind Farm is one of the earliest in the United States. ... This article is about Californias Central Valley. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Peaker power plants are power plants that generally run only when there is a high demand, known as peak demand, for electricity. ... Solano County is a county located in central California, about halfway between San Francisco and Sacramento. ... The Montezuma Hills form a small range of low-elevation hills at the northern banks of the Sacramento River Delta in Solano County, California. ... The Sacramento River is the longest river in the U.S. state of California. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... Vestas is a Danish company that designs, manufactures, and sells wind turbines. ...

Numerous small and fast turning wind turbines at Tehachapi Pass. (U.S.) Today's turbines are larger and spaced farther apart, as that has proven to be a more cost-effective approach.
Numerous small and fast turning wind turbines at Tehachapi Pass. (U.S.) Today's turbines are larger and spaced farther apart, as that has proven to be a more cost-effective approach.

The Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm and San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm sites have not had the same problems as Altamont Pass has had. The winds at these sites are more consistent. Also, endangered bird kills have not been an issue. Wind towers at Tehachapi Pass, California This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder. ... Tehachapi Pass Tehachapi Pass (elevation 3793 ft/1156 m, location 35°06′08″ N 118°16′58″ W) is a mountain pass in southern California in the United States. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm The east and south area of the Tehachapi Pass has one of Californias larger Wind farms, generating electricity. ... The San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm is the most famous sight on San Gorgonio Pass on its eastern slope, as it marks the gateway into the Coachella Valley. ...


Even though California has some of the largest wind farms in the U.S., it does not have very many commercially viable wind farm sites, at least not onshore. Much of the Southwest is not much better, although there are some significant exceptions. The Great Plains states have an abundance of suitable sites for wind energy development[23] however the region's potential is still largely untapped. Iowa and Minnesota are leading the Midwest in the development of wind energy with their combined capacities expected to reach 2,000 MW in 2007. The Pacific Northwest and the Northeast both have many excellent sites as well. In contrast, the Southeast has a very poor wind energy resource, though the Appalachian Mountains do provide a few good areas. Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... The U.S. Northeast is a region of the United States of America defined by the US Census Bureau. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ...

195 'Vestas' wind turbines create a 320MW wind farm. The turbines operate at 14 RPM to generate profit for this rural Northern NY area.

The new Maple Ridge Wind Farm near Lowville, NY is the second largest wind farm in the USA. The name was changed to honor the production of Maple Syrup from this region of Northern New York. More information is available at: MapleRidgeWind.com. This site has 195 Vestas wind turbines, each with a rated capacity of 1.65MW, resulting in a rated site capacity of 320MW (equivalent to a mid-sized power plant). The site was dedicated on Sept. 26, 2006 with all but one turbine in operation (one tower was damaged in shipping and is waiting for replacement). Maple Ridge (formerly Flat Rock Wind Farm) provides about $10 million in benefit to the local community with about $2 million annual payments to 75 landowners, and $8 million in tax revenues to the region. This site has increased New York's renewable energy generation by sixfold. The project is jointly owned by PPM Energy and Horizon Wind Energy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x900, 607 KB) Photo 10/7/2006 by DESIGNMAKERCOM I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x900, 607 KB) Photo 10/7/2006 by DESIGNMAKERCOM I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Just a few of the 120 Vestas wind turbines. ... Lowville is a village located in Lewis County, New York. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Vestas is a Danish company that designs, manufactures, and sells wind turbines. ...

Four of the 44 turbines near Thomas, WV.
Four of the 44 turbines near Thomas, WV.

Horizon Wind Energy is also building the Twin Groves Wind Farm in McLean County, IL. Phase 1 is complete and Phase 2 is scheduled for completion December 2007. Upon completion, the project will consist of 240 wind turbine generators with a capacity of 1.65 MW each, for a total of 396 MW. Image File history File linksMetadata Windturbines_thomas_WV.jpg‎ Four of the 44 wind turbines near Thomas, WV; site of the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center. Together they produce 66MW. The site is owned by FPL Energy (Florida Power and Light). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Windturbines_thomas_WV.jpg‎ Four of the 44 wind turbines near Thomas, WV; site of the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center. Together they produce 66MW. The site is owned by FPL Energy (Florida Power and Light). ...


In West Virginia the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center near Thomas has been operational since December 2002. It consists of 44 turbines generating 66MW. The site is owned by FPL Energy. Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Thomas is a city located in Tucker County, West Virginia. ... Florida Power & Light Company, the principal subsidiary of FPL Group, Inc. ...


In Massachusetts, two proposed wind farms have had approval difficulties. The Cape Wind project, a proposal to construct 130 offshore wind turbines in the Nantucket Sound, is the subject of heavy debate[24] in the affluent communities of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket as well as among environmentalists. The Hoosac Wind project, which will build 20 turbines on two ridgelines in the rural towns of Florida and Monroe, was initially the subject of little official controversy, but has been delayed by a suit to protect wetlands. Several other projects have been proposed for the area. This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Cape Wind Project is a controversial proposed offshore wind farm on Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound off Cape Cod in Massachusetts (). If the project moves forward on schedule, it would become one of the first offshore wind farms in the United States. ... Nantucket Sound is a roughly triangular area of the Atlantic Ocean offshore from the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Cape Cod (or simply the Cape) is an hook-shaped peninsula nearly coextensive with Barnstable County, Massachusetts and forming the easternmost portion of the state of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. ... Map of Marthas Vineyard. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... Florida is a town located in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. ... Monroe is a town located in Franklin County, Massachusetts. ...


Another 40-turbine offshore wind power installation has been proposed for the ocean off Jones Beach, Long Island, New York. It has the backing of many local and national environmental groups [2] as well as the Long Island Power Authority and the Governor of New York.


In New Jersey, the country's first coastal wind farm became operational in December 2005. The Jersey-Atlantic Wind Farm in Atlantic City consists of five 1.5-MW turbines. Official language(s) English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... The Jersey-Atlantic Wind Farm in Atlantic City, New Jersey, is the first coastal wind farm in the United States and the first wind farm in New Jersey. ... Map of Atlantic City in Atlantic County Coordinates: , Country United States State New Jersey County Atlantic Incorporated May 1, 1854 Government  - Mayor Bob Levy Area  - City  17. ...


New Mexico is home of the New Mexico Wind Energy Center near Fort Sumner, New Mexico, having 136 turbines with a peak output of 1.5 megawatts each. Ironically, this site is owned by FPL Energy; i.e. Florida Power and Light. PNM claims that this facility is the world's third largest wind generation project, but the reference may be out-of-date.[25] Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Fort Sumner is a village in De Baca County, New Mexico, United States. ... Florida Power & Light Company, the principal subsidiary of FPL Group, Inc. ... PNM headquarters at Alvorado Plaza in Albuquerque PNM is an electricity and natural gas utility serving the state of New Mexico in the United States. ...


The American Wind Energy Association provides information about existing and proposed projects in the U.S.


As of August, 2005 wind farms in the US are regulated by the Minerals Management Service. The purpose of the Minerals Management Service (MMS), as part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, is to manage the mineral resources on the nations Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner, and to collect, verify, and distribute, in a timely fashion, mineral revenues...


As of May 31, 2006, the FAA has stopped construction at 15 midwest wind farm projects over concerns about interference with military radar.[26] The reason for this is that a defense appropriation bill passed in January 2006 contained a provision requiring studies of the effects of wind farms on military radar, language added to the bill by Cape Wind project opponents. Since then, the FAA has began permitting construction to resume, as no evidence of any radar difficulty has been found (or ever was suspected). FAA may refer to: Federal Aviation Administration in the United States Fleet Air Arm in the UK Royal Navy Fuerza Aérea Argentina in Argentina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... The Cape Wind Project is a controversial proposed offshore wind farm on Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound off Cape Cod in Massachusetts (). If the project moves forward on schedule, it would become one of the first offshore wind farms in the United States. ...


See also

Energy Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ... Net metering is a electricity policy for consumers who own, generally small, renewable energy facilities, such as wind or solar power, or uses vehicle-to-grid systems. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Horizontal-axis wind turbine, the Enercon model E-66 wind energy converter, in Germany. ... Wind power in the United Kingdom passed the milestone of 2 GW installed capacity on 9 February 2007, equivalent to two coal fired power stations, with the opening of the Braes ODoune wind farm, near Stirling. ... Pelamis machine pointing into the waves: it attenuates the waves, gathering more energy than its narrow profile suggests. ... This is a List of large wind farms, which are operating or are under construction: Alinta Wind Farm, Western Australia (90 MW) (Australia) Altamont Pass Wind Farm (606 MW) (USA) Big Horn Wind Farm (200 MW) (USA) Brazos Wind Ranch (160 MW) (USA) Centennial Wind Farm (120 MW) (USA) Champion...

References

  1. ^ http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/16595/
  2. ^ Integration of Wind Energy into the Grid. European Wind Energy Association - EWEA (2005-2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  3. ^ Wind Energy Projects in Australia
  4. ^ Canada's Installed Wind Energy Capacity Doubles in 2006
  5. ^ European Market for Wind Turbines Grows 23% in 2006
  6. ^ Wind power India
  7. ^ Wind turbines now provide enough competitively priced and sustainably generated, electricity to meet the needs of 75,000 NZ households
  8. ^ Wind Riding Favorable Policy Breeze Toward Record Year
  9. ^ Wind Riding Favorable Policy Breeze Toward Record Year
  10. ^ Global wind energy markets continue to boom – 2006 another record year
  11. ^ Global wind energy markets continue to boom – 2006 another record year (PDF). Global Wind Energy Council (2007-02-02). Retrieved on 2007-02-24.
  12. ^ National code for wind farms: A discussion paper
  13. ^ http://www.eolica.com.br/index_ing.html
  14. ^ http://www.canwea.ca/production_stats.cfm
  15. ^ http://www.canren.gc.ca/programs/index.asp?CaId=107
  16. ^ http://www.windtech-international.com/content/view/1045/1/
  17. ^ http://www.dti.gov.uk/renewables/renew_2.htm
  18. ^ http://www.ren.pt/content/AD3664C39DB144D8BF235FA581348165.PDF
  19. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4436108.stm
  20. ^ Renewable energy - p.11
  21. ^ Wind power India
  22. ^ http://www.windtech-international.com/content/view/1045/1/ y la EWEA
  23. ^ http://www.awea.org/pubs/factsheets/pdf/Wind_Energy_An_Untapped_Resource.pdf
  24. ^ http://www.capecodonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=SPECIAL01
  25. ^ http://www.pnm.com/systems/nmwec.htm
  26. ^ http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/chi-0605310078may31,1,5900235.story?track=rss

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Wind Over Water - a documentary film about the Cape Wind Project a proposed wind farm in Massachusetts, US.
  • Altahullion Wind farm A Quicktime VR panorama illustrating the scale of the largest wind farm in Ireland
  • Wind power
  • MySME.deInformation on Wind Farm Development in Germany
  • Offshorewind.net - Offshore wind energy information.
  • www.world-wind.energy.info - Basic information of wind energy utilisation (technology, planning a wind farm, grid integration etc.), presented by the World Wind Energy Association
  • American Wind Energy Association. An association promoting wind power growth through advocacy and education.
  • Pictures of a Wind Farm being deployed
  • National Wind Watch - A coalition of US wind power opposition groups.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wind farms - The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (413 words)
The RSPB recently objected to a proposed 234 turbine wind farm on the Isle of Lewis in the Hebrides, on an extremely fragile and special area for wildlife.
We will, and do, object to specific wind farm proposals where there is an inadequate environmental assessment, where the assessment reveals potential environmental problems that cannot be mitigated, or where there is insufficient knowledge about the threat to sensitive bird populations or their habitats to conclude that there will not be a problem.
To ensure that future wind farms do not affect sensitive bird populations or their habitats, the RSPB is pressing the government for more research and monitoring of the effects of these developments on birds.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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