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Encyclopedia > Wind Cave National Park
Wind Cave National Park
IUCN Category II (National Park)
Location: South Dakota, USA
Nearest city: Rapid City, SD
Coordinates: 43°34′0″N, 103°29′0″W
Area: 28,295 acres (114 km²)
Established: January 9, 1903
Visitation: 850,000 (in 2003)
Governing body: National Park Service

Wind Cave National Park is a United States national park 10 miles (18 km) north of the town of Hot Springs in western South Dakota. Established in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt, it was the seventh U.S. National Park and the first cave to be designated a national park anywhere in the world. The cave is notable for its displays of the calcite formation known as boxwork. Approximately 95 percent of the world's boxwork formations are found in Wind Cave. Wind Cave is also known for its frostwork. The cave is also considered a three-dimensional maze cave. As of February 11th 2006, the cave was the fourth-longest in the world, with 119.58 miles (192 km) of explored cave passageways. The cave passed Hoelloch cave in Switzerland on February 11th, 2006 to become fourth-longest in the world. Above ground, the park includes the largest remaining natural mixed-grass prairie in the United States. The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Yosemite National Park in the United States. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 17th 199,905 km² 340 km 610 km 1. ... Rapid City is a city located in Pennington County, South Dakota. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Yosemite National Park in the United States. ... Hot Springs is a city located in Fall River County, South Dakota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 17th 199,905 km² 340 km 610 km 1. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Theodore Roosevelt (born Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ... Alternate meanings: Cave (disambiguation) This article is about natural caves; for artificial caves used as dwellings, such as those in north China, see yaodong. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Boxwork in Wind Cave, Hot Springs, South Dakota. ... Frostwork in Wind Cave, Hot Springs, South Dakota. ... Prairie refers to an area of land in North America of low topographic relief that principally supports grasses and herbs, with few trees, and is generally of a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ...

Boxwork
Boxwork

Image File history File links Boxwork. ... Image File history File links Boxwork. ...

Early discovery and exploration

The Lakota people, Native Americans who lived in the Black Hills of South Dakota, spoke of a hole that blew air, a place they considered sacred. The Lakota (IPA: ) (also Lakhota, Teton, Titonwon) are a Native American tribe. ... An Atsina named Assiniboin Boy Native Americans in the United States (also known as Indians, American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Peoples, Aboriginal Peoples, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, Amerinds, or Original Americans) are the indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States and their descendants in... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... In various religions, sacred (from Latin, sacrum, sacrifice) or holy, objects, places or concepts are believed by followers to be intimately connected with the supernatural, or divinity, and are thus greatly revered. ...


The first documented discovery of the cave by early explorers was in 1881 by brothers Tom and Jesse Bingham. They heard a sound of wind rushing out from a 10 by 14 inch (250 by 360 mm) hole in the ground. According to the story, when Tom looked down into the hole, the wind was blowing out so hard that it blew his hat off of his head. Discovery may refer to: discovery (observation), observing or finding something unknown to ones culture discovery (law), a process in courts of law Discovery (1602 ship) one of several ships named RRS Discovery one of several ships named HMS Discovery Space Shuttle Discovery Discovery One, a fictional space craft from... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Wind is the roughly horizontal movement of air (as opposed to an air current) caused by uneven heating of the Earths surface. ...


The wind they heard and felt explains the cave's name. The wind moves depending on atmospheric pressure on the surface and inside the cave. When the pressure is higher outside than inside the cave, wind rushes into the entrances; when pressure is higher inside the cave, the wind rushes out of the entrances. diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure above any area in the Earths atmosphere caused by the weight of air. ...


Since the first discovery in 1881, few people ventured more than a few feet (metres) into Wind Cave, but it wasn't until the early 1890s, when a 16 year old boy named Alvin McDonald began exploring, that Wind Cave was discovered to extend beyond the original hole. 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no...


Alvin McDonald's father, J.D. McDonald, was employed by the South Dakota Mining Company to find gold in the cave, but was ultimately unsuccessful. Instead, an opportunity was discovered to send tours into the cave. These early tours explored the cave by candlelight and by crawling through some sometimes narrow passageways. The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine This article is about mineral extraction. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ...


Surface resources

Bison grazing on prairie grasses
Bison grazing on prairie grasses

Wind Cave National Park protects a diverse ecosystem with eastern and western plant and animal species. Some of the more visible animals include elk (also called wapiti), bison, pronghorn antelope and prairie dogs. Image File history File links Bison_grazing_at_Wind_Cave. ... Image File history File links Bison_grazing_at_Wind_Cave. ... Diversity is the presence of a wide range of variation in the qualities or attributes under discussion. ... In ecology, the word ecosystem is an abbreviation of the term, ecological system. ... This article is about red deer. ... Binomial name Bison bison Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies B. b. ... Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest land animal in North America running at speeds up to 54 mph (90 km/h). ... Species Cynomys gunnisoni Cynomys leucurus Cynomys ludovicianus Cynomys mexicanus Cynomys parvidens Prairie dogs are small stout-bodied burrowing rodents with shallow cheek pouches native to both North and Central America. ...



Several roads run through the park and there are 30 miles (50 km) of hiking trails, so almost the entire park is accessible. The park had 850,000 visitors in 2003.


External links

National Parks of the United States

Acadia | American Samoa | Arches | Badlands | Big Bend | Biscayne | Black Canyon of the Gunnison | Bryce Canyon | Canyonlands | Capitol Reef | Carlsbad Caverns | Channel Islands | Congaree | Crater Lake | Cuyahoga Valley | Death Valley | Denali | Dry Tortugas | Everglades | Gates of the Arctic | Glacier | Glacier Bay | Grand Canyon | Grand Teton | Great Basin | Great Sand Dunes | Great Smoky Mountains | Guadalupe Mountains | Haleakala | Hawaii Volcanoes | Hot Springs | Isle Royale | Joshua Tree | Katmai | Kenai Fjords | Kings Canyon | Kobuk Valley | Lake Clark | Lassen Volcanic | Mammoth Cave | Mesa Verde | Mount Rainier | North Cascades | Olympic | Petrified Forest | Redwood | Rocky Mountain | Saguaro | Sequoia | Shenandoah | Theodore Roosevelt | Virgin Islands | Voyageurs | Wind Cave | Wrangell-St. Elias | Yellowstone | Yosemite | Zion The parks of the United States National Park system are one type of protected area in the United States and are operated by the National Park Service. ... 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