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Encyclopedia > Wind
Wind, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century)
Wind, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century)

Wind is the flow of air. More generally, it is the flow of the gases which compose an atmosphere; since wind is not unique to Earth.[1]. Simply it occurs as air is heated by the sun and thus rises. Cool air then rushes in to occupy the area from which the hot air has now moved. It could be loosely classed as a convection current. Wind can mean Wind, the movement of air A verb meaning to coil. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1066, 288 KB) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1066, 288 KB) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook on wellness, based on the Taqwin al‑sihha (Tables of Health), an Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan; it exists in several variant Latin versions, the manuscripts of which are profusely illustrated. ... flux in science and mathematics. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the geographic regions in which they occur, or their effect. While wind is often a standalone weather phenomenon, it can also occur as part of a storm system, most notably in a cyclone. For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ...


Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of eolian processes. Eolian (or aeolian or æolian) processes pertain to the activity of the winds and more specifically, to the winds ability to shape the surface of the Earth and other planets. ...


Wind has affected the development of human civilization, inspiring mythology, changing the course of history, expanding the range of transport and warfare, providing a power source for mechanical work, electricity, and recreation. For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... Look up warfare in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A wall wart style variable DC power supply with its cover removed. ... In physics, mechanical work is the amount of energy transferred by a force. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Fun redirects here. ...

Contents

Forces

Forces which drive wind or affect it are the pressure gradient force, the Coriolis force, buoyancy forces, and friction forces. When a difference in pressure exists between two adjacent air masses, the air tends to flow from the region of high pressure to the region of low pressure. On a rotating planet, flows will be acted upon by the Coriolis force, in regions sufficiently far from the equator and sufficiently high above the surface. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The pressure gradient force is the force that is usually responsible for accelerating a parcel of air from a high atmospheric pressure region to a low pressure region, resulting in wind. ... In physics, the Coriolis effect is an inertial force first described by Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, a French scientist, in 1835. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Anticyclone. ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... In physics, the Coriolis effect is an inertial force first described by Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, a French scientist, in 1835. ...


The three major driving factors of large scale global winds are the differential heating between the equator and the poles (difference in absorption of solar energy between these climate zones), and the rotation of the planet. Ultraviolet image of the Sun. ... The Köppen Climate Classifications are the standard incriments by which geographers and climatologists classify the climate of a particular part of the world. ...


Components of Wind

Winds defined by an equilibrium of physical forces are used in the decomposition and analysis of wind profiles. They are useful for simplifying the atmospheric equations of motion and for making qualitative arguments about the horizontal and vertical distribution of winds. Examples are: In advanced physics, equations of motion usually refer to the Euler-Lagrange equations, differential equations derived from the Lagrangian. ...

The geostrophic wind is defined as the wind resulting from the balance between the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient force. ... In physics, the Coriolis effect is an inertial force first described by Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, a French scientist, in 1835. ... The word isobar derives from the two ancient Greek words, ισος (isos), meaning equal, and βαρος (baros), meaning weight. In meteorology, thermodynamics, and similar science (and engineering), an isobar is a contour line of equal or constant pressure on a graph, plot, or map. ... See Planetary boundary layer. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... The thermal wind is not actually a wind, but a wind difference between two pressure levels and , with . ... The temperature gradient in a given direction from a given spatial starting point is the rate at which temperature changes relative to distance in that direction from that point. ... In fluid dynamics, the baroclinity (sometimes called baroclinicity) is a measure of the stratification in a fluid. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with wind shear. ... Centrifugal force (from Latin centrum centre and fugere to flee) is a term which may refer to two different forces which are related to rotation. ...

Classification of Winds

There are global winds, such as the wind belts which exist between the atmospheric circulation cells. There are upper-level winds which typically include narrow belts of concentrated flow called jet streams. There are synoptic scale winds that result from pressure differences in surface air masses in the middle latitudes, and there are winds that come about as a consequence of geographic features, such as the sea breezes on coastlines or canyon breezes near mountains. Mesoscale winds are those which act on a local scale, such as gust fronts. At the smallest scale are the microscale winds, which blow on a scale of only tens to hundreds of meters and are essentially unpredictable, such as dust devils and microbursts. For other uses, see jet stream (disambiguation). ... The synoptic scale in meteorology (also known as large scale or cyclonic scale) is a horizontal length scale of the order of 1000 kilometres (about 620 miles) or more [1]. This corresponds to a horizontal scale typical of mid-latitude depressions. ... For the books called Geography by Ancient Greek authors, see Geographia (Ptolemy) and Geographica (Strabo) For the magazine of the Royal Geographical Society, see Geographical (magazine) Geography is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ... For other uses, see Sea Breeze. ... Spatial scale provides a shorthand form for discussing relative lengths, areas, distances and sizes. ... For other uses of this phrase, see Dust devil (disambiguation). ... A photograph of the surface curl soon after an intense microburst impacted the surface A microburst is a very localized column of sinking air, producing damaging divergent and straight-line winds at the surface that are similar to but distinguishable from tornadoes which generally have convergent damage. ...


Wind Terms

'Gusts' are inconstant winds. Unlike relatively constant winds, such as the Chinook wind, gusting winds are characterized by the apparent rapid change in the force and/or direction of the wind. The wind appears, to those who experience it, to come in blasts of varying strength with brief lulls between. Such a blast is known as a gust. For other uses, see Chinook. ...


A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed which usually is associated with active weather, such as rain showers, thunderstorms, or heavy snow. Squalls refer to an increase in the non-sustained winds over an extended time interval, as there may be lower gusts during a squall event. A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed which usually is associated with active weather, such as rain showers, thunderstorms, or heavy snow. ...


Named Winds

In modern usage, many local wind systems have their own names. The list covers local winds and local weather phenomena including seasonal winds Abroholos (squall frequent wind that occurs from May through August between Cabo de Sao Tome and Cabo Frio on the coast of Brazil) Alize (northeasterly across central Africa and the Caribbean) Alizé Maritime (a wet, fresh northerly wind...


Local winds

See also: List of local winds

Some local winds blow only under certain circumstances, i.e. they require a certain temperature distribution. The list covers local winds and local weather phenomena including seasonal winds Abroholos (squall frequent wind that occurs from May through August between Cabo de Sao Tome and Cabo Frio on the coast of Brazil) Alize (northeasterly across central Africa and the Caribbean) Alizé Maritime (a wet, fresh northerly wind...


Differential heating is the motive force behind land breezes and sea breezes (or, in the case of larger lakes, lake breezes), also known as on- or off-shore winds. Land absorbs and radiates heat faster than water, but water releases heat over a longer period of time. The result is that, in locations where sea and land meet, heat absorbed over the day will be radiated more quickly by the land at night, cooling the air. Over the sea, heat is still being released into the air at night, which rises. This convective motion draws the cool land air in to replace the rising air, resulting in a land breeze in the late night and early morning. During the day, the roles are reversed. Warm air over the land rises, pulling cool air in from the sea to replace it, giving a sea breeze during the afternoon and evening. A sea breeze or seabreeze is a thermally-forced mesoscale (i. ... For other uses, see Sea Breeze. ...


Mountain breezes and valley breezes are due to a combination of differential heating and geometry. When the sun rises, it is the tops of the mountain peaks which receive first light, and as the day progresses, the mountain slopes take on a greater heat load than the valleys. This results in a temperature inequity between the two, and as warm air rises off the slopes, cool air moves up out of the valleys to replace it. This upslope wind is called a valley breeze. The opposite effect takes place in the afternoon, as the valley radiates heat. The peaks, long since cooled[vague], transport air into the valley in a process that is partly gravitational and partly convective and is called a mountain breeze.


Forested areas are less windy than plains and cities because the trees disrupt wind patterns. Trees are defined to have a dampening effect on wind speeds in that they reduce the partial derivative of pressure differences across non-infinitively occupying plain. Further effects of trees wind reducing capabilities is in the fact that trees bend in the wind. Considering the mass of a tree in comparison to air particles it is highly predicable that much of the total energy of the wind is lost in kinetic energy to the trees.


Mountain breezes are one example of what is known more generally as a katabatic wind. These are winds driven by cold air flowing down a slope, and occur on the largest scale in Greenland and Antarctica. Most often, this term refers to winds which form when air which has cooled over a high, cold plateau is set in motion and descends under the influence of gravity. Winds of this type are common in regions of Mongolia and in glaciated locations. A katabatic wind, from the Greek word katabatikos meaning going downhill, is a wind that blows down a topographic incline such as a hill, mountain, or glacier. ...


Because katabatic refers specifically to the vertical motion of the wind, this group also includes winds which form on the lee side of mountains, and heat as a consequence of compression. Such winds may undergo a temperature increase of 20 °C (68 °F) or more, and many of the world's "named" winds (see #Named Winds above) belong to this group. Among the most well-known of these winds are the chinook of Western Canada and the American Northwest, the Swiss föhn, California's infamous Santa Ana wind, and the French Mistral. The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... For other uses, see Chinook. ... A föhn wind or foehn wind occurs when a deep layer of prevailing wind is forced over a mountain range (Orographic lifting). ... The Santa Ana winds in Southern California sweep down wide across the deserts and across the Los Angeles Basin pushing dust and smoke from wildfires far out into the Pacific Ocean. ... Mistral is an atmospheric phenomenon that occurs mostly in the winter and spring in the Gulf of Lion. ...


The opposite of a katabatic wind is an anabatic wind, or an upward-moving wind. The above-described valley breeze is an anabatic wind. An anabatic wind is a wind which blows up a steep slope or mountain side. ...


A widely-used term, though one not formally recognised by meteorologists, is orographic wind. This refers to air which undergoes orographic lifting. Most often, this is in the context of winds such as the chinook or the föhn, which undergo lifting by mountain ranges before descending and warming on the lee side. Orography is the average height of land, measured in geopotential meters, over a certain domain. ...


Wind and Civilization

Mythology

Further information: Wind god

As a natural force, the wind was often personified as one or more wind gods or as an expression of the supernatural in many cultures. For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ...


In ancient Greek mythology, the four winds were personified as gods, called the Anemoi. These included Boreas, Notos, Euros, and Zephyros. Aeolus, in varying interpretations the ruler or keeper of the four winds, has also been described as Astraeus, the god of dusk who fathered the four winds with Eos, goddess of dawn. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Zephyrus, the Greek god of the west wind and the goddess Chloris, from a 1875 engraving by William-Adolphe Bouguereau In Greek mythology, the Anemoi (in Greek, Άνεμοι — winds) were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction, from which their respective winds came, and were each associated with various... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aeolus (or Aiolos, Αἴολος) in Greek Mythology was the Keeper of the Winds. ... Eos, by Evelyn De Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek Mythology, the Titan goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of...


The Ancient Greeks also observed the seasonal change of the winds, as evidenced by the Tower of the Winds in Athens. Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... The frieze of the tower showing the Greek wind gods Boreas (north wind, on the left) and Skiron (northwesterly wind, on the right). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


The winds are discussed in the Bible: For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...

Winds - blowing from the four quarters of heaven (Jer. 49:36; Ezek. 37:9; Dan. 8:8; Zech. 2:6). The east wind was parching (Ezek. 17:10; 19:12), and is sometimes mentioned as simply denoting a strong wind (Job 27:21; Isa. 27:8). This wind prevails in Palestine from February to June, as the west wind (Luke 12:54) does from November to February. The south was a hot wind (Job 37:17; Luke 12:55). It swept over the Arabian peninsula. The rush of invaders is figuratively spoken of as a whirlwind (Isa. 21:1); a commotion among the nations of the world as a striving of the four winds (Dan. 7:2). The winds are subject to the divine power (Ps. 18:10; 135:7). [2] A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ...

History

Kamikaze (神風) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, believed to be a gift from the gods. The term is first known to have been used as the name of a pair or series of typhoons that are said to have saved Japan from two Mongol fleets under Kublai Khan that attacked Japan in 1274 and again in 1281. Kamikaze (神風 kamikaze) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, beleived to be a gift from the gods. ...


Protestant Wind is a name for the storm that deterred the Spanish Armada from an invasion of England in 1588 or the favourable winds that enabled William of Orange to invade England in 1688. The phrase Protestant Wind has been used in more than one context, notably: The storm that lashed the Spanish Armada. ... Belligerents England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 30 Dutch flyboats 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties and losses 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 6,000... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... William of Orange (French: Guillaume, Dutch: Willem, German Wilhelm, Latin Guilelmus) is the name of several historical persons. ...


Transportation

Wind Power

An example of a wind turbine. ...

Culture

Recreation

Role in the Natural World

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The Study of Wind

The Beaufort wind force scale is an empirical measure for describing wind speed based mainly on observed sea conditions. Force 12 at sea. ...


Meteorological instruments to measure wind speed and/or direction

Wind direction is reported by the direction from which it originates. For example, a northerly wind blows from the north to the south.


Local sensing techniques

  • Anemometer (measures wind speed, either directly, e.g. with rotating cups, or indirectly, e.g. via pressure differences or the propagation speed of ultrasound signals)
  • Rawinsonde (GPS-based wind measurement is performed by the probe)
  • Weather balloon (passive measurement, balloon position is tracked from the ground visually or via radar; wind profile is computed from drift rate and the theoretical speed of ascent)
  • Weather vane (used to indicate wind direction)
  • Windsock (primarily used to indicate wind direction, may also be used to estimate wind speed by its angle)
  • Pitot tubes

Remote sensing techniques: A hemispherical cup anemometer of the type invented in 2000 by John Thomas Romney Robinson An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind, and is one instrument used in a weather station. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ... A radiosonde is a unit for use in weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ... For other uses, see Balloon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Weather vane Weather cock Aerovane A weather vane, also called a wind vane, is a movable device attached to an elevated object such as a roof for showing the direction of the wind. ... A windsock is a large, conical, open-ended tube designed to indicate wind direction and relative wind speed. ... A Pitot tube is a measuring instrument used to measure fluid flow. ... For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real...

  • SODAR
  • Doppler LIDARs can measure the Doppler shift of light reflected off suspended aerosols or molecules. This measurement can be directly related to wind velocity.
  • Radiometers and Radars can be used to measure the surface roughness of the ocean from space or airplanes. This measurement can be used to estimate wind velocity close to the sea surface over oceans.

SODAR (sonic detection and ranging) - meteorological instrument which priciple of operation is based on sound waves scattering by atmosheric turbulence. ... A source of waves moving to the left. ... A FASOR used at the Starfire Optical Range for LIDAR and laser guide star experiments is tuned to the sodium D2a line and used to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere. ... The Doppler effect is the apparent change in frequency or wavelength of a wave that is perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... A radiometer is a device used to measure the radiant flux or power in electromagnetic radiation. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...

See also

Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... A High Wind Warning is an advisory issued by the National Weather Service if it is forecast for sustained wind speeds of 40 mph or greater lasting for 1 hour or longer, or winds of 58 mph or greater for any duration of time. ... A wind advisory is a weather related advisory issued by the national weather service if winds are forecasting sustained winds 31-39 mph for at least 1 hour; or any gusts to 46-57 mph. ... Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the ocean circulation, which is smaller [1]) by which heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. ... In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid. ... The lapse rate is defined as the negative of the rate of change in an atmospheric variable, usually temperature, with height observed while moving upwards through an atmosphere. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... A surface weather analysis for the United States on October 21, 2006. ... In Meteorology, ability is a measure of the nothingness at which an object or light can be seen. ... Vorticity is a mathematical concept used in fluid dynamics. ... For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh - NASA Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles (typically 0. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... In meteorology, convective available potential energy (CAPE) is the amount of energy a parcel of air would have if lifted a certain distance vertically through the atmosphere. ... Convective inhibition (CIN or CINH) is a meteorlogic parameter that measures the amount of energy that will prevent an air parcel from rising from the surface to the level of free convection. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The convective temperature (CT or Tc) is the approximate temperature that air near the surface much reach for cloud formation without mechanical lift. ... The lifted index (LI) is the temperature difference between an air parcel lifted adiabatically and the temperature of the environment at a pressure height in the atmosphere, usually 500 hPa (mb). ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The dew point (or dewpoint) is the temperature which a given parcel of air must be cooled, at constant barometric pressure, for water vapor to condense into water. ... Equivalent temperature is the temperature of an air parcel from which we would have completely extracted its water vapor content by an adiabatic process. ... The heat index (HI) or humidex is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to determine an apparent temperature — how hot it actually feels. ... Heat Index (HI) is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to determine an apparent temperature — how hot it actually feels. ... The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ... The potential temperature of a parcel of air at pressure is the temperature that the parcel would acquire if adiabatically brought to a standard reference pressure , usually 1 bar. ... Equivalent potential temperature, commonly referred to as Theta-e , is a measure of the instability of air at a given pressure, humidity, and temperature. ... Annual mean sea surface temperature for the World Ocean. ... Wet-bulb temperature ... Wind chill is the apparent temperature felt on the exposed human (or animal) body due to the combination of air temperature and wind speed. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... Density lines and isobars cross in a baroclinic fluid (top). ...

Sources

References

For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The JPL complex in Pasadena, Ca. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. ( 1823- 1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...

External links

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ...

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