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Encyclopedia > Winchester, Virginia
Winchester, Virginia
Official seal of Winchester, Virginia
Seal
Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia
Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia
Coordinates: 39°10′42″N 78°10′0″W / 39.17833, -78.16667
Country United States
State Virginia
Founded 1802
Government
 - Mayor Elizabeth Minor
Area
 - City  9.3 sq mi (24.2 km²)
 - Land  9.3 sq mi (24.2 km²)
 - Water  0 sq mi (0 km²)
Elevation  725 ft (221 m)
Population (2005)
 - City 25,119
 - Density 2,526.7/sq mi (976.0/km²)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 540
FIPS code 51-86720GR2
GNIS feature ID 1498552GR3
Website: http://www.winchesterva.gov/

Winchester is an independent city located in the state of Virginia. The population was 23,585 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Frederick County. It is also the principal city of and is included in the Winchester, Virginia-West Virginia (part) Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV Combined Statistical Area. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Winchester with surrounding Frederick county for statistical purposes. Winchester is the home of Shenandoah University. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (683 × 1024 pixel, file size: 576 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) View up Loudoun Street in Winchester, Virginia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Adapted from Wikipedias VA county maps by Seth Ilys. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... 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This article is about the U.S. state. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... A county seat is a term for an administrative center for a county, primarily used in the United States. ... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1743 Seat Winchester Area  - Total  - Water 1,076 km² (416 mi²) 3 km² (1 mi²) 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas, which are organized around county boundaries. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. 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Contents

History

Native American history

Around 1000 A.D. early native population included Cacapon, Opequon, Shawnee and Tuscarora tribes. By the Middle Ages, the natural north-south conduit of the Great Appalachian Valley made Winchester a likely place for tribal warfare as bands of Catawba, Cherokee, Delaware, Iroquois, and Shawnee marauded the valley plains for hunting grounds. The first tribe with real control of the valley were the Susquehannocks, who were then raided and expelled by Iroquois around 1600. Supposedly the Iroquois allowed the Shawnee tribe to either village or establish transient campsites here at Shawnee Springs from about 1694 to the mid-1700s, overlapping with the arrival of early Quaker settlers and homesteaders. The father of the historical Shawnee chief Cornstalk had his court here. The Great Valley, also called the Great Appalachian Valley or Great Valley Region, is one of the major landform features of eastern North America. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Cornstalk (1720?–November 10, 1777) was a prominent leader of the Shawnee people in the era of the American Revolution. ...


European exploration

French Jesuit expeditions first entered the valley as early as 1606 resulting in a crude map drawn in 1632 by Samuel Champlain, but the first confirmed exploration of the northern valley was by explorer John Lederer who viewed the valley from the current Fauquier and Warren County line on 26 August 1670. This was followed by more extensive exploration and mapping by Swiss explorer Louise Michel in 1705 and then Governor Alexander Spotswood in 1716. Alexander Spotswood c. ...


In the late 1720s Governor William Gooch promoted settlement by issuing large land grants and, subsequently Robert Carter, manager of the Lord Fairfax proprietorship, acquired 200,000 acres (800 km²). This combination of events directly precipitated an inrush of settlers from Pennsylvania and New York, made up of a blend of Quakers and various German and Scots-Irish homesteaders. William Gooch (21 October 1681-17 December 1751) born in Yarmouth, England; died in London; served as Governor of Virginia from 1727 through 1749. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ...


European settlement

The settlement of Winchester began as early as 1729, when Quakers like Abraham Hollingsworth migrated up the Great Valley along the Indian Path (later known as the Great Wagon Road) from Pennsylvania and began to homestead on old Shawnee campgrounds. The first German settler appears to be Jost Hite in 1732, who brought ten other families including some Scots-Irish. Though an Anglican colony, Governor William Gooch had a tolerant policy on religion, and throughout Virginia, the availability of land grants brought in many religious families, often given 50 acre plots through the sponsorship of fellow religious grant purchasers and speculators. As a result, the Winchester area became home to some of the oldest Presbyterian, Quaker, Lutheran and Anglican churches in the valley. The first Lutheran worship was established by Rev. John Casper Stoever Jr., and Alexander Ross established Hopewell Meeting for the Quakers. By 1736, the Opequon Presbyterian Church in Kernstown was built. A legal fight erupted in 1735 when Thomas Fairfax, Sixth Lord Fairfax, came to Virginia to claim his land grant, which included "all the land in Virginia between the Rappahannock and the Potomac rivers", an old grant from King Charles II, and which overlapped and included Frederick county. The Great Wagon Road, which ran from Pennsylvania to Georgia, was one of the most heavily traveled major routes for settlers in all America. ... William Gooch (21 October 1681-17 December 1751) born in Yarmouth, England; died in London; served as Governor of Virginia from 1727 through 1749. ... Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron was born in 1692 at Leeds Castle in Kent, England and died at his seat at Greenway Court near White Post in Clarke County, Virginia on December 12, 1781. ...


Founding of Winchester

By 1738 these settlements became known as Frederick Town making it the oldest town west of the Appalachian Mountains. The county of Frederick was then carved out of Orange County, and the first government was created comprised of a County Court, as well as the Anglican Frederick Parish (for purposes of tax collection). Colonel James Wood, an immigrant from Winchester, England, was the first court clerk, laid out 26 half-acre (2,000 m²) lots around 1741, and constructed his own residence, Glen Burnie. Finally, the County Court held its first session in 11 November 1743, where James Wood served until 1760. Lord Fairfax, understanding that possession is 9/10ths of the law, built a home here (in present-day Clarke County) in 1748. By 1750 the Virginia House of Burgesses granted the fourth city charter in Virginia to Winchester as Frederick Town was now re-named after Colonel Wood's birthplace of the old Norman capital of England, Winchester. In 1754, Abraham Hollingsworth built the local residence called Abram's Delight, which served as the first local Quaker Meeting house. George Washington spent a good portion of his young life in Winchester helping survey the Fairfax land grant for Thomas Fairfax, Sixth Lord Fairfax, as well as performing surveying work for Colonel Wood. In 1758 Colonel Wood added 158 lots to the west side of town, and then Thomas Fairfax contributed 173 more lots to the south and east. The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1743 Seat Winchester Area  - Total  - Water 1,076 km² (416 mi²) 3 km² (1 mi²) 0. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


French & Indian War

Colonel George Washington
Colonel George Washington

General Edward Braddock's expeditionary march to Fort Duquesne crossed through this area in 1755 on the way to Fort Cumberland. George Washington, knowing the area well from his position as a surveyor for Lord Fairfax, accompanied General Braddock as his aide-de-camp. Resident Daniel Morgan also joined Braddock's Army on their march to Pennsylvania as a wagoner. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... General Edward Braddock General Edward Braddock (1695?– July 13, 1755) was a British soldier and commander-in-chief for North America during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War. ... Combatants France Indian Tribes Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 600 natives, 105 regulars, 147 militia 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed, 16 wounded 456 killed, 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed... 19th century illustration of Fort Duquesne, by Alfred Waud. ...


In 1756, on land granted by James Wood, Colonel George Washington designed and began constructing Fort Loudoun, which ultimately covered almost one acre (0.955-acre)in present-day downtown Winchester on North Loudoun Street. Fort Loudoun was occupied and manned with guns until the start of the Revolutionary War. During this era, a jail was built in Winchester, which occasionally held Quakers from many parts of Virginia who protested the French and Indian War and refused to pay taxes to the Anglican parish. While their cousins in Pennsylvania dominated political control, Virginia was an Anglican colony, and pacifism was not as well tolerated. Strong pacifism from Quakers combined with strong Virginia support during both this war and the next, led to long term stifling of Quaker population, causing Winchester to become more of a Quaker gateway to places further in the mid-west, until the Quaker population was a small minority by the mid 1800s.


During the war, in 1758, and at the age of 26, Colonel George Washington was elected as the representative of Frederick County to the House of Burgesses. Daniel Morgan later served as a ranger protecting the borderlands of Virginia against Indian raids, returning to Winchester in 1759. Following the war, from 1763 to 1774 Daniel Morgan served in Captain Ashby's company and defended Virginia against Pontiac's Conspiracy and Shawnee Indians in the Ohio valley. Patrick Henry before the House of Burgesses in an 1851 painting by Peter F. Rothermel The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. ...


Revolutionary War

Colonel Daniel Morgan

During the Revolutionary War, the Virginia House of Burgesses chose local resident and French and Indian War veteran Daniel Morgan to raise a company of militia to support General George Washington's efforts during the Siege of Boston. The 96 men of "Morgan's Sharpshooters", led by Morgan, assembled in Winchester on 14 July 1775 and marched to Boston in 21 days. Morgan, Wood, and others also performed various duties in holding captured prisoners of war, particularly Hessian soldiers. Download high resolution version (703x858, 79 KB)Daniel Morgan (portrait by Charles Willson Peale 1741-1827) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (703x858, 79 KB)Daniel Morgan (portrait by Charles Willson Peale 1741-1827) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... Daniel Morgan (July 6, 1736 – July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. ...


Hessian soldiers were known for walking to the high ridge north and west of town and purchasing and eating apple pies from the Quakers. Thus, this ridge west of town became affectionately known as Apple Pie Ridge and the Ridge Road built before 1709 leading north from town was renamed Apple Pie Ridge Road. The local farmers found new business booming in feeding the Virginia Militia and fledgling volunteer American army, a task for which the town and valley would later be punished during the American Civil War. Following the war, the town's first newspapers, The Gazette and The Centinel, were established, and Daniel Morgan later served one term in the U.S. House of Representatives between 1797 and 1799. White Hall is a farming community in northern Frederick County, Virginia established in the late 1810s and located near the crossroads of Apple Pie Ridge Road (VA 739) with Green Spring and White Hall (VA 671) Roads, astride Apple Pie Ridge (922 feet/281 meters). ...


Civil War history

Winchester and the surrounding area were the site of numerous fights during the American Civil War as both contending armies strove to control that portion of the Shenandoah Valley. Seven major battlefields are within the extent of the original Frederick County: Entry of General Banks Division, May, 1862 The city of Winchester, Virginia, and the surrounding area were the site of numerous fights during the American Civil War as both contending armies strove to control that portion of the Shenandoah Valley. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ...


Within the City of Winchester:

Nearby the City of Winchester: First Battle of Kernstown Conflict American Civil War Date March 23, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina Result Union victory The First Battle of Kernstown took place on March 23, 1862 in Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... First Battle of Winchester Conflict American Civil War Date May 25, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Winchester was a battle of the American Civil War that took place on May 25, 1862 in and around Frederick County, Virginia and Winchester, Virginia. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Battle of Winchester II Conflict American Civil War Date June 13-15, 1863 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Second Battle of Winchester took place from June 13– 15, 1863, in Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American... The Second Battle of Kernstown was fought on July 24, 1864, outside Winchester, Virginia, as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Battle of Opequon, also known as the Third Battle of Winchester, was a decisive victory for the Union army during the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

Winchester was a key strategic position for the Confederate States Army during the war. It was an important operational objective in Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's and Col. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's defense of the Shenandoah Valley in 1861, Jackson's Valley Campaign of 1862, the Gettysburg Campaign of 1863, and the Valley Campaigns of 1864. Including minor cavalry raids and patrols, and occasional reconnaissances by various forces, it is claimed that Winchester changed hands as many as 72 times, and 13 times in one day. Battles raged all along Main Street at different points in the war. Both Union General Sheridan and Stonewall Jackson located their headquarters just one block apart at various times. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Colonel Joseph Thoburn Major General Joseph B. Kershaw Strength Corps Division Casualties 312 195 The Battle of Berryville was fought 3-4 September 1864 in Clarke County, Virginia. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Horatio G. Wright Philip H. Sheridan Jubal A. Early Strength 31,945 21,000 Casualties 5,665 2,910 The Battle of Cedar Creek, or The Battle of Belle Grove, October 19, 1864, was one of the final, and most... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Stonewall Jackson The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ...


Located at the north end of the upper Shenandoah Valley, Winchester was a base of operations for major Confederate invasions into the Northern United States, at times threatening the capital of Washington, D.C.. The town served as a central point for troops conducting major raids against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and turnpike and telegraph paths along those routes and the Potomac River Valley. For instance, in 1861, Stonewall Jackson removed 56 locomotives and over 300 railroad cars, along with miles of track, from the B&O Railroad and ultimately closed down the B&O's main line for ten months. Much of the effort to transport this equipment by horse and carriage centered in Winchester. Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was one of the oldest railroads in the United States, with an original line from the port of Baltimore, Maryland, west to the Ohio River at Wheeling and Parkersburg, West Virginia. ... Canal at Swains Lock The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, also known as the C&O Canal, operated from 1850 until 1924 parallel to the Potomac River in Maryland from Cumberland, Maryland to Washington, DC. The total length of the canal is about 184. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...


During the war, Winchester suffered greatly under five major periods of Union occupation:

During the Federal occupation of Winchester, many residents were exiled from town, personal property was stolen, citizens rendering medical assistance to wounded soldiers were shot and murdered, homes were illegally stolen, occupied and destroyed, a medical school was burned down, and the citizens of the Commonwealth were not allowed to vote on re-admittance to the Union under the reign of Major General Schofield. Major General Milroy was noted for his claim that "my will is absolute law" as he plundered Winchester, exiling women and imprisoning old men and boys. Major General Sheridan rampaged up the Valley from Winchester and destroyed "2,000 barns filled with grain and implements, not to mention other outbuildings, 70 mills filled with wheat and flour" and "numerous head of livestock," according to the Official Records. Not mentioned in the official records are the many private homes that were destroyed, and innocent women and children injured and killed. Unsurprisingly, several Winchester Unionists were noted for changing their sympathies after these occupations. Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Robert H. Milroy during the war Robert Huston Milroy (June 11, 1816 – March 29, 1890) was a lawyer, judge, and a Union Army general in the American Civil War, most noted for his defeat at the Second Battle of Winchester in 1863. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Portrait of John Schofield during the Civil War John McAllister Schofield (September 29, 1831 – March 4, 1906) was an American soldier who held major commands during the Civil War. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Official Records of the American Civil War or often more simply the Official Records or ORs, constitute a unique, authentic, and comprehensive collection of first-hand accounts, orders, reports, and correspondence drawn from War and Navy Department records of both Confederate and Union governments during the American Civil War. ...


In spite of Winchester's wartime hardships, a few residents made great contributions to the Confederate cause, such as Dr. Hunter McGuire, Chief Surgeon of the Second "Jackson's" Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, who laid foundations for the future Geneva conventions regarding the treatment of medical doctors during warfare. Winchester served as a major center for Confederate medical operations, particularly after the Battle of Sharpsburg in 1862 and the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863, and set the stage for advancements in the practice of medicine, internationally and during combat operations. Dr. Hunter Holmes McGuire (1835-1900) of Virginia, noted physician and educator Hunter Holmes McGuire, M.D. (October 11, 1835-September 19, 1900) was a physician, teacher, and orator. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing...


Among those who took part in battles at Winchester were future U.S. presidents McKinley and Hayes, who both were officers in the Union IX Corps. This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... IX Corps (Ninth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War that distinguished itself in combat in multiple theaters: the Carolinas, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi. ...


Today, Winchester provides a wealth of exploration and tourism for Civil War enthusiasts. Many remains of Civil War era forts are scattered around town, such as the remains of:

  • Fort Jackson - (aka Fort Garibaldi, Main Fort, Fort Milroy, Battery No.2)
  • Fort Alabama - (aka Star Fort, Battery No.3)
  • Fort Collier - (aka Battery No.10)
  • Louisiana Heights - (aka the combination of West Fort or Battery No.5 and Battery No. 6)
  • Bower's Hill - (aka Battery No.1)

Jubal Early Drive snakes around south of downtown Winchester, along the central location for many of the battles.


20th century history

Winchester was the first city south of the Potomac River to install electric light. The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...


Winchester is the location of the bi-annual N-SSA national competition keeping the tradition of Civil War era firearms alive. The North-South Skirmish Association is an organization based mainly on the east coast of the United States; its goal is to keep alive the tradition of Civil War Era firearms and weapons. ...


Winchester was the home town of legendary country/pop music icon Patsy Cline. Patsy Cline (b. ...


Geography

Winchester is located at 39°10′42″N, 78°10′0″W (39.178355, -78.166771).GR1 It is in the Shenandoah Valley, between the Blue Ridge and the Appalachian Mountains. Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... Blue Ridge Mountains, Shining Rock Wilderness Area Appalachian Mountain system The Blue Ridge is a mountain chain in the eastern United States, part of the Appalachian Mountains, forming their eastern front from Georgia to Pennsylvania. ... Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ...


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.2 km² (9.3 mi²), all land. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 23,585 people, 10,001 households, and 5,650 families residing in the city. The population density was 976.0/km² (2,526.7/mi²). There were 10,587 housing units at an average density of 438.1/km² (1,134.2/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 82.06% White, 10.47% African American, 0.24% Native American, 1.59% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.46% from other races, and 2.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.47% of the population. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ...

Historical populations
Census
year
Population

1900 5,161
1910 5,864
1920 6,883
1930 10,855
1940 12,095
1950 13,841
1960 15,110
1970 14,643
1980 20,217
1990 21,947
2000 23,585
2004 24,779

There were 10,001 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.5% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.93. The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...


In the city the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.0 males.


The median income for a household in the city was $34,335, and the median income for a family was $44,675. Males had a median income of $30,013 versus $24,857 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,500. About 8.1% of families and 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.2% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over. The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Sites on the National Register of Historic Places

Site Year Built Address Listed
Abram's Delight 1754 Parkview Street & Rouss Spring Road 1973
Douglas School 1927 598 North Kent Street 2000
Fairmont 1800s 311 Fairmont Avenue 2004
Glen Burnie 1829 801 Amherst Street 1979
Handley Library 1913 Braddock & Piccadilly Streets 1969
John Handley High School 1920s 425 Handley Boulevard 1998
Hexagon House 1870s 530 Amherst Street 1987
Thomas J. Jackson Headquarters mid 1800s 415 North Braddock Street 1967
Adam Kurtz House (Washington's Headquarters) 1757 Braddock & Cork Streets 1976
Old Stone Church (Presbyterian Meeting House) 1788 304 East Piccadilly Street 1977
Winchester Historic District 1750-1930 US 522, US 11 & US 50/US 17 1980
Winchester Historic District (Boundary Increase) 120 & 126 North Kent Street 2003
Winchester National Cemetery 1860s 401 National Avenue 1996

U.S. Highway 522 is a spur of U.S. Highway 22. ... United States Highway 11 is a north-south United States highway. ... United States Highway 50 is an east-west United States highway. ... Categories: Road stubs | United States Highway system | U.S. Highways in Florida ...

Gallery

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 947 KB) Summary Photo Of Winchester Virginias City Hall. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 693 KB) Summary This is a photo of Winchester, Va taken by Chris Moats(me) from the top of the old Hospital in Winchester. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Interesting facts

Winchester is the location of the annual Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival, which has existed since 1924 and draws approximately 250,000 visitors to the area. The festival includes a carnival, the longest fireman's parade and the third longest grand feature parade in the U.S., several dances and parties, and a coronation where the Apple Blossom Queen is crowned. Local school systems and many businesses close the Friday of Apple Blossom weekend. The Shenandoah Apple Blossom festival is known for its many guest celebrities. ...


Winchester is home to the Winchester Royals of the Valley Baseball League. The Winchester Royals are a team in the northern division of the Valley Baseball League. ... The Valley Baseball League is an NCAA sanctioned baseball league in the Shenandoah Valley region of Virginia. ...


Winchester has more than 20 different "artistic" apples that are made of various materials including wood, rubber pipe, plaster, and paint. These apples were created in 2005 by occupants of the city, and were placed at a specific location at the artists' request after being auctioned of. For example, a bright red apple with a large stethoscope attached to it was placed beside a much-used entrance to the Winchester Medical Center.


The Winchester Medical Center was recently rated as one of the top 100 best hospitals in the U.S by Solucient. The Medical School is the oldest in Virginia. The first public school was also in Winchester.


Sister Cities

Winchester's sister city is Winchester, England, where the Virginia town gets its namesake. Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close Arms of Winchester City Council Winchester is a city in southern England, and the administrative capital of the county of Hampshire, with a population of around 35,000. ...


Famous Residents

  • Patsy Cline, (1932–1963) country/pop music vocalist/icon
  • Mark McFarland, NASCAR driver
  • Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, pioneering polar explorer
  • Brigadier General James Wood, governor of Virginia, son of the founder of Winchester
  • President and Lieutenant General George Washington, surveyor of the Fairfax Landgrant, first elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses from Winchester
  • Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, buried in Winchester
  • Representative and Major General Daniel Morgan, Major General of the Virginia Milita in the Revolutionary War, buried at Mount Hebron Cemetery
  • Lieutenant General Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson, while commanding the Valley District of the Army of Northern Virginia from Oct 1861–Dec 1862
  • Mary Charlston Greenhow Lee, American Civil War diarist exiled by Gen. Philip Sheridan
  • Willa Cather, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist
  • Brigadier General Turner Ashby, Confederate cavalry commander buried in Stonewall Cemetery
  • Spotswood Poles, accomplished baseball player in the precursor to the Negro Leagues
  • John Kirby, jazz musician in the Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame
  • U.S. Solicitor General Holmes Conrad, under President Cleveland and Confederate cavalry Major in the American Civil War
  • Hunter McGuire, M.D. (1835-1900), Chief Surgeon of the Second "Jackson's" Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, famous for sparking the Confederate policy of returning captured Union surgeons in the American Civil War
  • Senator and Commissioner James Murray Mason, grandson of George Mason and Commissioner of the Confederate States to Great Britain and France
  • Betsy Pruitt founder of the first BirthMothers Day in 1998, in memory of her daughter, Lauren Elizabeth Olinger
  • Joe Bageant, author, essayist, and blogger, (1946-)
  • Devon McTavish, professional soccer player, plays for DC United
  • Barton Chasler, Former Temple University Place Kicker, finshed career with WV Wesleyan as Number 16 punter in Nation.

Patsy Cline (b. ... Mark McFarland (b. ... Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, USN (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was an pioneering polar explorer and famous aviator. ... James Wood (1747 - 1813) was a U.S. soldier and political figure. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron was born in 1692 at Leeds Castle in Kent, England and died at his seat at Greenway Court near White Post in Clarke County, Virginia on December 12, 1781. ... Daniel Morgan (July 6, 1736 – July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Turner Ashby (October 23, 1828 - June 6, 1862) was a Confederate cavalry commander, enlisting at rank of Capitan, then attaining rank of Colonel, and finally the rank of Brigadier General. ... Spottswood Poles (December 9, 1887 - September 12, 1962) was an American outfielder in baseballs Negro Leagues. ... Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa The Negro Leagues were American professional baseball leagues comprising predominantly African-American teams. ... John Kirby(born December 31, 1908 in Winchester, Virginia and died June 14, 1952 in Hollywood, California) was a jazz bassist who started with the trombome and had also played tuba. ... The Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame is a non-profit organization founded in 1977 to promote greater awareness, knowledge, and appreciation of big band and jazz music.[1] The organization has inducted more than 200 individuals into its Hall of Fame, maintains an extensive biographical database, and aspires... Holmes Conrad was born January 31, 1840 in Winchester, Virginia. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Dr. Hunter Holmes McGuire (1835-1900) of Virginia, noted physician and educator Hunter Holmes McGuire, M.D. (October 11, 1835-September 19, 1900) was a physician, teacher, and orator. ... James M. Mason James Murray Mason (November 3, 1798 - April 28, 1871) was a United States Representative and United States Senator from Virginia. ... Devon McTavish (born August 8, 1984 in Winchester, Virginia) is an American soccer player, who currently plays midfielder for D.C. United in Major League Soccer. ...

Points of interest

  • Abram's Delight (1754)
  • Adam Kurtz House
  • Belle Grove Plantation (1797)
  • Christ Church (1828)
  • Douglas School (1927)
  • Fair Mount (1809)
  • George Washington's Office Museum (1755)
  • Glen Burnie
  • Handley Library (1913)
  • Hexagon House (1871)
  • John Handley High School (1923)
  • Mount Hebron Cemetery (1844)
  • Museum of the Shenandoah Valley
  • Old Court House Civil War Museum (1840)
  • Old Stone Church (1790)
  • Old Town Winchester (1738)
  • Opequon Presbyterian Church and Cemetery (1736)
  • Red Lion Tavern (1783)
  • Shenandoah Valley Military Academy (1764)
  • Site of Historic Fort Loudoun (1756)
  • Stonewall Cemetery (1866)
  • Stonewall Jackson's Headquarters Museum (1861)
  • Winchester National Cemetery (1866)

Belle Grove Plantation The Virginia Belle Grove Plantation is located in Middletown, Virginia. ... John Handley High School John Handley High School is a public high school located in the city of Winchester, Virginia. ... The Museum of the Shenandoah Valley, also known as the Glen Burnie Historic House and Gardens is a non-profit museum with historic house and gardens, located at 901 Amherst Street, Winchester, Virginia. ... The Colonel Lewis T. Moore house, which served as the Winchester Headquarters of Lt. ... Winchester National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located in the city of Winchester in Frederick County, Virginia. ...

External links

Coordinates: 39.178355° N 78.166771° W TV3 Winchester is an ABC affiliate serving the Winchester, Virginia area. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Winchester, Virginia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (526 words)
Winchester is a city located in the state of Virginia.
The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Winchester with surrounding Frederick county for statistical purposes.
Winchester is the location of the annual Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival, which has existed since 1924 and draws approximately 250,000 visitors to the area.
Winchester, Virginia-West Virginia, Outdoors Recreation (912 words)
Cacapon River, West Virginia, US 50 at Capon Bridge to West Virginia 127 Bridge, 5 miles away, class II, 12.6 miles long.
Tearcoat Creek, West Virginia, US 50 Close to Pleasantdale to confluence of North River, 9 miles away, class II-III, 3.9 miles long.
Cedar Creek, Virginia, Route 55 to Route 11, 13 miles away, class I-II, 20 miles long.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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